|Publication number||US2743083 A|
|Publication date||Apr 24, 1956|
|Filing date||Feb 3, 1954|
|Priority date||Feb 3, 1954|
|Publication number||US 2743083 A, US 2743083A, US-A-2743083, US2743083 A, US2743083A|
|Inventors||Zublin John A|
|Original Assignee||Zublin John A|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (2), Referenced by (47), Classifications (9)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
J. A. ZUBLIN April 24, 1956 APPARATUS TO IMPART VIBRATING MOTION TO A ROTARY DRILL BIT Filed Feb. 5, 1954 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 IN VENT OR John A. ZubhZn ATTORNEY-S J. A. ZUBLIN April 24, 1956 APPARATUS TO IMPART VIBRATING MOTION TO A ROTARY DRILL BIT 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Feb. 3, 1954 INVENTOR John A. Zublizz v A AMQLM ATTORNEYS April 24, 1956 J. A. ZUBLIN 2,743,083
APPARATUS TO IMPART VIBRATING MOTION TO A ROTARY DRILL BIT Filed Feb. 5, 1954 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTOR John/A. Zwbin ATTORNEYS April 24, 1956 J. A. ZUBLIN 2,743,083
APPARATUS TO IMPART VIBRATING MOTION TO A ROTARY DRILL BIT Filed Feb. 5, 1954 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 J2 INVENTOR 62 I l 54 L\\\\/" I I 3 X 6 JolupjLZwbfiuz If 62 11 BY ATTORNEYS .carried by the drill string.
United es APPARATUS T0 IMPART VIBRATING MOTION,
TO A ROTARY DRILL arr John A. Zublin, Los Angeles, Calif. Application February 3, 1954, Serial No. 407,840
14 Claims. (Cl. 255--4.4) I
' of oil well drilling.
It is known that when intermittent blows of short duration are imparted to a rotary drill bit, as for example, a single or multiblade fishtail bit, while at the same time such bit is rotated at the bottom of the well bore, the drilling performance is improved in two ways, first by accelerating the speed of well bore drilling, and secondly by being able to make a greater length of bore hole with a particular drill bit before such bit becomes unduly dulled. However, the drill bit, particularly in the case of roller and cone rock drilling bits which carry a number of parts rotatably mounted on the bit shank, may sulfer damage or even destruction if subjected to axial vibrating motion of relatively large magnitude and/ or of low frequency. Accordingly, to achieve these desirable results, it is necessary that the axial vibrations imparted tothe drill bit be of high frequency and of relatively small amplitude, to avoid any destructive action on the drill bit Attempts have been made in the past to effect vibration of a drilling bit to increase the rate of drilling produced during the well drilling operation. However, these attempts have resided'for the most part in the placement of the vibrating mechanism at the surface of the well, and accordingly, the vibrations in order to reach the bit at the bottom of the well are compelled to travel through the entire length of the drill string to the bit. Obviously in a tubular drill string of upwards of several thousand feet in length the resilient characteristics of the drill string will develop undesirable interfering vibrations which make it impossible to effectively transmit the desired vibrations in unaltered form from the vibrating mechanism at the surface to the drill bit. Uncontrolled and distorted vibrations often cause the bit to be raised and lowered through several inches at the bottom of the well, resulting in a terrific impact which may damage the bit, thereby defeating the very purpose sought to be achieved through the employment of a vibrating mechanism.
The development of modern drilling techniques has brought about the use of more and more powerful fluid circulating pumps to increase the volume and velocity of thecirculating drilling fluid pumped to the drill bit to continuously remove the cuttings and other material freed by the drill bit boring into the formation. These large volumes of drilling fluid circulating at high speed through the drill string inherently possess large amounts of kinetic energy. With such a fluid circulating at high velocity through a string of tubing of extended length, a sudden interruption to the fluid flow will produce a heavy blow or hammer on the surrounding tubing walls; such as takes place in water hammer which frequently occurs in domestic water supply systems. Thus by openr 2, ing and closing the fluid flow through the drill string ing'rapid succession,high-frequency pulses may be applied to the drill string by'the flowing fluid which, when suchopenin'g and closing takes placeadjacent the drill bit,will impart'an axial vibrating motion to the drill bit, due to elongation of the drill string. or expansion sub caused by the inertia and sudden pressure increase in the flowing fluid;
The interruption of the flow of drilling mud in rapid succession to produce the'hereinabove-described results requires a driven apparatus having suflicient power to overcome the resistance of the flowing fluid which nor-' mally tends to keep any fluid flow interrupter means open at all times to permit continuous fluid flow. Further,
since the oil well drilling fluid always contains a certain amount of abrasive material which at high velocity may create undesirable wear on the machine parts exposed to it, the fluid flow interrupter must be ruggedly constructed to resist and prevent undue wear by the flow of oil well drillingfluid.
