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Publication numberUS2743955 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMay 1, 1956
Filing dateMar 8, 1951
Priority dateMar 8, 1951
Publication numberUS 2743955 A, US 2743955A, US-A-2743955, US2743955 A, US2743955A
InventorsWillson Corwin D
Original AssigneeWillson Corwin D
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Housekeeping structures
US 2743955 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

y 1956 c. D. WlLLSON HOUSEKEEPING STRUCTURES 6 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed March 8 1951 C. D. WILLSQN HOUSEKEEPING STRUCTURES May 1, 1956 6 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed March 8. 1951 6 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed March 8, 1951 May 1, 1956 Filed March 8, 1951 C- D. WILLSON HOUSEKEEPING STRUCTURES 6 Sheets-Sheet 4 y 1956 c. D. WILLSON 2,743,955


y 1, 1956 c. D. WILLSON HOUSEKEEPING STRUCTURES 6 Sheets-Sheet 6 Filed March 8 1951 m m m M a W W United States Patent 2;14s,'95s V f HoUsEKE-Enms m m 'Corwin n. Willson, Flint, Mich. ApplicationMamh 8,4951, SerialNo. ,2 14,s42 l-s cldims. Roma's-2 3 makes use of \the drawingsof my co-pending application,

primary concern is centered on -aspects of the invention either not previouslyshown or not previously clearly described and claimed.

- As here used, the term (space-saving housekeeping structure airnsfar beyond whatappears to have been the objectives of thecampcarsof prior art; here the term relates to means implementing "standards of dwelling comfort and-decencyclose to those .Americansexpect in fixed 2,743,955 Patented -May .1, 195$ i of a road vehicle body, such as a floor-covered bottom frame the topside of this portion extending from tend to opposite end of the body at different levels, the Smidpart of the topside at a lower level between:substantialoppohouses: -i. .e., provision for ii -transit .group activity or relaxationandforthe .samedegree of individual privacy to be experienced in a three bedroomkitchenette and bath apartment. In the endeavor .to reach toward similar objectives today s trailer coaches have attained nearly the maximum lengths legal .for-road vehicles on the public highways. Yet .a trailer coach long, together with hitch and family towcar add upto a lengthof over 50' and even this length, now awkward-and-often dangerous to manipulate over abruptly curved roads inhilly .terrain, is in process :of being exceeded. Moreover, the violent lurching of. such .long :bodies discourages .in-tra'nsit human occupancy. In consequence,-such vehicles become fam- .ily dwellings and housekeeping structures only when parked. Thus, :the primary object of the invention-is the concentration .closely on opposite sides of the transverse center axis of an automotiveroad vehicle body of a spacesaving housekeeping structure which combines adequate means of in-transitfhabitabilitffor -an-entire family of aboveAmerican .averagesize (i. e. 4 8.persons) with adequate means of in-transit individual activity, repose and privacy, the structure including a 'transverse bulkhead separating }in-transit cooking means. on one side of that axis from, a family dining nook-on the'opposite side, and a berth bottom separating in-transit means for'the'horizontal repose of two persons from a lower double berth converted from the seat cushions of. said dining nook: the entire road vehicle 'body shell "having little .more than one-half the .total length of the'trailer coach and towcar above mentioned and below' 3'0' feet.

Another object of the inventionis a space-saving housekeeping structure concentrated in the lowest-slung, smoothest riding and safest portion of a road vehicle body that is swaybacked between fore and aft roadwheels: said portion having a total length between abruptly upwardextending parts of the body bottom less than twice the maximum body width legal of common passage on the highway. The'term swaybacked as used herein shall 'beurrderstood to be descriptive'o'f-a rigid bottom portion site lengths at higher level. .The'l'term swaybacked:lis thus used figuratively relative to an engiheeredstructure as Mark Twain in Tramps Abroad did inhis *expressidn swaybacked tunnels, where sway'backed :related not to any structural weakness but merely to .aneasily ualized form wherein a length of tunnel extended attlower level between two substantial lengths athig'her-levels.

I Another object of the invention 'iswa;housekeeping structure including an inner supporting framework-spaced from opposite sides and fromopposite ends-10f an outer supported shell, a primary :member of the framework extending in the bottom'of the s'hellzand between the inner sides of and beyond pairs of wheelwells spacednforeand aft and-on opposite sidesof the shell and-each wheelw'ell atadistance from thenearest end ofthe shell, and opposite upright ends of the framework consisting of several posts concentrated crosswise of the body between and extending below-the tops of said pairs to'support a lengthwise central area'of the top of said shell vdirectly on-said primary member and'largely independent of said'opposite sides.

Another object of the invention :is a-body bottom specially ballasted in compensation in a Wheeled holisekeeping structure forberths occupied high above the body center of gravity and tending except for special ballast to be topheavy in rough transits 1 Another object of the invention-is -a housekeeping structure having aroad vehicle body bottom 'includinga ;sill around opposite sides and end'portio'ns thereof and a single keelson-like backbone extending between said ends in the V lengthwise :center axis of the 'bottom, and widely spaced crossmembers extending between said-opposite sides and each cros'smember having a midsec'tion caught through'a transversely open space :between rigid top and bottom members of the backbone; and a fioorover'saidbackbone and said crossrnembers and said sill, the topsideiofisaid floor extending centrally of said bottom at a level 'below the bottomsides of said opposite end portions *of said bottom. 1

Another object of the invention is a lo'W-slu'nghousekeeping structure in a road vehicle body directly entered from a door in the 'side of the body widely spaced from opposite ends thereof, the structure includingceilings at "upper and lower levels on opposite sides of the doorway and a pair of berths having -bottomsconsisting of .said ceilings at upper levels.

These and other novel features and objects ofthe invention are hereinafter more fully described 'an'tl claimed,

and the preferred form of such space-saving housekeeping structures is shown in the accompanying drawings, in

which: V i

Fig. 1 is a floor plan of thelower story of the housekeeping structure.

' Fig. 2 is a floor plan of the upperstoryof the housekeeping structure.

Fig. 3 is in part a longitudinal section of the structure taken on'line 33 of Fig. l.

