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Publication numberUS2743585 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMay 1, 1956
Filing dateOct 31, 1950
Priority dateNov 4, 1949
Publication numberUS 2743585 A, US 2743585A, US-A-2743585, US2743585 A, US2743585A
InventorsFrancois Berthet, Jacques Desvaux
Original AssigneeFrancois Berthet, Jacques Desvaux
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Driving and pulling of piles, pile planks, tubing, and the like
US 2743585 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

y L 1956 F. BERTHET ET AL 2,743,585

DRIVING AND PULLING OF FILES, FILE PLANKS, TUBING, AND THE LIKE Filed Oct. 31, 1950 N 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 FIG] I71 van Z ors Jzccifue Dea wn F av'zcoqg Bea/fie? W 1956 F. BERTHET ET AL 2,743,585

DRIVING AND PULLING OF FILES, FILE PLANKS, TUBING, AND THE LIKE Filed 001.. 51, 1950 5 Sheets-$heet 2 May 1956 F. BERTHET ET AL 2,743,585

DRIVING AND PULLING OF FILES, PILE PLANKS, TUBING, AND THE LIKE Filed on. 51. 1950 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 F/GB I 42 i 1 L77 ve 7220h9 JEiQWl/f-LKS Des vaux 4 j i 44 FI'CYW OLS Belize? ay I, 156 F. BERTHET ET AL 2,743,585

DRIVING AND PULLING OF FILES, FILE PLANKS, TUBING, AND THE LIKE 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed 001.. 51, 1950 I71 V62 72 fora May 1, 1956 F. BERTHET ET AL 2,743,585

DRIVING AND PULLING OF FILES, FILE PLANKS, TUBING, AND THE LIKE Filed Oct. 51, 1950 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 fm/evzfors dacwues DSSVdU) Fravvcolo Bel-fie? United States Patent DRIVING AND PUL'LING 0F FILES, PILE PLANKS, TUBING, AND T HE LIKE Francois Berthet, Algiers, Algeria, and Jacques Desvaux, Paris, France Application October 31, 1954), Serial No. 193,202 Claims priority, application France November 4, 1949 s cliiilmd. (Cl. til-73) In driving piles, pileplanks, as .well as tubing or casings of the type used for moulding piles in the ground, piledrivers are generally used, in which the ram acts directly on the end of the pile, etc., opposite from that which is to penetrate the ground. t t

This method requires very large-size driving apparatus, often very expensive and taking up a large amount of power. lvioreovcr, because the rigidity of piles orpileplanks to buckling stresses is limited, the methodcan only be applied where the ratio of the height to the crosssection of the piles or pileplanks does not exceed a definite limit. in the case of concrete piles, it necessitates the use of grades of concrete possessing a very high crushing strength. All, these limitations seriously burden the cost of piling and similar structure. t

in addition to these drawbacks, the usual pile-driving process generates vibrations in the area surrounding the driving site owing to the high impacts involved. These vibrations may prove a hazard to adjacent structures "it any, so that in such cases the said method of pile-driving cannot be used.

In heterogeneous soil, vertical driving is at times made very ditficult because of the obstacles met with or because of the characteristics and nature of the terrain. Often there is a tendency for the pile to deviate and bend, developing strains which are liable to impair its strength or its subsequent firmness.

These difliculties may in part be averted by the use of another driving technique more particularly applicable to tubing and which consists of imparting to the length of tubing being driven a reciprocating rotary motion by means of levers or a jib connected to collars clamped about tube. Such motion, cooperating with the gravity of the tubing will sometimes result in a gradual sinking of the tube without violent and repeated impacts. However this method still requires, in its usual embodiments, .apowerful and cumbersome equipment, as well as a great expenditure of power. Its use remains very costly. Besides, it does not quite eliminate the possibility of deviation.

For pulling piles, pipeplanks, tubing and the like, the means used are generally similar to those employedin driving them. Thus, a pile-driver may be used with an inverted action of the ram, in combination with jacks, winches and tackle. Alternatively a reciprocatory rotary motion may be applied, cooperating with the effect of vertical upward pull exceeding the gravityof the pile or 2,743,585 Patented May. 1, 1956 that 0t preventing, in the case of a tube, the accidental ingress of earth into the space cleared as it is pulled out. But these are no more than accessory and contingent expedients which do not replace the essential operating units, the use of which still remains necessary with their attendant above-mentioned drawbacks.