Having in mind the above problems and objectives, it is a primary purpose of this invention to provide an improved apparatus connectable adjacent the lower end of the drill string and in the vicinity of the rotary drilling bit which will create vibrations of high frequency and relatively small amplitude for-application to thedrill bit.
It is another object of this invention to provide an apparatus connectable adjacent the lower end of a rotatable drill string which will create high frequency vibrations for application to the drill bit, the amplitude of the vibrations applied to thedn'll bit being determined by the characteristics of the apparatus including the weight and length of the adjacent connecting "drill collars and/or drill pipe operatively associatd with the apparatus and thedrill bit. 1 1
It further is a primary object of this invention to utilize the kinetic energy present in the flowing oil well drilling fluid to create axial vibrations adjacent the rotating drill bit.
It is also an object of this invention to provide anapparatus to impart vibrating motion to a rotary drill bit by intermittently interrupting the flow of drilling fluid and utilizing a portion of the kinetic energy in such drilling fluid to actuate the mechanism which effects the inter ruption of the flow of oil well drilling fluid.
It is another object of this invention to insert into -the long rotary drill string an apparatus containing means to partially interrupt the flow of drilling fluid so as to cause a pulsation and vibration of the string of drill pipe at its lower end. 1
it is another object of this invention to provide a drill bit vibrating apparatus of extremely rugged and simple design which is characterized by having its parts easily accessible for exchange and replacement as necessary, and further having large fluid flow openings so as to make it unnecessary to increase the velocity orpressure of the circulating drill fluid when utilizing the apparatus.
In the apparatus of this invention the drilling fluid interrupter is interposed in the'drill string adjacent the lower end thereof above the drill bit. This fluidflow interrupter is connected into the drill string to transmit therethrough all of the drilling fluid flowing to the drill bit. A turbine means is rotatably mounted-in the fluid flow interrupter to be continuously driven by the drilling fluid. This turbine means carries a valve port'or ports which in cooperating with the interrupter housing successively open and close the flow of drilling the interruptermeans.
If it be assumed, merely for purposes of description, that about 30% of the fluid is utilized to continuously operate the turbine means to etlect opening and closing- 6 P ate'nted'Apr. 24, 1956 flowing to the drill bit will cause a pulsation of all of the fluid above the fluid flow interrupter. Since the assumed 30% of the fluid is not interrupted by maximum closing of the valve ports, the blow created by interrupting the remaining 70% will not be as great in magnitude as if all of the fluid were to be shut ofl. This will give a more elastic or yielding blowwhich at high frequency is equally as effective as a heavyblow and further is easier on the roller bearings present in the rock bit, which bearings must transmit the vibration to the cutting elements of the bit. It willof course be recognized that the above-assumed percentages of 30% and 70% are only set forth to illustrate the advantages of the invention and that under different fluid flow conditions and/or for different fluid flow. interrupter constructions the relative proportions may vary within wide limits.
As pointed out hereinabove, axial vibrations increase the drilling rate and also prolong the life expectancy of the drill bit structure. Both of theseadvantageous results are obtained by the present invention, which will be described in detail by reference to the accompanying drawings disclosing preferred embodiments of the apparatus appropriate for carrying out the purposes of the invert tion, and in which:
Figure 1a is an elevational, view with parts thereof in section illustrating the relationship; of the fluid flow interrupter to the rotary drillstring and bit.
Figure 1b is an elevational view illustrating the fluid flow interrupter operatively associated with the rotary drill string and drill bit by means of connecting drill collars.
Figure 2 is a sectional view showing a form of fluid flow interrupter embodying, the instant invention.
Figure 3 is a sectional view taken on line 3-3 of Figure 2.
Figure 4 is a sectional view taken on line 4-4 of Figure 3.
Figure 5 is a sectional view illustrating a slightly modified form of turbine member adaptable for use in place of the turbine member shown, in Figure 2.