Fig. 4 is a plan of the substructure ofbody-o'f 'therstruc- "ture and includes the chassis.

taken on line 7-7 of Fig. 2.

Fig. 13 is a floor plan of an alternate housekeeping structure made according to the invention.

Fig. 14 is a floor plan of the upper story of structure shown in Fig. 13.

Fig. 15 is a side view, partly in section, of the structure shown in Figs. 13 and 14.

Fig. 16 is a plan of the chassis and substructure of the structure of Fig. 15.

Fig. 17 is a transverse section taken on line 17--17 of Fig. 16.

Fig. 18 is a cross section on transverse center line z-t of the trailer looking toward the rear thereof.

The preferred form of housekeeping structure has a rigid outer shell 1 interiorly subdivided for maximum use of the space enclosed and for the maximum in-transit comfort and safety of its occupants in passage over rough terrain. Not more than two steps up from the roadbed, door 2 centrally in the side of shell 1 gives direct entrance into the main lounge A which is a combined sitting and dining room and, as hereinafter explained, sleeping room. In-a-door cabinet 3 serves as opening closure for utility and storage closet 4 containing a hot water storage tank 5 in insulated covering 6 and shelves 7 above storage tank 8 for fluid wastes and vented by double stack 9 adjacent exterior covering 10 for shell 1. Chairs 11 stand one at either side of dresser 12 having a pull-out segment 13 that serves as writing desk or table top. Spaced double seats 14 provide dining nook adjacent windows 15 on opposite sides of demountable table top 16, one end held by wall hooks 17. the opposite end suspended by leg 18 from ceiling hereinafter described. Back cushions 19 are used to convert table-facing double seats 14 into a Pullman double berth when desired and in a manner old in the art. Cushions of seats 14 are hereinafter referred to as a bed components, as are elements of tiltdown bed in compartment D' hereinafter described.

Up three risers 20, forward end deck B, also called intermediate deck, stitfens intermediate side parts of columns or posts 21 which are laterally connected with the outwardly bulging sides of shell 1 by Vertical weblike ties 22 which thus have the character of bulkheads dividing deck B into two parts, the forward part housing a pair of double driving seats 23 which, in a manner not here shown, are manipulatable to provide another berth. Seats 23 face transparent windshield24, instrument panel 25 and steering wheel 26. The rearward part of deck B comprises wall cabinet 27, wrap closet 28 and four more risers 20 to the upper deck floor or story. The seven risers 20 will be referred to as the front stairway and it is apparent that the foredeck B is an enlarged landing in this stairway.

At the mainfloor level and between lounge A and foredeck B is insulating screen 29 for combustion chamber 30 of space-heater having exhaust pipe 31 and surrounded by a heat-exchange drum hereinafter described. A sliding door in hollow wall 33 may be used to wholly separate lounge A from kitchenette or galley C containing worktop dresser 34, cupboards 35 and canopy 36 with vent 37 for cookstove 38. A refrigerator with worktop 39 stands beside sink 40 that fits like a tray demountably into the top of one of the double laundry tubs 41 beside mechanical washer having tub 42 adjacent wringer 43 and under demountable worktop 44.

Up three risers 45, rear end deck D has chairs 46 facing cabinet 47 with drop-leaf tabletop 48 above hatch 49. Down one riser 50 from after deck D is bathroom E with fixed floor 51 having sequentially removable sections 52 resting on flange 53 of the body-bathing receptacle-here a shallow 5 foot tub below the level of floor 51. Hinges 54 permit a person entering bathroom E, which has a total floor area only slightly exceeding that occupied in the average fixed house by the stock bathtub, to fold back part of the floor, step down into the tub, fold up the removable sections 52 and place them on the adjacent seat of toilet 55 before bathing. Water heater 56 for tank 5 is vented in stack 9. Removable lavatory tray 57 stands on top of laundry tub 41 in niche 58 in wall between kitchenette C and bathroom E, wall parts of niche 58 being attached to lavatory 57 so that they and sink 40 are removable to make laundry tubs directly accessible on washdays. Stoppered waste outlets 59 may drain directly into the tub compartments or be fitted with short waste-pipes (not shown) having resilient stoppered lower ends pushable down into the waste outlets for said compartments. Both lavatory 57 and toilet stool 55 stand at levels for effective use from floor 51 and above sections 52.

The midportion of the body extends from the foredeck to the afterdeck and has an upper floor extending lengthwise between opposite end decks at less than story height above the lower mainfloor of the body. Up four risers 45 from afterdeck D is the upper story. The seven risers 45 will be referred to as the rear stairway and it is apparent that the afterdeck is an enlarged landing in this stairway.

The upper story comprises two rooms, front bedroom F and back bedroom G, each room extending wholly across the body and having a length equal to the width of the body and each containing a double legless bedlike berth 60 with end shelves 61, clothes-hanging space or closet 62, dresser 63 and chair 64. Doors 65 ensure individual privacy while permitting egress from either bedroom by either front or rear stairway. Bathroom E, insulated by closet 4 and kitchenette C from lounge A is thus accessible to occupants of bedrooms and both end decks without passing through the lounge, and danger of being trapped by fire at levels above the mainfloor is reduced to a minimum.

The problem of heating a moving body is different from that of heating a parked body and the heating and ventilating of my housekeeping structure must be equally effective under both conditions. Circulation of heated fresh outside air inside the body is obtained by the invention automatically .by the forward movement of the body forcing this circulation. The part played in this by ducts 66 will be hereinafter explained. Duct 67 joins an intake 68 for exterior air and an intake 69 for interior air with drum 32. Electric motor 70 attached to blower-fan housing 71 is positioned in duct 67 as seen in Fig. 3. Fresh exterior air under high pressure and velocity under the swift forward movement of body 1, is deflected by airscoop opening closure 72 for intake 68 into duct 67 and downwardly through drum 32 which has lower opening 73 near floor 74 of foredeck B. When exhaust pipe 31 is hot from products of combustion, forward movement of the body 1 produces a heat-exchanging downdraft through drum 32 and from opening 73. Thence the heated air rises to a high point of the backwardly sloping foredeck ceiling where opening-closure 75 of intake 69 permits passage of this heated air, already waste heat, into duct 67 where it is caught into the current of fresh outer air and carried into the drum 32 and again through opening 73. When operated under parked conditions, airscoop 72 is closed and the heating system may then return to mere gravity circulation, air drawn into the opening 73 flowing from drum 32 via upper closable apertures 76. Or opening-closure 77 may be adjusted to permit a desired mixture of fresh outer air and heated interior air to flow into the blower fan housing 71, the electric motor 79 is turned on by switch 78 and the downdraft in drum 32 is thus mechanically maintained.