It is the object of this invention to obviate these short comings and to achieve fast, eflicient, flexible and regular driving and pulling operations.

The invention consists of associating with the pile, pileplank, tube or the like--hereinafter generally designated by the term pilea device adapted to impart to it alternating impulses which are oriented in predetermined constant directions and, basically, balanced. These impulses may be oriented either axially of the pile, or normally thereto, or both axially and normally to the pile. They are balanced in that they are imparted to the pile directly in the direction of its axis, or to both sides thereof in one or more diametric planes.

The impulses oriented along the axis are made to act alternately toward the foot and toward the head of the pile. In one direction they combine additively with the weight of the pile while in the other they detract therefrom, thus creating alternating variations in the thrust against the bottom of the driving hole.

The impulses when oriented in a direction normal to the axis generate an alternating torque which imparts to the pile alternating movements of rotation. These movements may be varied in amplitude according to operating conditions.

The device associated with the pile may also be so designed as to impart simultaneously to it alternating impulses both along its axis and perpendicularly to its axis. The alternating motion due to the transverse impulses cooperates with the alternating forces exerted along the axis to produce the desired pile-driving or pulling action.

Owing to these means, the driving and pulling of piles may be performed with a reduced equipment, very readily transportable and easy to install, small in size and requiring a reduced energy output to operate. Pile-driving and -pulling operations may thus be very economically accomplished. t

The application of oriented alternating impulses according to the invention results in an increased rate of feed of the driven pile, and in a very quick and progressive rate of extraction, particularly valuable advantages in the case of large-sized pile elements or in heterogeneous or hard ground. The vibrating device and pile assembly, remain at all times in a balanced condition, and verticality is thereby promoted in the more usual case where vertical piles are involved, moreover this suppresses harmful lateral stresses, responsible for inclined piles and ovalized tubing, all defects very difiicult to correct. More over, the pile-driving operation is performed without necessitating the use of anchoring or similar means .for supporting the device of the invention upon the ground.

The amplitude and frequency of the oriented impulses are predetermined as a function of the shape and mass or the pile. They are adjustable by varying the position, and contingently the. inclination and/or other characteristics of the oscillatory elements used.

The invention will now be described in greater detail with reference to the accompanying drawings which relate more specifically but not exclusively to the driving of vertical piles and wherein:

Figures 1 and 2 diagrammatically illustrate the arrangement of a pile having mounted on it a device for generating vertical vibratory impulses;

Figure3 is a diagrammatic view in perspective showing how horizontal impulses may be produced;

Figure 4 isa diagrammatic view showing how both elevation and"partlyfasection"'while Fi'gure 9 is across section on line IX-IX of Figures; 7

Figure 'is a modification of'the arrangement of Figure'S;

impulses may be imparted to the V pile concurrently;

, F i'gu'redl' relates tothe driving'of "tubingfrom on beard shipyan'd 'fFigure 12 is a perspective view of a -modified "As shown, a'pile I'is' 'tobe driven-intothe'ground. "To drive' 'the'pile' 1, according' to' the invention, the' effect" of oriented vertical. "oscillatory impulses is' eombinerwith the action of its weight.

ii For this purpose, there tsmregrauy connected with'the pile 1, e. gion the'top thereof, a frame'lhaving'itsaxis of symmetry extending along a' diameter of the, pile, and carrying vibrator units variable in fre uenc These units may for'instance consist ofa' pair of'heavy vertical discs 3 and 4 arranged in a common vertical plane of-the pile 1, and 'syminetrically'placed with respect to it and rotated in opposite directions, as indicated by the ar'rows' A. "The disc3 carries an eccentric'unbalancihg'weight S and the imparted to the pile 1 are selected in correlation with "thenatureand shape of thepile'and with the character of the ground into which the pile is to be driven. The frequency is easily varied by acting on the speed of rotation of the discs (3 and 4 0r 8, 9, 10). The amplitude is adjusted by the magnitude of the unbalancing weights of the discs as well as by their degree of eccentricity.

In Order to "impart to the pilehorizontally-oriented alternating impulses, the pile is provided with a frame 2 carrying horizontal discs'll and 12 (Fig. 3). The. discs are placed with their axes of'rotation vertical and parallel to the axis of the pile 1, andsymmetrically relatively to saidaxis. They are rotated in a common direction as indicated by the arrows B. The disc 1 carries antinbalancing weight 13 and the disc 12 an unbalancing weight 14; the unbalancing weights 13 and 1d are displaced 180 from each other. The rotations of both discs,

driven by conventional means, are synchronized.