Figure 6 is a sectionalview illustrating an alternative form of fluid flow interrupter.
Figure 7 is a sectional view taken on line 77 of Figure 6.
Figure 8 is a sectional view similar to Figure 7, showing the turbine member rotated so as to interrupt the Figure 9 is a sectional view taken on line 9--9'of Figure 6.
Figure 10 is a sectional view taken on line-10--10 of Figure 6.
Figure 11 is a sectional view illustrating a further alternative embodiment of fluid flow interrupter of this invention taken on line 11-11 of Figure'12.
Figure 12 is a sectional view taken on line 12.-12of Figure 11.
Figure 13 is a sectional view showing a slightly modi-v fled form of turbine member susceptible of usein place of the turbine member shown ingFigure' 11, and
Figure 14 is a sectional view taken-on line 14--14 of Figure 13.
Referring specifically to Figure 1a, there is shown a portion of a drill stringl which is secured, as by a suit able threaded connection, .to the:end .of. an expansion sub 2, which sub consistsgofa cylindera3 telescopically en: gaged with a plunger 4, Whichplunger is urged toward the end of the cylinder by a coil spring 5. Expansion sub 2, as will be apparent from the. description set forth hereinafter, functions in cooperation with the fluid flow interrupter to restrict thevibratory motion to be imparted to the rotary drilling bit to thelower end of the drill string. The use of such a sub structure thus precludes the creation of stresses and strains along the entire length of the drill string which might be created by intermittent interruption of the flow of drilling fluid if suchan expansion sub were omitted. However, it will be readily recognized that the expansion sub 2 may be omitted from the drill string if the vibrations in the drill string are not objectionable but in fact are desired to apply the proper vibrating action to the drill bit.
Threadably secured intermediate the lower end of the cylinder 3 of the expansion sub 2 and the conventional rock drilling bit 6 is a fluid flow interrupter 10. By placing the fluid flow interrupter 10 in the drill string immediately adjacent the drill bit 6, the successive interruptions to the flow of drilling fluid will create vibrations adjacent the drill bit as desired to effect increased speed of drilling and longer life expectancy for the drill bit.
Figure lb illustrates the fluid flow interrupter l0, expansion sub 2 and drill bit 6 interconnected by drill collars 7 and 8. This assembly in turn is connected to the lower end of the drill string 1 in a manner similar to the arrangement illustrated in Figure 1a as described above.
The drill collars 7 and 8 are inserted on either side of the fluid interrupter 10 to coact therewith in the vibratory motion imparted to the assembly below the expansion sub 2, such vibration being caused by intermittent interruption. of a major portion of the drilling fluid flowing to the drill bit 6. The weight, length and resilient characteristics of these two drill collars is selected according to the vibrating action desired for the assembly in use so as to partake of the axial vibrations created by intermittent fluid interruption. When the weight and length of such drill collars is such as to vibrate in synchronism with the vibrations generated in the fluid flow interrupter 10, the effect is to boost or increase the force of the vibrating motion caused by the fluid flow interrupter. On theother hand, when the weight and length of the drill collars is such as to not resonate with the vibrating effect generated in the fluid flow interrupter, the drill collars tend to dampen the vibrations created by such interrupter.
Being able to increase or dampen the vibrational eitect conveyed to the drill bit by varying the weight and length of the interconnecting drill collars is particularly important in relation to the type of drill bit with which the apparatus is to be used. Thus certain types of drill bits will withstand heavier and sharper blows due to vibration than other types of bits without encountering the dangerof their being destroyed or damaged. On the other hand, it is desirable to secure the highest drilling speed by applying the proper vibration to the particular type of drill bit being used.
Additionally, the possibility of varying the vibrating efiect at the drill bit by appropriately modifying the weight andlength of the drill collars employed is of importance inrelation to the'particular type of drilling fluid pump employed-at a particular installation. Various types of such drilling-fluid pumps furnish fluid in different volumes,.velocities and pressures. These variables in the output ofdiflerentpurnps would eflect a different type of. vibrating action in flowing-through a particular fluid flow interrupter interposed adjacent the drill bit. However, by employing drillcollars of appropriate weight and length'with the fluid flow interrupter, the assembly may be adjusted to secure the desired vibration effect both with respect to the specific type of drill bit being used and with respect to the particular drilling fluid pump used at the specific oil ,well installation.