Great amounts of air may not be forced into the body with all the windows and doors closed by the automatic means-described without at the same time expelling an equal amount of air therefrom. Just as the forward movement of the body is utilized to force fresh air through the heat exchangers into the body, so the same means is used to suck air from the body to maintain a normal pressure of air therein. Ventilating ducts 66 at the lower ends have openings 79 and at the upper ends openings 80 incomb or undercut roofstep 81. Theentire top and side portions of shell 1 above front windows '15 slant backwardly and outwardly and roofstep 81 extends from down one side and over the top to down the other side of this forward top portion of the shell. As the body moves rap- :idlyforward a stream of air at high velocity passes over the top-and sides of roofs'tep 8110 create an area of subnormal air pressure or suction therebehind at '82 into which exhaust pipe 31 is vented. This provides a draft adequate for the removal of products of combustion. A

. retractible chimney top 83 coactive with upper end of pipe .31 will be hereinafter described. Fresh air forced inat intake 68 meets air inthe'body'at normal pressure since an equal amount of "air is simultaneously being sucked from the body via openings 79 and 80. By this means, the .efiiciency ofthe heat exchange, dependent .on the downdraft in drum 32, and adequate ventilation are maintained by the forward movement of the body and with closed doors and windows. Opening closure 84 admits exterior air when desired near the feet of front seat occupants.

; Bottoms of seats 23 are mounted on separate torquearms 85 fixed toires ilient torsion .rods 86 each having an opposite end anchored byiarm 87 to 'fioor 74 whereby .the'back and bottom of each seat 23 move as a unit under road shock. :Main floor 88 of the'lower story is rigidly supported by the rigid backbone member '89 so that the upper surface of floor 88 approaches very closely the approximate level of the hubs of front and rear roadwheels and the midpart of the backbone 89, also called hereinafter chassis and fprimary'bottom frame member, has

a topsidedirectly under floor 88 and swaybackedbetween fore and aft wheels in a manner more fully hereinafter described. Front bumper 90 attached to backbone 89protects storage compartment I-I under the foredeck and a rear bumper attached to backbone 89 projectsfrom power drive compartment I under the afterdeck and accessible by hatch 49. Opening closure 92 gives access to compartment'H from outside the body. Airscoops 93 back of a pairof rear wheelwells 94 spaced on opposite sides ofand at some distance from the back end of the body, carry air picked up fin-transit throughv ducts 95 and this air passes through radiator 96 into the area of lower pressure which extend on opposite sides of transverse -center 'axis T-i'l." o'f'shelll and-at opposite endsceilin'g 100 is cut by diagonal Wells 1111 over the stairs between main'floor 88 and opposite end decks. Storage space 102 in the stairwell slopes of 'the roof over the afterdeck is accessible by door 183.

Footbrake lever is indicated at 104, headlamps at 105,

' cylinders of prime mover at 106; exterior outlet fairing 107 for vent 37. Pairs of roadwheels'108 with tires 109 and hubcaps 110 are positioned fore and aft and snugly housed in wheelwells 94 and'94a.

Backbone member 89, as maybe noted in Fig. '4, comprises opposite side members 111, such ,as rigid metal channels, very closely spaced 'on opposite sides of the longitudinal center axis 'j-kof the'body and are made rigidly integral by upper and lower center plates 112, upper and lower front plates 113 and upper and lower rear plates 114, so as to have a box-girder-like"rigidity. This backbone midpart is fixed between outwardly tapered side portions of 'the body bottom and between pairs or fore and aft primary "frame parts 115, each pair consisting of behind body 1. A similar pair of front wheelwells 94a are spaced on opposite sides of, and at some distance from the front end of the body, and the bottoms of the inner sides of both "pairs of iwheelwells are defined by the bottomsides of backbone 89, the tops 94b of wheelwells protruding substantially above the highest upwardly bowed'parts 89a of backbone 89. In order to insure suflicient road-clearance over rough terrain and suflicient ground clearance when driving through fields and woods .for'such a low-slung body, the distance between front and rearwh'e'elwells does not exceed twice the body width and the bott'omsides of terminal parts of backbone 89 are above the topside o'f'the midpartthe swaybacked midpart of backbone 89. (Note: Itis obvious that should it be desired to utilize a body in other respectssimilar to body shell 1' for atrailer drawn by truck tractor, storage compartment H could be shifted to the position of compartmen't I and the space now occupied by compartment H could be used'for the supporting hitch and rear end of truck tractor.)

The lower story is lighted by windows 15 and the upper story by glazed apertures 97 in the longitudinal skeletalbeam side members 98 of a lantern roof having fiattish top 99. Ceiling 100 at storyheight above mainfloor 88 comprises the actual bottoms of leglessbedlike berths '60 parts a obliquely spaced in a single oblique plane that extends abruptly upward from the topside of said midpart just behind the front wheelwells and just ahead of the rear wheelwells to support terminal parts 115b of the chassis frame or backbone member 89. In my copending application parts here numbered 115a are described as upwardly forked and they are hereinafter claimed as upwardly diverging primary parts and they serve not only to give ample'clearance for the Wheel suspensionvertical displacements in rough transit, 'but they serve to give the'chassis itself an unusual degree-of torqueresistance,'torque applied on the midpart 89b from higher frame parts 115 tending not so much to twist midpart 89b on its own axis as to rotate it on an axis running through higher frame parts 115, and this rotation being resisted by the outwardly tapered side portions of the body bottom, by fioor 88 and by the'outward bulging shape of opp'osite sides of the body adjacent floor 88. Backbone midpart 8% somewhat resembles the keelson of a ship in its body-stiffening function and side members 111 are not parallel but are outwardly bowed between plates 113 and 114 to provide rigid support for a fulcrum in a system of suspension common to the four wheels. This system of suspension has features similar to those more fully described in my Patents Nos. 2,346,123 and 2,525,988, and my co-pending application Serial No. 170,897, filed June 28, 1950, now abandoned, but differing therefrom in that midpart 89bhousing suspension elements common to both front and rear pairs of roadwheels, is swaybacked between said pairs.