1 to it' alternating .oscillations in the direction of. rotation disc 4 an unbalancing weight 6. The 'unbalancing V weights 5 and 6 arernaintained-at all times symmetrical and inphase" with respect to each other. The motion of the discs 3 and 4 is synchronized.

The discs'or fly-wheels 3 and 4,'owing' totheir in-phase unbalancing means 5 and 6, create forces which. possess vertical components f alternatingand variable in magnitude. Thehorizontal components are oppositefr'om each other and cancel each other out at all times. The vertical components 1 are transmitted to thefrarne land the pile 1 and impart thereto analternating vertical force in the direction of the arrows F1F2. V Vhenthe'impulse is exerted in the downwa'r d direction Fi'it adds to 'the wei'ght of the pile 1; when in theupward direction F2 it detracts therefrom; thus the compressive thrust onthe'iground at the bottom end of the pile 1 is subjected to cyclic variations which providerepeatedshocks'which, added to'the weight of the pile 1, promote'its' sinking movement. The same action also facilitates extraction.

Instead of arranging the unbalanced discs 'at the end of the pile 1, they may be placed substantially on the axis thereof. In Figure 2, "the pile 1 is shown provided with a frame 2 carrying-ahorizontal shaft 7 on the central portion of which threeunbalanceddiscs or fly Wheels 8, 9 and 10 are rotatably mounted and driven by suitable means. The centre disc'9 carries an unbalancing Weight which is double the weight of each of the unbalancing weights ofthe side discs 8 and "10. 'The central disc'9 revolves-in reverse from and 'atthe samezspeed as both side discs 8 and '10. The rotations of the 'disc 9 on the one and and'the discs 8 and 10 on the other are so'synchronized that" the unbalancing wci'ghtsthere'of will always be in phase, the'wei'ghts of8 and 10"both"si'multaneously reaching either their uppermost or lowermost position as the doublejweight of"the-disc"9 reaches-its corresponding position.

It will be seen that with this arrangement, 'while the horizontal components'due to 'the action of t-he 'eccentric weights at all times cancel one another outj their vertical components combine, resulting in alternate stresses Fr, F2 as in the case of Figure l, which add to or 'detractfrom the weight of the pile.

The-frequency and amplitude of the vertical impulses infthe directions G1, G2. These alternating impulses facilitate, penetrationrin to'the ground in a manner similar to the alternating movements'of the known method mention'ed'hereabove, but have a higher rate of frequency. Th'eyare "produced .in' a continuous manner during "the rotation of the'discs without special operations.

The fre'quency'of the horizontal impulses may be adjusted by varying the'speed of rotation of the discs 11 and 12. Their amplitude is determined bythe spacing of the discs'from the axis of'the pile, and by the mass and eccentricity of the unbalancing weights 13 andi'14. -The magnitude of'the'alternating rotations G1, G2 can thus be" varied within a wide range, in response to varying operating conditions. While'this rotation may desirably assume a substantially high value in the case of a circular pile, it is evide'nt'that with a pile of hexagonal cross-section, pileplanks or the like, the amplitude ofth e rotation should remain limited. "The versatility of the device "shown will conveniently and flexibly respond to such varying conditions.

'In certain stages of the pile-driving or pulling work, it may be desirable to achieve a condition in which the hori- 'of eccentricity of one of: the unbalancing Weights without altering-the position or mass of the other disc or'weight.

In order to obtainthe benefit both of the vertical alternating forces and the motion of alternating rotation, vertical-impulses maybe combined with horizontal ones in the manner shown in Figure 4.

l The. frame 2 mountedon the pile 1 is adapted toreceive simultaneously a pair of vertical unbalanced discs or flywheels 3' andv 4 arrangedin a common diametric plane, similar to those shown'in Figure l, and a pair of horizontalu'nbalanced discs 11 and 12 similar to those of Figure 3. The discs 3 and 4irevolve. at a commonspeed and in opposite direc-tions I (arrows A). "T heir unbalancing weights 5- and 6'- are so set as to be in phase. The discs 11 and 12 revolve in a common direction (arrows Bland their unbalancing-weights 13 and 14 are l"out ofph'ase.