Inother words,.while'adjustments in the fluid flow interrupter to suit? the variable conditions which may be encountered are diflicult and costly to determine in the field, an exchange of drill collars of different weight and length may be readily accomplished on the drilling rig to insure that the proper vibratory action will be obtained at the'drill bit during the drilling operation. In this respect, it is:pointed outthat, although Figure lb illus' trates two d'rill collars,:7 and 8, one: above and one below thefluid flowinterrupter 10, his entirely practical and in fact desirable in some instances to employ only one such drill collar, either above or below the fluid flow interrupter to secure the desired amplifying or dampening of the vibrations created by the fluid flow interrupter.
A variety of factors influence the proper selection of the length and weight of the drill collars or collar to be used in combination with the fluid flow interrupter to obtain the desired force, amplitude and frequency of the bit vibrations. For example, the depth of the well, the specific gravity of the drilling fluid, the inclination of the bore hole from the vertical, as well as the above-mentioned pump characteristics, are all factors to be taken into account in calculating the proper drill collar or collars to be assembled with the vibrating apparatus. The flexibility of assembly of the apparatus enables an experienced operator at the well to assemble the most efficient and economical structure for his particular set of circumstances so as to obtain the desired bit vibration. Thus the drill collar of a predetermined length and Weight inserted between the bit and flow interrupter and/or between the flow interrupter and expansion sub is an important part of the assembly. The use of such drill collar or collars oflfers a regulating means for increasing or decreasing the vibratory blows applied to the drill bit to tailor the assembly for operation with a particular type of drill bit or drilling fluid pump.
Additionally, in an assembly which omits the expansion sub 2, the drill string 1 enters into the vibrating action created by the fluid flow interrupter 10. When such an expansion sub is omitted, the length, weight and resilient characteristics of the drill string operate in combination with the drill collars (if employed) to determine the particular vibratory action applied to the drill bit. I
One form of fluid flow interrupter of my invention is shown in Figures 2, 3 and 4. This interrupter comprises a housing 11 suitably threaded at its opposite ends to enable the housing to be interconnected between adjacent lengths of drill pipe, or between the drill bit and the lower end of the rotary drill string. The housing 11 is provided with'a passageway 12 extending longitudinally therethrough with a chamber '13 intermediate the ends of said passageway in which a turbine member 14 is rotatably mounted. In this embodiment of the fluid flow interrupter, the turbine member rotates on an axis extending transversely of the longitudinal axis of the housing 11.
As shown more clearly in Figures 3 and 4, the turbine member 14 is provided with axles 15 extending from the opposite ends thereof which in turn are supported on roller bearings 16 mounted in aligned bores extending transversely through the housing 11. To retain and properly position the roller bearings around the periphery of the axles 15, the outer endsof such axles are provided with flanges 17 e To facilitate assembly and manufacture of the fluid flow interrupter, one side of the housing 11 is bored to provide an opening sufl'iciently large to enable insertion of the turbine member. into the chamber 13. This bore, after insertion of the turbine member 14, is sealed by a disc 18 welded into the opening, such disc being provided with a pocket to receive the bearings 16 carried by one of the axles 15. The side of the housing 11 opposite the enlarged boreis bored to accommodate the bearings 16 surrounding and supporting the opposite axle 15 and the open end of the .bore is sealed by a disc 19 suitably welded into place so as to exclude the entry of grit and other foreign material into the bearing space.
The portion of the turbine member 14 intermediate the inner ends of the axles 15, which rotates within the chamber 13, is provided with a plurality of peripheral turbine blades 20 that are continuously exposed to the fluid flowing through thepassageway 12 into the chamber 13. The outside diameter of the turbine member portion. rotating in chamber 13 is of such a size as to loosely fit within the chamber and thus always permit a limited quantity of fluid to flow through passageway 12 and around the periphery of the turbine member portion to chamber 13. The blades 20 are so disposed on the turbine member 14 as to be driven by the fluid flow and thereby efiect a continuous rotation of the turbine member 14 within the chamber 13. Thus it will be seen that whenever fluid is flowing through the drill string down to the drill bit 6, a portion of the fluid will cause the turbine 14 to rotate and, as will be described hereinafter, thereby eflect intermittent interruption of the major portion of the fluid flowing through the drill string to the bit.