Tilting beam 116 is mounted in lengthwise tapered slot 117 of backbone midpart 89b to pivot on fulcrum 118 which lies in the transverse turning axis lm of the backbone .89. The front end of beam 116 is rigidly joined by yoke 119 to front suspension arms 120 and the rear end of beam 116 is rigidly joined by yoke 121 to rear suspension arms 122. Front suspension arms carry steering joints 123 and stub axles 124, and rear suspension arms have pivotal attachments 125 to the housing 126 for driving axles 127. Hydraulic shock absorbers 128 damp relative movements of the suspension arms to predetermined up and down movements in a radius centered on fulcrum 118. Rubber bushings around opposite ends of tilting beam 116 and between plates 113 and 114 are not here shown. Prime-mover 130 with mainshaft 131 is geared through change-speed mechanism and differential 132 'to driving axles 127 and theback end of this powerdrive unit is supportedby'transverse resilient member 133 and shackles 134 on and between rear terminal parts 115b. Front suspension arms are operatively connected with torque-arms 135 of torsion stabilizer 136 mounted on bushings 137 transversely of front terminal parts 115b. Fuel storage tank 138 with filling inlet 139 is supported on the backbone in counterbalance with waste-storage center of gravity low,

tank 8 and these tanks and their contents substantially below the tops of the roadwheels tend to serve as ballast in rough transit to counteract topheaviness of the body when double berths 60 are occupied high above the center of gravity of the body. It is to be noted that many of the heavier components of the housekeeping structure as herein described also are concentrated wholly or in part below a line level with the intermediate end decks of the body and by means of this ballast-all serving, in addition to ballast, other useful purposes-the center of gravity for a body much higher than wide is kept below that line.

In the chassis frame, principal crossmembers 140 taper outwardly and upwardly on opopsite sides of backbone 89, the deeper portions of crossmembers 140 being fixed to the backbone 89 as seen in Fig. 9. In cross section, crossmembers 140 in Fig. are shown as comprising triangular metal loops supporting decking 141 surfaced with floor covering 142 such as linoleum or carpet. Under decking 141, crossmembers 140 keyably support slabs 143 of lightweight ai'rcell insulation such as cork or a rigid foam of styrene resin or rubber. Outer ends of crossmembers 140 are fixed to sill members 144 which are supported in part by the outwardly bowed and forwardly and rearwardly bowed (or bulging) side stiifeners or ribs 145 fixed in shell 1 to and in part suspended from the topframe comprising longitudinal side members 98, crossties 146 and bracing blocks 147 which frame rectangular open areas in the roof structure, one NOPQ directly above front bedroom F and another PQRS directly above rear bedroom G. It is at this point that the body structure most deviates from common practice of superimposing the body load directly on the sills to which the main wheel-suspension elements (springs) are commonly attached.

As seen in Fig. 6, columns 21 directly support the topframe on backbone 89, several columns 21 being fixed transversely of the body between front wheelwells 94a, and several more similarly between rear wheelwells 94. Outwardly bulging or bowed rib-like side and end stiffeners 145 and sill members 144 can, therefore, be in part suspended from the topframe. The primary body framework is thus spaced from outwardly bowed intermediate upright parts of opposite sides and opposite ends of the shell and in this framework four columns 21 stand at the corners of a space having a rectangular horizontal cross section about half the width of the body. In all, seven columns 21 are fixed between backbone and topframe. Taken together as a unit, backbone columns and topframe comprise the inner framework that supports the outer shell on the roadwheels. Columns 21 may consist of relatively small diameter metal tubing since intermediate parts of each of the seven columns or posts are stiffened by web-like ties 22 fixed between said intermediate parts and the laterally spaced contiguous intermediate side and end parts of shell 1. These ties, if vertical, thus become bulkheads or, if horizontal, become floors and ceilings. In this manner the structure achieves a body utilizing curvilinear contours to achieve the most effective use and stiffness from thin sheet material covering ribs 145, and the most torque-resistance with least weight: this weight being under 8 tons for the entire vehicle furnished as described, and this for a vehicle intended for high speeds on the highway and intended to be driven off the highway and over rough terrain and thus being subject to greater twists and strains than a railcoach running on relatively smooth and level rails. To keep the it is to be noticed that the horizontal plane of greatest width and length is only slightly above the tops of the roadwheels, and below this plane the body is specially ballasted as described.

The framework just described also includes intermediate joist 148 supported by columns 21 substantially in the lengthwise center axis of the body at a level approximately midway between backbone and topframe.

The top edge of joist or web-like tie 148 supports the inner margin of ceiling having its outer margin fixed to horizontal stiffener 149fixed-to side ribs for one side of body shell 1; the bottom edge of joist 148 supporting inner margin of ceiling having outer margins fixed to another horizontal stiffener 149 fixed to ribs 145 on the opposite side of shell 1. Ribs 145 may be tubular or comprise elements formed in or joined to the rigid outer covering 10 of shell 1 like crossmembers 140 in the floor structure shown in Fig. 5. Like the floor, 0pposite sides and ends of the shell are insulated with material like that shown as 143. In addition to the bracings against distortion described, the body is also braced by the slight downward slope of the mainfioor from opposite ends thereof and toward transverse turning axis I-m, and by the oppositely slanted stairways, and by an outward bulge in the shell extending horizontally completely around the body, and by end decks fitting into this bulge.