Withjthis arrangement,there are simultaneously pro duced according. to the previously-described mechanism, .vertical alternating forcesI F1, F2 and alternating rotational actions or couples G1, Gg- These rotations co-oper- 'ia'maesls ate with the vertical forces in promoting the driving, or pulling, of the pile 1.

The vertical impulses may be adjusted in amplitude and in frequency independently from the horizontal impulses.

Such adjustments are predetermined separately in correlation with the conditions of operation.

Rather than two separate balanced pairs of unbalanced discs such as 3-4 and 11-12, a single pair of associated and synchronized unbalanced discs may be used to produce the combined horizontal and vertical impulses, as illustrated in Figure 5.

Arranged on a support 2 mounted on the end of the pile 1 are two discs 15 and 16 rotatable on horizontal axes, the axes of both discs lying on a common diametric plane of the pile 1 and in alignment with one another. The discs are provided with unbalancing weights 1.7 and 18. They revolve at the same speed, the disc 15 in the direction of the arrow C, and the disc in in that of the arrow D. The unbalancing weights 17 and 18 are disposed in-phase with each other, that is to say they reach their uppermost and lowermost vertical positions simultaneously.

At each revolution, the assembly comprising the discs 15 and 16, the frame 2 and pile 1 is subjected to a twofold alternating impulse both in the vertical direction, which imparts to the discs an oscillatory motion in a vertical direction (arrow P) and in an angular direction (arrow G), the effect of which is similar to that previously obtained and explained in connection with Figure 4.

Adjustment of the horizontal torque imparting the alternating rotation G is effected, independently of any action on the vertical forces F, by acting on the spacing of the discs 15 and 16 or of the unbalancing weights on these discs, from a plane normal to their common axis.

The vertical impulses may alternatively be adjusted by T varying the mass and eccentricity of the weights 17 and 18. The frequency of the impulses is of course determined by the speed of rotation of the discs 15 and 16.

In the foregoing description it has been assumed, for the salzc f simplicity, that the device associated with the pile 1 only comprises a single pair of discs placed on a common diametric plane (Figs. 1, 2, 3 and 5) or two pairs of discs one pair horizontal and the other vertical, disposed on a common diametric plane (Fig. 4). it should be understood however that the number of pairs of discs associated two by two on a common diametric plane, may have any suitable value. In some cases, successful results may be attained by spacing the discs in a plurality of radial semi-planes, spaced by equal angular intervals apart. All such discs carry unbalancing weights set in phase with one another. They are rotated in a common direction as seen by an observer lying along the centre axis of the pile and looking at the disc under consideration. The large number of. associated discs or pairs of discs makes it possible to distribute the effects throughout the entire cross-section of the pile and thus to reduce the size of the individual discs or pairs of discs and the mass of the unbalancing weights required for the accomplishment of a given result.

According to an alternative construction, the unbalancing weights set in iii-phase relationship on a plurality of discs may be replaced by a continuous annulus moved horizontally and vertically in an appropriate alternating motion. This annulus may be hollow and Weighted in a variable manner depending on the forces to be developed.

Figures 6 and 7 illustrate a form of embodiment of the arrangement shown in Fig. 5, as applied to a tubing element for drilling a shaft which is to serve e.g. to cast concrete in order to make a foundation pile.

The tubing or casing 26 provided with a penetrating element or bit 21 is herein illustrated as in the process of being driven, having already penetrated to a substantial depth into the ground. Secured to its top is a platform 22 carrying the unbalanced fly-wheels or discs 23 and 24 which are to impart both vertical and horizontal impulses to the tubing. The platform 22 is mounted over the top of tubing 20, thus eliminating the necessity of providing any securing means such as collars or jacks. The platform is rigidly connected with the tube by any suitable means, such as keying means or bolts for example. It is statically balanced, such balancing being where necessary rendered more perfect by the use of a counterweight 25. The unbalancing weight of the fly-wheel 23 is shown at 26; the fly-wheel 24 is provided with an identical unbalancing weight 27 arranged to remain in phase with the weight 26.

The ily-wheels 23 and 24 are driven in rotation respectivcly by the electric motors 28 and 29 through an appropriate transmission, e. g. a worm 30 and worm-gear 31.

The motors are arranged to impart reverserotations to the dye /heels 23 and 24; the rates of rotation of the flywheels are synchronized, for instance, by means of a mechanical transmission 32 including a bevel-gearing 33.

driving process.