The central portion of the turbine member 14 is provided with a port 21 which extends transversely therethrough to normally permit the major portion of the fluid to flow directly across the chamber 13. However, an arcuate portion 22 of the periphery of the turbine member 14 within the chamber 13 is made solid or continuous. This portion 22 is of such a length as to close the inlet or outlet of the chamber 13 when the turbine member 14 is disposed with the solid peripheral portion 21 across the inlet or outlet opening. For the remainder of the periphery of the portion of turbine member 14 within chamber 13, the turbine blades 20 on the opposite sides of the turbine member are joined by struts 23 which are spaced so that the flow of fluid will not be substantially interrupted when such struts are disposed in the path of fluid flow through the passageway 12'iuto and out of chamber 13. 1
As noted hereinabove, a portion of the fluid flowing through the fluid flow interrupter 10 will continuously be effective to rotate the turbine member 14 byreacting against the turbine blades 20. This rotation of the turbine member 14 will carry the solid portion 22 of its periphery around the circumferenceof the chamber 13 to successively open and close the inlet and outlet of such chamber. Thus as in the inlet and outlet to the chamber 13 are intermittently closed to prevent the flow of fluid therethrough, pulses or surges in the flow of drilling fluid will be created within the drill string immediately above the location of the fluid flow interrupter.
In the event that the drilling apparatus has coupled therewith an expansion sub such as illustrated at 2 in Figure 1, the sudden increase of pressure within the cylinder 3 immediately above the fluid flow interrupter 10 will cause the expansion sub to elongate, driving the bit 6 down into the rock formation being drilled. Likewise, each time the pressure within the cylinder 3 is relieved by'opening the inlet or outlet to the chamber 13 in the fluid flow interrupter 10, the spring 5 will tend to retract the expansion sub 2 and thus withdraw the bit 6 from the rock formation being drilled. Obviously uniform high-speed rotation of the turbine member 14 will expose the port 21 to the fluid flow through pas: sage 12 a great number of times per minute, thus resulting' in a high frequency of pressure pulsations being gen erated in the oil well drilling fluid. p
Although the valving action created upon rotation of turbine member 14 creates an interruption to the major portion of the drilling fluid flowing to the drill bit, it will be apparent that the entire flow of fluid to the drill bit is at no time interrupted by the solidportion 22 closing either the inlet or outlet for the chamber 13. Thus even when the solid portion 22 is at rest closing the inlet or outlet to chamber 13, the loose fit of the turbine member 14 in the chamber will permit a limited quantity of fluid to seep by and start the turbine. Thus at all times a portion of fluid flows around the periphery of the turbine member 14 driving it by striking the turbine blades 26. Since the turbine member rotates at high speed and since only a portion of the fiuid flow is interrupted by rotation of the turbine, the pressure pulses created in the flowing oil well drilling fluid will be of high he quency and of relatively small magnitude so as to prevent undue jarring of the drill bit which is carriedby thew drill string. The jarring of the drill bit thus created will be e'flfe'ctive "to increase the rate of oil well drilling but not be of such 'a magnitude or frequency as to be des'tru'ctive to the parts carried by the drill bit which perform the cutting action.
Figure illustrates a fluid flow interrupter similar to the above-described embodiment of Figures 2 through is substantially identical to the operation of the hereinabove described embodiment, in that the turbine blades '20 engaged by the fluid flow'ing through the passageway 12 effect rotation of the turbine member 14 so that the cut-off portions are successively moved to close and open the inlet and outlet ports of the chamber 13.
Reference will now be 'had to the form of the invention shown on Figures 6 through 10. A housing in this form of fluid flow interrupter 10, as in the previously described embodiments, is suitably threaded at its opposite ends to enable the interrupter to be interconnected between the lengths of drill pipe or between the lower end of the drill string and the rotary drill bit. The housing has a passageway 31 extending axially therethrough with a chamber 32 intermediate the ends thereof.
A turbine member 33 is rotatably supported within the housing 30 with the axis of rotation thereof coinciding with the axis of the housing 30 and passageway 31. The ends of the turbine member 33 are flanged at 34 and positioned within pockets at the upper and lower ends of housings 30. Sets of ball bearings 35 and 36 at the upper and lower ends of the turbine member, respectively, engage the flange surfaces to support the turbine member axially. To provide lateral support for the turbine member 33, sets of roller bearings 37 are positioned within the housing 30 above and below the chamber 32 to engage the cylindrical outer surfaces of the ends of the turbine member 33.