Ceiling 100 on one side of the longitudinal center axis j-k is at story height above mainfioor 88, whereas ceiling 150 is at less than said height from the inainfloor on the opposite side of the axis except above bathroom E where the ceiling comprises the underside of dresser 63 except for diagonal well 151 over the entrance into the bathroom from the afterdeck. Lengthwise ceiling 100 extends between diagonal stairwells 101 and comprises the actual bottoms of end-to-end double legless bedlike berths 60. The portions of said ceilings 100 directly under said berths or beds 60 may be termed bed platforms, the structural elements 148, which may be rigid panels depending from the bed platforms, stiffening said bed platforms in a manner that is joist-like and serving to wall the passage or walkway extending along the long sidethe side of accessof beds 60. The clause depending from as here used has the meaning of extending downwardly from and it is seen in Fig. 9 that panels 148 extend lengthwise of beds 60 and downwardly from the bed platforms to the walkway. The trailer cross section in Fig. 18 may be similarly described. Upper surface of ceiling 150 is the upper story floor and may be referred to as a second-story passage of human adult erect height or walkway of full standing height and berths 60 are at slightly more than normal bed height above this floor. Floor space in lounge A under ceiling 150 has ample head-height to permit easy occupation of seats 14 and since these seats can only be used in seating posture the lack of full story head-height in the Pullman dining nook which seats 14 provide is not disadvantageous. Not only this dining nook, but cabinet 3, storage closet 4 and the dresser, sink, refrigerator and washing machine fixed in kitchenette C under ceiling 150 are directly accessible from the story-high areas under ceiling 100. The vertical space directly above the inner marginal parts of ceiling 150 in the upper story of the body may be normally slightly less than the height of the average adult American male in erect posture where it is necessary to meet limitations on overall height in transit imposed by statute. Even under such conditions, the central passage between opposite end decks in the upper story has ample head-height for women and children of average height or less in erect posture, and for anyone in sitting or reclining postureindividual privacy being the main purpose of the bedrooms: individual privacy in the midst of group occupation of the total structure, and concentrated in the smooth-riding area between front and rear road wheels.

Oif the highway the vertical space above the upper passage between the stairways is extensible by tilting upwardly either one or both closures 152 for areas NOPQ and PQRS. Taken together, both closures 152 cover most of the upper passage and adjusting the closures upwardly increases the vertical space of the passage to more than the standing height of the adult male. Suitable flyscreens and/or apertured side curtains (not shown) may be fastened over the openfgap thus formed between fixed parts of the roof and the upwardly adjusted closures 152 and the ventilation and'lightin g of the second 'story greatly increased. Or transparent portions 153 may be'provided in closures 152 for this purpose.

Heat that has risen to top of ceiling 100 may flow through opening closures or registers 154 to escape through apertures 97 or raised closures I52. Risers in front and rear stairs are inclined 'at an angle to increase treaddepth and t reduce the waste space usually found under Stairways; I Retractible chimney top 83 is shown in'Fi'g. 7 in raised position as suited to use off the highway, but in Fig. 8, radius r indicates how the chimney top 83 is turned down to retracted position shown in Fig. behind comb '81 and between openings 155 in'r'oofstep which serve in transit to ventilate the upper story. In the retracted position, orifice 156 in smoke pipe 31 is open in an area of subnormal air pressure or suction as described back of said comb in transit.

Fuel oil tank 157 is disposed under stairway and between inner sides of front wh'eelwells 94a. Ventilating-ducts 66 may be used to suck air fromor carry fresh air into the body by adjusting the trailing edge 163 of the sides of comb 81 as shown-in enlarged detail in Fig. 11 and Fig. 12 where the trailing edge 163 is seen to comprise a V-fiap with pivot 164 between outer wing 165 and inner wing 166. H Edge 167 of the outer wing rests normally on flange 168 and'flush with roof 169' forwardly of the flap. The inner wing has closable but normally fopen apertures 170 and edge 1 7'1 fit'sagainst shoulder 1-72 "in roof 169. When the "flap 'is in the position shown in Fig. 1l,'forward motion of the body causes the airstream to flow at super-normal pressure over roof 169 in direction of the arrow. The resulting sub-normal pressure created back of wing draws air from the interior of the body through opening 79 at lower end of duct 66 and upwardly and outthrough apertures "170. Close these apertures and" tilt flap to'positio'n shown in Fig. 1-2 and air at super-normal pressure is diverted downwardly through duct 66 and out through opening 79 into the body. This flap permits meeting the directly opposite conditions encountered in winter and summer driving.

Lavatory, sink and laundry tubs are connected through trap 173 and pipe 1'74 with waste tank 8 and the bathing receptacle is sufficiently raised "above the bottom crossmembers 140 to be i'ns'ula te'dan'd drain into the waste tank. Another wastetank 175 may serve the toiletstool 'to retain solid wastes temporarily. When the body is parked, all utilities available at a parking site, such as water under pressure, electricity, telephone and sanitary sewer, may be simply joinedto all utilities available in the body by-a unitary utilities connector (not'sho'wn) such as I described in Popular Science in 'the issue ofAugust 1934. In transit and when temporarily parked, tank 8 receives all fluid wastes in a sanitary m'annerand vented by stack 9 till they can be suitably voided; is obvious that availability of theprime mover in an automotive dwelling and housekeeping-structure provides means, when far from essential utilities,"for pumping a supply of waterinto the tan-ks described, 0fproducingelectricity for lights, radio and motors and utiliiing the waste heat of the prime-mover for space-heating and other purposes. Figs. 13-18 illustrate modific'ations'of the housekeepingstruct'ure thus far described as'particularlysuit'edto a road-vehicle having road-wheels fore and aft and a body auto-propulsive and capsule-shaped in horizontal section. Here Figures 13*18 emphasizemodifications that simplify and cheapen thehousekeepin'g structure as above described the better to adapt it to the mobile shelter 'needs' of'thepresent national emergency: thus, a housekeeping structure without auto-propulsion and having for an "outer housing a road vehicle body supported on tandem "pairs of roadwheels andhav ing a'trailer'coach hitch and in transit dimensions notexceedingthose legalffor com- 'rnon passage on the public highway. In 'thesedrawings housekeeping structure and road vehicle body housing shown in Figs. 13 and '14 is rectangular. Body 1' is made found in the drawings herein previously described except for the addition of a prime signifying that While I largely and nearly alike, the parts are not identical. Thus, only vital modifications and specific differences-and improvements need to be specially pointed out .in thealternate structure. I I