The rotations may be synchronized in any other way, as for instance by an appropriate electrical drive for both motors 28 and 29.

During the tube-driving operation, the motors 28 and 2% drive the fly-wheels 23 and 24 in rotation, and these impart to the platform 22, in the manner previously described, an oscillatory motion which comprises both vertical and horizontal components, so that the tube 20 is made to sink.

To guide the tube over the first few yards of its descent, it may be desirable to provide a guide tube 34 preliminarily arranged in the ground at the selected site. This tube 34 will assure verticality in the initial phase of the Thereafter the casing 20 will sink in smoothly without being subjected to any lateral stresses. in heterogeneous or broken ground any obstacles encountered are attacked very gradually and with great power, the pressures set up per square inch of attackingarca being very high. The initial guiding will therefore, as a rule,

be suflicient to keep the tube vertical. Ifnot, resort would be had to the provisions for displacing one fly-wheel or one unbalancing weight relatively to the other wheel or weight, for the amount of time required in order to re store verticality.

After one length of the tubing 20 has been fully driven, the platform 22 is removedand mounted on the next length of tubing, which is connected with the first length by a suitable coupling mechanical or otherwise.

It will be noted that, in the arrangement shown, the interior of the tubing remains at all times accessible for earth removal. If the drilling is made through hard rock, a platform similar to 22 may be mounted on a chisel-drill guided within the tubing in order to break up the rock and facilitate its removal from out of the tubing.

By suitably selecting the rate of rotation, the mass and eccentricity of the unbalancing weights 26 and 27 and the mass of the fiy-wheels or discs 23 and 24, relatively to the mass of the tubing, vertical impulses of adequate magnitude are obtained for driving the tubing. Associated with these impulses is a horizontal alternating torque adjustable in value by acting on the spacing of the dywheels 23 and 2d and/ or of the unbalancing weights 26 and 27.

In order to adapt the oscillatory impulses to the Weight of the pile to be driven or pulled, to the various stages of the driving or pulling operation, to the firmness of the ground and to the lateral friction stresses, the motors 2S and 29 are desirably variable-speed units allowing the speed of rotation to be gradually varied as the driving or pulling operation proceeds.

The lateral friction of the ground is comparatively low owing to the absence of any lateral strains. Torsion of the tubing 20 remains low, negligible even in the case of thick tube sections, so that theimpulses are transmitted through to the bottom end of the tubing, down to the penetrating bit. In practice, the speed of the fly-wheels, for a given unbalancing weight, is limited to a value con- -.synchronized electrically with each other.

.egmasss .sistent with the .strengthaot .the .ballor roller .bearings .used. On-.the;;other hand .this speed cannotbereduced .to-za value less than acertain limit below which the dimensions of the components would be so large. asto beout of -,propor.tion withthepractical conditions of operation on-.a work-yard.

It may be stated by-way of indication that, with a tubing .2 metersrindiameter, rfly-wheels 2 meters in diameter provided with unbalancing weights 120 kilograms each, spaced fromeach other by 4 -meters and rotated at 7 revolutions per second maximum speed at the eridof the driving oper- .ation,- there is developeda horizontal couple of about 100 .tonsameters, -a vertical-force of about 100 tons. and a satisfactorytamplitude. of rotational reciprocation. The weightof the. fully equipped platform remains less than 3 tonsfor/a. 50 ton tube section. The direct current-sup- .plied drive motorsare 45 H. P. in capacity and are con- The platform carries a pair of vertical -unbalanced1flytrolled from 9.1120 HaPoward-Leonard set which enables 1 thespeed .of. rotation to becontinuously varied withthe .thrust required during-the drilling process. At a speed of rev/per see, a 200 ton-meter torque is available,.and ia-vertical. force. of about. 200 .tons.

.There are nct many usual" types of ground extant capable .ofopposinga resistance to drilling which cannot Vbesovercome by equipment having the above-defined char- .acteristics.

Figures 8 and 9 illustrate one embodiment of the apparatus of the invention, of the general type diagram- .maticallyshown .in- Figure 5, as applied herein toa prefabricated pile.