The turbine member 33 has an axial inlet passage 40 and similar axial outlet passage 41. As shown more clearly in Figures 7 and 8, the inlet passage 40 communicates with valve ports 42'which cooperate with lands 43 formed in the 'wall of the chamber 32 to intermittently restrict the flow of fluid through the valve ports 42 into the chamber 32. It will be noted that intermediate the valve ports 42 there are provided bypass ports 44 whichpermit a limited amount of fluid to flow from the passage 40 into the chamber 32 even when the valve ports 42 are closed by engagement with one or the other of the lands 43.
A passage 45 extends axially of the turbine member as a continuation of the inlet'passage 40 to a set of turbine blades 46. The flow of fluid down through passages 40 and 45, and out between the turbine'blades 46 into chamber 32 causes the turbine member 33 to rotate, thereby carrying the valve ports 42 around therewith to successively interrupt the flow of fluid through such valve ports into the chamber 32. The fluid flowing into chamber 32 through valve'ports 42, bypass ports 44, and between turbine blades 46 leaves the chamber through ports 47 which admit the fluid from the charnher into the-outlet passage 41.
Thus it will be'seen that whereas a portion of the fluid continuously flows through passage 45 and out between the turbine blades '46 continuously driving the turbine member 33, the bulk or main'portion of the fluid is intermitten'tly interrupted by the valveports 42 cooperating with one or another of the lands 43. At such time that the valve ports are closed by thelands 43, the bypass ports '44 still .permit a limited portion of the fluid to flow into chamber 32, thereby insuring that the jar applied to the drill bit by the pressure surge will not'be of-such a magnitude as to seriously affect-or damage the drill bit construction.
Referring to the modified form of the invention illustrated by Figures 11 and 12, it will be seen that the fluid flow interrupter 10 has a housing 50 somewhat similar to the housing 30 of the form illustrated in Figures 6 through 10. The housing 50 is provided at its opposite ends with threads to permit the fluid flow interrupter to be suitably interposed in the drill string to perform its function of interrupting the flow of oil well drilling fluid to create pressure pulses which will apply axial vibrations to the drill bit.
A passageway 51 extends longitudinally through the housing 50 to conduct the drilling fluid therethrough on its way to the drill bit. Intermediate the ends of the passageway 51 there is provided a chamber 52 in which the turbine member 53 rotates and cooperates therewith to effect the intermittent flow interruption in creating the pressure pulses within the drill string.
The turbine member 53 is provided with flanged ends 54 with the surfaces thereof provided with ball bearing race-ways to coact with a set of ball bearings 55 at the upper end of the turbine member and a set of ball bearings 56 at the lower end of the turbine member. A passage 60 serves as an axial inlet for the fluid flowing into the turbine member 53 from the passageway "51 with this passage serving to conduct the fluid to the turbine blades and valve ports within the turbine member. An outlet passage 61 conducts the fluid from the chamber 52 to the passageway 51 for flow to the drill bit.
The fluid flowing into the turbine member through the passage '60 exits through va'lve ports 64 into chamber 52 between lands 63. The reaction of the fluid flowing against the turbine blades 62 .creates a rotating effect on the turbine member 53 and thereby causes rotation of such member to carry the valve ports 64 into and out of alignment with the lands 63, to successively in terrupt the fluid flow into the chamber 52.
It will be noted as shown most clearly in Figure 12, that the turbine blades 62 are so formed that the flow of fluid from the passage 60 radially outwardly toward the chamber 52 creates a driving reaction against such blades to effect turning of the turbine member. Further, the arcuate length of the space between the valve ports 64 as identified by the distance P on Figure 12 is slightly less than the arcuate distance M between the corners of the adjacent lands 63. Likewise it will be noted that in the embodiment shown there are three lands '63 and three corresponding turbine blades 62. Thus in the position shown in Figure 12, it will be recognized that the fluid flow through the valve ports is substantially cut off by the existence of the three lands 63 blocking the major portion of such valve ports. However, the size of the lands 63 is not suflicient to completely block the'valve ports and therefore a limited quantity of fluid may continuously flow throu'ghthe turbine member into the chamber '52 and thus out through ports 65, and thence 'into the outletpassage 61.