For easier manufacture, the horizontal section of the according to the invention to have the primary essentials of 'asanitary housekeeping structure concentrated closely on opposite sides of the transverse center body axisgt-t, including that end of lounge A entered by door 2? scarcely more than the doors width from that axis. "Forg ward deck B is up only a single riserfrommain'fioor 8'8" and is part of lounge A which extends lengthwise wholly on one side of axis t-t and has dining nook of thePullman type 176 consisting of seats 14 facing opposite sides of demountable table 16, the backcushio'ns 1.9"being combinable with bottoms of seats 14' to form double berth 176a between storage closet 4 and transverse bookshelves 177 open between nook 176 and deck 3' below ceiling 150'. On opposite side of axis tt kitchenette'Cf hasstorage closet 178 inaddition to most of the other components described and leads to deck D by single riser: deck D being here a child's room with a built-in tilt-down bed in a backward bulge of the end of the body and'storage closet 179 in space formerly occupied by bathroom E. In place of the two stairways 20 and in opposite ends of body, beyond wheelwells 94 and 94a, here a stairs 1800f four risers in axis t-trises tolanding 181 and to door a into lavatory *E'. From same land, ing 181, short oppositely .inclined' flights 182 of stairs lead up to two more doors, one into front bedroom F and the other into rear bedroom G on opposite'sides of axis t -t and each bedroom comprising a dresser, chair, storage'space much as previously described and each bedroom having a double berth the bottom of which is coincidental with ceiling extending at story height above the upper surface of floor 88. This floor at the I lowest level of floors at several levels in body ,1 extends over swaybacked topside of backbone 89 and floors. for bedrooms F and G constitute or are closely directly above ceilings which are at less than story height above floor 88. Since the space'directly under ceiling 150 is utilized fully by components of less than story height: i. e., bookshelves 177, dining nook 176, the three closets 4, 178 and 179 and the dresser worktop 39', sink 40 and mechanical washer with tub 42", all directly available from areas of full story height, no real loss of'floor area is occasioned by lowness of ceiling 150'. Change of lavatory E to entrance off stairs landing 181 also in axis tt, makes it possible for occupants of beds in four different rooms: i. e., bedrooms F and 'G, lounge A and afterdeck room D, to go to lavatory E and back without need of passing through these four rooms by any except the occupants thereof, kitchen C and a stairwell at the foot of and above stairs and landing 181'serving'asa common passage from each of the fourrooms to the'lavatory. Storage closet 183 having its bottom cut diagonally by the stairwell stands between bedrooms G and F. I The alternate body structure of Figs. 13-18 closely resembles that described with the following differences. Swaybacked backbone 89 extends from rear bumper 184 to and into front end trailer hitch 185 and in the same vertical plane as the longitudinal center axis jk throughout its entire length. Instead of 7 posts 21 be-.

tween backbone and topframe, here six posts 21 are concentrated between and'extend below the tops of wheel- -wells 186 centrally of body 1', the wheelwells housing two pairs of roadwheels 108 each supported for rota- "tion-at the swinging end of torque-arm 187 having its opposite end keyed to torque rods (not shown) in tubular casing 188 in a manner similar to that described in claim 11 of my Patent No. 2,194,964, and casing 188 passing through swaybacked midpart 189 of backbone 89 and having opposite ends supported by bottom frame members 190 which form the lower inner sides of wheelwells 186 and have opposite ends fixed to and between a pair o f crossmembers 140. The topside of midpart 189 is one riser lower than terminal parts 191 supporting fore and after decks B and D and this permitsthe upper surface of mainfioor 88 extending over said topside to be suspended at a general level at least 6" lower than average while maintaining ground clearance under end decks B and D greater than the average found in todays trailer coaches. This is achieved by the abruptly upward-extending slants 192 given primary parts of backbone 89 beyond opposite ends of swaybacked midpart 189 thereof. Unlike slants given adjacent one end of todays automotive chassis members to achieve added vertical space for the displacements of driving axles, slants 192 serve the primary purpose of achieving greater ground clearance in passage over rough terrain under end portions of the chassis than under intermediate parts thereof. Four posts 21 support upper framework directly on swaybacked midpart 189, the upper framework including crossties 146 fixed between side members 98.

As seen in Fig. 17, backbone 89 consists of two principal members: upper member 193 and lower member 194: in this instance, both being metal channels spaced back to back and fixed immediately above and below midsections of crossmembers 140 which are also metal channels extending between sill members 144. On the upper flange of crossmembers 140 are fastened spaced nailer members 195 to which floor 88 is secured. Should steel for channel crossmembers 14-0 and sill angles 144" become unavailable, due to the emergency, hardwood cross members may be substituted for the channels and angles and the floor given a slight crown extending in axis '---k for added stiffness (not shown). Upon the platform of this chassis substructure, the superstructure of studs 196 holding outer facing 10' and inner covering 197 are secured.

Tilt-down bed 198 is shown in retracted position in bulging end of body in childs room (deck D). Door 199 swinging on post 21 in axis jk separates the kitchen and cooking means from the stairwell between the kitchen and lounge A. From Figs. 13 and 14 it is seen that each of the five compartments A, C, E, F and G have doorways on a single passage which permits direct private passage erectly from any one of said five compartments to and into another without invading the privacy of the other three compartments.