Mounted on-the pile 35-at a convenient vertical positionsthereon, is aplatform 36 carrying the vibrator. units. Theplatform36 is. secured to the pile by clamping collars 37, .38. Preferably the platform 36 is provided with keying means 39 adapted to fit into suitable sockets or recesses .40. formcd atwastingin the pile .35.

i .The platform36 carries two fly-wheels or discs 41 and ='42..provided with unbalancing weights'43 and 44 driven at acommon speed by two electric motors 45 and 46 g The motors .arehereinshownas. arranged with their shafts vertical. Each motor drives the related fly-wheel by a transmission including a wormandworm-gear 47-48. This arrangement'has-an. advantage over that shown in Figs. 6 and 7 in..that. it..avoids the exertion of longitudinal stresses by the rotors of the..motors upon the end bearings. It is .of course. applicable to the case of a tubing or to any .other-caseas well.

LTheoperation of the fly-Wheels generates vertical alternating forces Whichcombine additively with the weight .of .thepile 35 .and: cause the pile to sink smoothly in. Thisdownward movement of the pile is facilitatedby .the horizontalalternating torque. During the first few feet :of the driving operation, it is desirable to provide -a.guidingstructure or simply a 'ring 49 of added or .compacted. earth orgrout which will hold the pile verti-- cal in the .initial phase of the driving. After the pile has bored through the ring 49, it will continue to sink in smoothly, retaining its direction. As the platform :66 reachesaupoint near the ground level, it is removed and again secured at a suitable vertical height on the .pile..35, -which may-havebeen formed, e. g. atcasting, withthe suitable sockets 40. at suitably spaced points therealong.

it may be stated by way of' indication that,-with a .pile 0.400..meter indiamet erand meters long, fly- Wheels are used Whichare 1 meter in. diameter andcarry '50 kilograms unbalancing weights. These fly-wheels are driven.at.a variable speedswhich may reach as much as :10 revolutions.per-second towards the end of the driving :operation. Piles-may thusbe driven smoothly and efli- .ciently-into the majority of usual grounds.

Figure. 10 illustratesa similar arrangement for. driving a.pile, .buthereinthe.fly-wheelsare driven by a single motor. .Secured tonhe: top of. pile-50 .by .an..interfitting discs =53.-and.54. .Thediydiscsare.driven;by; a common motor .55 .mounted on the..frame 51 .ina vertically .centred position relatively to the .pile, in the-axialarea thereof.

This singlermotorarrangement can also be used with a tube such as that-shown in Figures'fi and 7. Such an application is. shownin Fig. 11. Itis to .beobserved that in this'case .the solid platform 51 will..prevent.the removel of earth from within the tube 35.during ,the driving operation. .This. earth ..can then be cleared at the same time theplatfonnSlis removed to connect the next. lengthof tubing to thelength already ,in .place.

The inventionisapplicable .tothe making.and..positiming of conventional.foundationpiles, pre-fabricated piles or piles .moldedin. the ground, sheetpiling, etc. whether in level or sloping terrain. It is applicablein muddy ground and for -Work under -water, in particular in theocean. No ground .anchoringsupport is required in connection with the apparatus of the. invention.

'Figure 11 shows how a tubing 35 may be driven from a boat-or pontoon 56. .The length of tubing35'fitted with its platform 51 provided with the vibrat0r.units,is directed by a guiding structure 57 formed on the boat '56. The tube sinks easily into theoottorn under'the combined effect of its weight and of the pulses imparted to it by the fly-wheels ordiscs 53-54.

'It is furtherpossible toprevent the occurrence. of such shocks by arranging the motors on a platform separate fronr'the pile to be driven. in such case, the unbalanced discs are driven through. a suitable flexing coupling transmission, such as a sliding cardan' joint system.

.the ground and the variations in the horizontal torque,

are not in phase. The thrust against the ground is not the same for. either direction of the horizontal movement. The rotation of the pile is greater when the unbalancing weights are on their upward stroke than when their effect is applied downwards against the bottom. At each cycle therefore, thepiie will revolve by an amount equivalent to the differential between .both corresponding angular displacements. This results in a continuous circular rotation. This movement may if desired be reversed by reversing the rotation of the motor or motors.

.It will be understood that all of the transmissions involved in the operation of the apparatus may be eifected by means of cardan couplings, flectors.or other flexible connections; also, the motors and/or bearings may be flexibly mounted on the platform to prevent the transmission of impacts thereto.