The limited continuous flow of fluid reacting against the turbine blades 62'will always insure SllffiCiEIlt flow of fluid through the turbine member to start and continue to rotate the turbine member to successively interruptthe fluid'flow. Atthe same time the ports 64 by reason of their being of a size to be substantially blocked by the lands 63,will eflect substantial interruptions to the fluid fiow through the turbine member when such member is in the position as'shown in Figure 12.
To further insure that an adequate supply of fluid continuously flows through the drillbit to provide the necessary clearing action to permit effective cutting with the drill bit, a restricted passage 66 extends downwardly through the axis of the turbine member 53 from 'the inletflpassage '60 to conductflui'd to the outletpassage 61.
In'Figures 1'3 "and 14 there 'is shown a slightlymodi- 9 fied turbine structure adaptable to the fluid flow interrupter 10 as illustrated in Figures 6 through 10. In this modified form of turbine member it will be noted that the valve ports and bypassing ports, as shown in Figures 7 and 8, are modified to provide a single port 70, and chamber 32 is provided adjacent the valve port 70 with a single semicircular land 71. Thus as the turbine member 33 rotates, the valve port 70 will either communicate with the chamber 32 or be blocked by the semicircular land 71. As in the previously described embodiments, the turbine member is continuously driven by the reaction of fluid flow against the turbine blades 46, so that the valve port 70 will eflect successive intermittent interruption of the fluid flow, thereby creating the pressure pulses in such fluid flow which are eflective to produce axial vibrations at the rock cutting bit. Likewise, as in the hereinbefore-described embodiments, the drilling fluid will continuously flow down between the turbine blades to cause continuous operation of the turbine member.
In the embodiments above described, it will be apparent that at no time is it possible for the turbine member to come to rest at a point where, upon initiating the fluid flow through the drill string, such turbine member cannot be started from its stand-still position. This characteristic of the hereinabove-described invention insures that the fluid flow interrupter will be operative under all conditions of operation regardless of its position at the time that the apparatus is initially lowered into the well and put into drilling operation.
It will be readily appreciated that the extreme simplicity and ruggedness of the hereinabove-described apparatus makes it well adapted for heavy uninterrupted use. Thus the invention as described embodies a vibrating apparatus actuated by the circulating fluid which apparatus vibrates as a whole and imparts these vibrations to the drilling tools attached to it, either immediately adjacent thereto, or at a relatively short distance from such apparatus.
By changing the relative proportions between that quantity of fluid which is not interrupted by the valving action and the fluid which is intermittently interrupted, the amplitude of the vibrations imparted to the drill bit can be increased or decreased. Although several specific structures have been described hereinabove which are capable of performing the desired objects of the invention as set forth, it will be readily recognized that there are other designs embodying the principles ofoperation of this apparatus which are embraced by the instant invention as defined in the appended claims.
As described hereinabove, a single fluid flow interrupter is proposed to be inserted into the drill string to createvibrating effect on the drill bit to improve the rate of drilling and usable life of the drill bit. It will be appreciated that the vibrating eflect impressed on the drill bit can be increased or regulated as desired by utilizing several of the fluid flow'interrupters interposed along the length of the string of drill pipe in series. Such increase in the desired vibrations may be partly accentuated if a synchronizing effect of vibrations created by the series of fluid flow interrupters is achieved. I
Having thus described my invention, what I claim is:
1. An apparatus for rotary drilling employing a rotatable rigid drill string comprising, a rotary fluid flow interrupter for intermittently interrupting the flow of drilling fluid from the drill string to the drill bit, means for coupling said interrupter to the lower end of the drill string, a drill bit, means connecting said drill bit to the lower end of said interrupter, said interrupter having a rotary i ember driven by a portion of the drilling fluid flowing through said interrupter to said drill bit and effecting intermittent partial interruption to the fluid flow to create high frequency pulsations within said apparatus to vibrate said drill bit during the drilling operation.
2. An apparatus as recited in claim 1 wherein at least 10 one of said means comprises a drill collar of a predeteimined weight and length to coact with said interrupter and said drill bit in determining the characteristics of the vibrations imparted to said drill bit. I
3. An apparatus as recited in claim 1 wherein sai means for coupling said interrupter to the lower end of of said drill string comprises a drill collar of predetermined length and weight to coact with said interrupter and said drill bit in determining the characteristics of the vibrations imparted to said drill bit.