Fig. 18 shows the two-story structure of body 1 with lower and upper passages of story height, lettered X and Y respectively, passage Y extending between upperstory body portions Z having less than story-height bordering opposite sides of upper passage Y at different levels, the bed 60 with structural sides 148 supporting ceiling 100 covering substantially all the bottom of each secondstory bed 60 at story height above lower-story portions of the body. A pair of adjacent beds 60 are separated by stairwell 101. Steps 182 and landing 181 may be described collectively as a length of upper passage Y extending at lower levels between ends of beds 60'. Opposite ends of upper passage Y comprise floor on ceiling 150 and extending to the side of body across passage Y from beds 60 in the less than story-high second-story body-portions Z bordering opposite sides of passage Y at different levels on opposite sides of lavatory E. Off landing 181 is fixed portion 51 of floor of the smallest room in the body. lavatory E, most of the floor area thereof being made up of sequentially openable floor sections 52 resting on flange 53' of body-bathing receptacle 53", here a five-foot tub fixed below level of floor 51 and above wells for roadwheels 108. In other respects 12 the structure follows that previously described except that for clarity, posts 21 have been omitted. Stairwell 101 separates berth-like beds 60.

From this description, it is apparent that the structure achieves each of the stated objects of the invention. My housekeeping structure, as herein defined, specifically differentiates from the automotive camping vehicles and housecars of prior art by concentrating all essentials for family housekeeping and individual privacy closely on opposite sides of the transverse center axis of a sway-backed bottom frame and directly above the swaybacked central midportion thereof. It effectively separates the cooking means from those other parts of the structure devoted to the other activities of family dwelling thereby implementing every housekeeping need for a family of twice average American size whether in swift movement over a smooth highway or in passage over rough terrain.

Because of my invention it is no longer necessary to strive toward higher standards of individual privacy in group habitation by increasing the length of road vehicle bodies, such as trailer coaches, to the point where they become a hazard on the public highway. As many as four double berths, each berth in a room wholly separated and spaced from the others by a kitchen, a stairwell and lavatory, provides in a manner nowhere taught by the prior art for that particular combination of facilities for group intimacy and individual privacy in family habitation which have become in America the primary essential of civilized domesticity. By my invention, a housekeeping structure is achieved that can provide for the temporary emergency dwelling needs of a nation threatened by war and atomic annihilation of our congested urban centers and this in a vehicle not exceeding dimensions legal of common passage on the highway, yet having means implementing a greater degree of individual privacy than is today possible in 2-3-4 room urban apartments costing much more and requiring the use of more critical materials and manpower. Thus, by my invention and the modifications and improvements herein described, I have provided a form of shelter so compact, yet so effectively subdivided by parts of the furniture" and the like, and so well heated and ventilated and equipped with sanitary facilities as to constitute a truly new form of shelter.

Study of the prior art fails to discover a single instance of the several compartments of a sanitary and spacesaving family housekeeping structure having sizes approaching those commonly accepted as minimal for health and decency in fixed houses, and of these compartments being concentrated in the smooth-riding zone between the back of the front wheels and the front of the rear wheels of a road vehicle. Yet even this is possible in my structure by an increase in length of as little as 46 ft. It is recognized that swaybacked bottoms have been proposed for rail vehicles where there was no problem of ground clearance in passage over rough terrain, but the novelty of my structure resides in concentrating a space-saving housekeeping structure in the swaybacked midpart of a road-vehicle much higher than wide while maintaining adequate stability, road clearance and torqueresistance for my structure when driven off the highway and over rough terrain.

The invention makes possible for the first time a housesized housekeeping structure intended to be wholly completed in the factory, delivered on its own power or towed as a trailer behind a family car (as has been done with a prototype of this structure, a unit which has been lived in summer and winter constantly for the past ten years), and sold and financed without land entanglement, used with a minimum of manipulation, repossessed, traded in and resold exactly like a motorcar. My invention not only implements the current need for large numbers of housekeeping structures for temporary emergency use, but it provides an adequate type of shelter for our growing mobility, our growing use of leisure in vacationing farfrom the maddening crowd. And finally, in an atomic era, when the threat of attack hangs over our congested areas, my housekeeping structureprovides a mobile form of dwelling that can stay parked as long as it behooves the occupants interests to remain or that can vacate areas immediately threatened with atomic attack and effectively house the diffusion which is being recogniz ed'as the only effective life-saver in an atomic era.

The drawings, being illustrative only, are more or less diagrammatic in character to show the preferred relation of the parts to the whole and it is to be observed that changes may be made in certain parts without vitally altering the character of the whole or departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as set'forth in the appended claims, and it will be understood that any of the variants and modifications in the structure of my housekeeping structures described-may be used separately or in any desired combination and that all changes which come within the meaning and range of-equivalency of the'claims are therefore intended to be embraced therein.

Having thus broadly defined and fully described my invention, its utility both when in use in swift passageof a public'highway and when parked over rough terrain, and its novel structure, what I claim and desire tosecure by Letters Patent of the United States is:

1. In a housekeepingstructure having a road vehicle bottom, pairs of sill members spaced on each of opposite sides of said bottom, and a single keelson-like backbone fixed between opposite end portions of the bottom and in the lengthwise center axis thereof, and widely spaced cross-members fixed between said pairs, each crossmember having a midportion caughtthroug'h a transversely open space between rigid top and bottom longitudinalmembers of the backbone, and a floor-oversaid backbone and said cross-members.

2. A house-trailer comprising "a body having primary ground support on road-wheels each positioned rearward of the transverse center axis of the body, the vertical space between thetop and bottom of the bodyat said axis of more than one but less than 'two stories, and said bottom including a chassis frame having a topside at difierent levels lengthwise of the body, the upper of said levels abruptly directly descending to a swaybacked'lower level extending fore and aft of said roadwheels, a berth fixed well above the center of gravity of the body, a ceiling for a story-high division of the body on one side of said axis, a stairway in said axis and leading "to a-floor alongside said berth andsubstantially below said ceiling, and the bottom of said berth supporting said ceiling.

3. In a housekeeping road vehicle, a body having 'between-two major story-high subdivisions'of room size a stairway rising to a landing from which straight ahead an opening closure gives access to a story-high lesser subdivision, and from which landing, to right and left, steps and risers lead to floors fixed well below ceilings for such major subdivisions; said lesser subdivision housing a sanitary fixture above a floor having sequentially removable sections resting on a flange of a body-bathing receptacle; and berths extending alongside said floors and having side members supporting said ceilings.