Figure 12 .illustrates a modified form of embodiment Secured to the tubing 50 is'a platform 51 carrying two unbalanced fly-wheels or'discs 53 and 54. 'Resilientlyconnected with the platform 51 .through springs 58 slidably surrounding the rods 59 is'a frame '60; carrying a single electric motor This 'motor' can besupported through the rod 62 from a tackle orpulley-block 63 which may be adjusted in height by windingand'unwinding the cable 64. The

upper pulley'of the tackle or pulley-block 63 is fastened at.65 to" a beamor other suitable fixed support- 66. The

fly-'wheels are driven from the-motor 61 through a slid- 'able'coupling'67 and an angie gear or the like housed within the carter of the platform 51.

The flywheels have'holes 68 for adjusting the unbalanced weight.

By Winding'or unwinding'more or less the cable 64 and thus .adjustingthe relative spacing between the two pulleys of the pulley-block, the motor 61 is allowed to :move down or up tofollowv thesinking. or rising move- .mentof the tubing-50 to protect the..motor-.61.from..the vertical. vibrations or. impacts :appliedto .the tubing 50.

'All.of..the arrangements described. may be used both en rance for driving and for pulling. In the latter case, the impulses should be increased in frequency and reduced in amplitude, for all that is tl'ien'required is to cause the sides of the pile to separate from the surrounding ground. Lighter weight tly-wheels revolving at higher speeds should then be used.

All of the embodiments described and illustrated were given by way of illustration rather than limitation, and the invention should be understood as being applicable to piles and the like of all description and shape and capable of being practised in many modified ways. in the claims, the term pile is to be understood as having the generic meaning defined in the preamble to this specification.

What we claim is:

1. Apparatus for actuating piles, tubing, sheetpiling and like elements, comprising at least one source of alternating impulses adapted to be permanently bodily connected with said element throughout the actuation thereof,

said source being balanced with respect to the axis of i said element and adapted to generate simultaneously both linear alternating impulses directed axially of said element and rotary alternating impulses in a plane normal to said axis, a pair of similar axially aligned rotatable members, means for securing the members to the element with the members mounted for rotation about an axis diametrically of the element and perpendicular to the axis of the element with the members spaced at substantially the same distance from the axis of the element on opposite sides thereof, the center of gravity of each member being eccentric to the axis of rotation thereof, and means for rotating the members about their axis in unison in opposite directions with the centers of gravity of the pair of members in phase with each other.

2. Apparatus for actuating piles, tubing, shectpiling and like elements, comprising a plurality of sources of alternating impulses adapted to be permanently rigidly secured to said element throughout the actuation thereof, said sources being spaced and balanced with respect to the axis of the element and adapted to generate simultaneously both alternating linear impulses directed axially of the element and alternating rotary impulses about the axis of said element each source comprising a pair of similar axially aligned rotatable members, means for securing the members to the element with the members mounted for rotation about an axis extending diametrically of the element and perpendicular to the axis of the element with the members spaced at substantially the same distance from the axis of the element on opposite sides thereof, the center of gravity of each member being eccentric to the axis of rotation thereof, and means for rotating the members about their axis in unison in opposite directions with the centers of gravity of the pair of members in phase with each other.

3. Apparatus for actuating piles or the like comprising a support rigid with the pile, a coaxial pair of vertical, eccentrically weighted fly-wheels on said support symmetrically disposed relative to the axis of the pile, said fly-wheels being mounted for sliding movement along a common axis thereof for adjustment of the spacing of said fly-Wheels from the axis of said pile, means for driving said flywheels in rotation, the eccentric weighting means of said fiy-wheels being arranged to remain continually in phase so as to reach their uppermost positions together and their lowermost positions together at each revolution, the rotation of said fly-wheels imparting to pile simultaneously both vertical and horizontal balanced impulses adjustable by variation of the speed of rotation and of the weighting of said fly-wheels and adjustment of the spacing of the fly-wheels along their common axis.

4. Apparatus for actuating piles or the like comprising, for use in combination with a pile, a platform adapted to be secured to said pile to form an integral unit there- 10 with, a pair of coaxial axially spaced vertical fly-wheels on said platform and parallel'eccentric weighting means on said fly-wheels disposed symmetrically with respect to the axis of the pile, two motor means rotating said flywheels, means for synchronizing the speeds of said ilywheels, the weighting means of said fily-wheels being arranged to remain continually in phase, so that the weighting means of both wheels will simultaneously reach 1 their uppermost positions and will simultaneously reach their lowermost positions, rotation of said. wheels imparting to said pile simultaneously both vertical and horizontal balanced impulses adjustable by variation of the speed of rotation adjustment of the weight of the weighting means and adjustment of the spacing of the fiy-Wheels along their axis.