4. An apparatus as recited in claim 1 wherein said means connecting said drill bit to the lower end of said interrupter comprises a drill collar of predetermined length and weight to coact with said interrupter and said drill bit in determining the characteristics of the vibrations imparted to said drill bit.
5. An apparatus as recited in claim 1 wherein an expansibie sub is provided between the drill string and said means for coupling the interrupter to the lower end of the drill string to restrict the vibratory motion created by interrupting the fluid flow to the apparatus below said sub.
6. An apparatus for rotary drilling comprising a rotatable rigid drill string, a rotary fluid flow interrupter for intermittently interrupting the flow of drilling fluid from the drill string to the drill bit, a first drill collar coupling said interrupter with the lower end of said drill string, a drill bit, a second drill collar interconnecting said drill bit and the lower end of said interrupter, said interrupter having a rotary member driven by a portion of the drilling fluid flowing through said interrupter to said drill bit and effecting intermittent partial interruption to the fluid flow to create high frequency pulsations within said apparatus to vibrate said drill bit during the drilling operation.
7. An apparatus as recited in claim 6 further comprising an expansible sub interposed between said first drill collar and the lower end of said drill string which serves to restrict the vibrations created by interrupting the fluid flow to the portion of the apparatus below said sub.
8. An apparatus to impart vibrating motion to a rotating drill bit comprising a housing adapted to be interconnected into the drill string of a rotary oil well drilling apparatus and having a passageway extending longitudinally therethrough, a turbine member rotatable in said passageway under the influence of the flow of fluid through said passageway to the rotating drill bit, said turbine member having means cooperating with said passageway to inter mittently interrupt a major portion of the liquid flow through said passageway upon rotation of said turbine member.
9. An apparatus to impart vibrating motion to a rotating drill bit comprising, a housing adapted to be interconnected into the drill string of a rotary oil well drilling apparatus and having a passageway extending longitudinally therethrough, a turbine member rotatable in said passageway under the influence of the flow of fluid there through, and valving means on said turbine member and in said passageway cooperating to intermittently interrupt a major portion of the fluid flow through said passageway upon rotation of said turbine member.
10. An apparatus as recited in claim 9 wherein said turbine member has turbine blades against which fluid flow through said passageway reacts to rotate said turbine member and said valving means comprises at least one port in the periphery of said turbine member and a periphery engaging portion in said passageway substantially closing said port at a predetermined position of said turbine member relative to said passageway to restrict the flow of fluid through said port.
11. An apparatus as recited in claim 10 wherein said port in the periphery of said turbine member is formed between the ends of said turbine blades.
12. An apparatus to impart vibrating motion to a rotating drill bit comprising, a housing adapted to be interconnected into the drill string of a rotary oil well drilling apparatus and having a passageway extending longitudinally therethrough, a turbine member rotatably mounted in said passageway having turbine blades to be driven by fluid flowing through said passageway, said turbine member having a valve port connecting the inlet and outlet of said passageway for fluid flow at a predetermined position of said turbine member relative to said passageway, whereby rotation of said turbine member will. eflect intermittent interruption of the flow of fluid through said passageway.
13. An apparatus to impart vibrating motion to a rotating drill bit comprising, a housing adapted to be interconnected into the drill string of a rotary oil well drilling apparatus and having a passageway extending longitudinally therethrough with a chamber formed intermediate the ends thereof, a turbine member rotatably mounted in said chamber, turbine blades disposed around the periphery of said turbine member to be engaged by fluid flowing through said chamber to drive said turbine member, said turbine member having a port extending therethrough to intermittently couple the inlet and outlet of said chamber for fluid flow upon rotation of said turbine member.
14. An apparatus to impart vibrating motion to a rotating drill bit, comprising, a housing adapted to be interconnected into the drill string of a rotary oil well drilling apparatus and having a passageway extending longitudinally therethrough, a turbine member rotatably mounted in said passageway, said turbine member having turbine blades and a valve port, and a passage communicating with said passageway, said passage serving to conduct fluid to said turbine blades and to said valve port, said passageway having an enlarged chamber intermediate the ends thereof with a portion in said chamber engaging the periphery of said turbine member adjacent said valve port, said portion cooperating with said valve port to successively close said valve port upon rotation of said turbine member.
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|U.S. Classification||175/56, 175/322, 173/73, 175/107, 175/232|
|International Classification||E21B7/00, E21B7/24|