5. Apparatus for actuating piles or the like comprising, for use in conjunction with a pile, a platform adapted to be unitarily secured to the pile, a pair of coaxial axially spaced vertical fly-Wheels on said platform, motor means rotating both fly-wheels, and parallel eccentric weighting means on said fiy-wheels symmetrically disposed with respect to the pile axis and arranged to remain continually in phase so as to pass together through their uppermost position and together through their lowermost positions, rotation of said fly-Wheels imparting to the pile balanced impulses both vertically and horizontally, said impulses being adjustable by variations of the speed of rotation, weight adjustment of the weighting means and adjustment of the spacing of the lily-wheels along their common axis.

6. Apparatus for actuating piles or the like comprising, in combination with a pile, a platform secured to the pile, a pair of axially aligned fly-wheels disposed in space-:1 parallel vertical planes and rotatably mounted on horizontal axis lying in a plane common to a diamctcr of the pile, means mounting said fly-wheels or: said platform and eccentric Weighting means on each wheel, said means disposing said wheels with the wheels symmetrically disposed in relation to the axis of the pile, a motor on said platform, a sliding connecting means between said motor and said wheels adapted to drive said wheels in rotation in unison in opposite directions in planes substantially normal to the axis of the pile with said unbalancing means in phase with each other.

7. Apparatus for actuating piles or the like which comprises, for use in combination with a pile, a pair of similar axially aligned rotatable members, means for securing the members to a pile with the members mounted for rotation about an axis extending diametrically of the pile and perpendicular to the axis of the pile with the members spaced at substantially the same distance from the axis of the pile on opposite sides thereof, the center of gravity of each member being eccentric to the axis of rotation thereof, and means for rotating the members about their axis in unison in opposite directions with the centers of gravity of the pair of members in phase with each other.

8. Apparatus for actuating piles or the like which comprises, for use in combination with a pile, a plurality of pairs of similar axially aligned rotatable members, means for securing each pair of members to a pile with the members mounted symmetrically for rotation about an axis extending diametrically of the pile and perpendicular to the axis of the pile with the members of each pair spaced at substantially the same distance from the axis of the pile on opposite sides thereof, the center of gravity of each member being eccentric to the axis of rotation thereof, and means for rotating the members about their axis in unison in opposite directions with the centers of gravity of the pair of members in phase with each other.

(References on following page) lUNITEDa STATES: PATENTS Glark 4\pr.j 16, 1912 Sturtevant 'Dec. 22, 1925 Allard May 9, 1950 Bodine May 22, 1951

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2830442 *Oct 5, 1953Apr 15, 1958Robert Hochstrasser HeinrichRotary means for facilitating the driving or extraction of piles or the like
US2867984 *Oct 21, 1955Jan 13, 1959Francois BerthetDriving or extracting piles or like members
US2911192 *Apr 3, 1957Nov 3, 1959Jersey Prod Res CoVibratory rotary drilling method and apparatus
US2942427 *Nov 18, 1955Jun 28, 1960Francois BerthetDevice for effecting the driving and facilitating the extraction of piles
US2942849 *Jun 2, 1958Jun 28, 1960Albert G BodineMethod for sonic earth boring by use of resonant wave pattern transmitted from ground surface
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US2975846 *Mar 8, 1957Mar 21, 1961Bodine Jr Albert GAcoustic method and apparatus for driving piles
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US3004389 *Apr 14, 1960Oct 17, 1961Ludwig MullerDevice for varying the frequency of a vibration exciter
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US3067656 *Nov 6, 1957Dec 11, 1962Reinhold Gustafsson EricScreeds
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US3415174 *Sep 23, 1966Dec 10, 1968Benno KalteneggerTandem-type road roller
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US4248550 *Feb 22, 1979Feb 3, 1981Stahl-Und Apparatebau Hans Leffer GmbhPile extraction apparatus
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Classifications
U.S. Classification74/61, 173/49, 404/133.5, 173/141, 173/213, 254/29.00R, 104/8, 175/5
International ClassificationE02D11/00
Cooperative ClassificationE02D11/00
European ClassificationE02D11/00