4. A pair of adjacent berth-like beds, substantially all the bottoms thereof comprising a ceiling at story height in lower-story portions of a two-story housekeeping road vehicle for common highway transit, one bed of said pair separated from the other by, and having one long side of access along, means of erect adult passage extending between upper-story body portions having less than story height bordering opposite sides of said passage at different levels, the other bed of said pair having one long side accessible from another length of said passage at the same general level below said ceiling.

5. A pair of berth-like beds well above the center of gravity of a two-story road vehicle body for common highway transit, said beds each having one long side of access along a passage of adult walking height extending between second-story body portions having less than adult walking height bordering opposite sideso'f said passage at dilferent'levels, nearly all the bottom of each of said beds being substantially coincidental with the ceiling of a lower-story portion of the body of story height, and one of said beds separated from the other bed by the width of a stairwell for means of passage, T-shaped in plan, extending between said lower-story portion of the body and said second-story body portions.

'6. The structure of claim 5 wherein the center of gravity of said beds is lowered by a chassis .frame having a sway-backed midpart extending on opposite sides of said stairwell.

7. The structure of claim 5 wherein said center of gravity is lowered by a body bottom comprisingpairs of sill members, the components of each of said .pairs being spaced on opposite sides of said bottom and extending at different levels ahead of and behind roadwheels supporting said structure, the topsides of .said sills near said roadwheels extending at general levels below the higher level sills space-d further from said roadwheels and the lower topsides of said sills abruptly upward extending to said higher level sills.

8. A two-story housekeeping structure in a road-vehicle body not exceeding dimensions legal of common passage'on the public highway, said structure comprising an upper passage extending well below lower-story ceilings of story height and vertically accommodating erect adult posture between second-story portions of the body of less than story height bordering opposite sides-of said passage at different levels, a pair of second storybe'rths resting'on said ceilings, and said body subdivided into --five dwelling compartments ofhouse-trailer room size, 'eachroom having for one wall the exterior wall of the body pierced by a window, and the smaller of said compartments secludedly housing a sanitary receptacle of bathroom fixture type, said upper passage being connected with a lower-story passage of story height to ,give private access to said smaller compartment and said receptacle from each of the other four larger compartmentswithout invasion of' privacy of the other three compartments.

9. In the body of a mobile dwelling not exceeding a size legal for common highway transit as a road vehicle and having separate upper and lower story compartments, said upper story and lower story compartments including portions of full standing height and portions of less than full standing height, bed platforms in said portion's of said upper story compartments-of less-than full standing height serving as bottoms for said upper story compart-rnents and ceilings for the said portions of said-lower story compartments of full standing height, beds on 'said platforms, said upper story compartments having a walkway of full standing height extending alongside said beds lengthwise thereof at a'level lower than saidplat- 'fior'ms, panels extending fromsaid bed platforms down to "said walkway and extending lengthwise of said beds stiffening said platforms and serving to wall said walkway of full standing height below said platform, components of another bed in one of said lower story compartment portions of less than full standing height, a sanitary receptacle of the bathroom fixture type secludedly housed in one of said body portions of full standing height, and means of private passage of full standing height extending between said secludedly housed sanitary receptacle and said compartments housing said beds and said bed components.

10. In a two-story housekeeping road vehicle having upper and lower story compartments and partitions be tween the compartments, said upper and lower story compartments including portions of full standing height and portions of less than full standing height, bed platforms in said portions of said upper story compartments of less than full standing height serving as bottoms for said upper story compartments and ceilings for said portions of said lower story compartments of full standing height,

beds on said platforms, said upper story compartments having a walkway of full standing height extending alongside said beds lengthwise thereof at a level lower than said platforms, a length of said walkway in one of said upper story compartments extending directly between two of said upper story portions of less than full standing height bordering opposite sides of said walkway, panels extending from said bed platforms down to said walkway and a pair of said partitions extending in spaced relation between two of said beds to increase the privacy between the occupants thereof.

11. In a two-story housekeeping road vehicle for common highway transit and having upper and lower story compartments, said upper and lower story compartments including portions of full standing height and portions of less than full standing height, bed platforms in said portions of said upper story compartments of less than full standing height serving as bottoms for said upper story compartments and ceilings for said portions of said lower story compartments of full standing height, beds on said platforms, said upper story compartments having a walkway of full standing height extending alongside said beds lengthwise thereof at a level lower than said platforms, a length of said walkway in one of said upper story compartments extending directly between two of said upper story portions of less than standing height bordering opposite sides of said walkway, and panels extending from said bed platforms down to said walkway and extending lengthwise of said beds stifliening said platforms and serving to wall said walkway of full standing height below said platforms.

12. The structure of claim 11 wherein other of said second-story portions having less than story height comprise enclosures for clothes of the clothes closet and dresser types extending across said passage from said beds.

13. The structure of claim 11 wherein another of said second-story portions having less than story height comprises a floor area merging with said passage across from one of said beds and of sufiicient size to support a legged chair directly accessible from said passage.

14. The structure of claim 11 wherein a midpant of said upper passage comprises means of passage directly to said lower story portions of full standing height.

15. A two-story housekeeping road vehicle body for common highway transit and having upper and lower story compartments and partitions between the compartments, said upper and lower story compartments including portions of full standing height and portions of less than full standing height, bed platforms in said portions of said upper story compartments of less than full standing height serving as bottoms for said upper story compartments and ceilings for the said portions of said lower story compartments of full standing height, beds on said platforms, said upper story compartments having a walkway of full standing height extending alongside said beds lengthwise thereof at a level lower than said bed platforms, two of said partitions extending in spaced relation crosswise of the body in the upper story between said beds, panels extending from said bed platforms down to said walkway and serving to wall said walkway of full standing height below said platforms, each of five of said compartments having a doorway in one of said partitions, and a passageway of full standing height extending directly between the five doorways to permit private passage from any one of said five compartments to and into another thereof without invading the privacy of the other three compartments.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS D. 148,807 MacDonald Feb. 24, 1948 424,475 Harriman Apr. 1, 1890 1,021,124- Wolfi Mar. 26, 1912 1,096,174 Jones May 12, 1914 1,197,074 Steffans Sept. 5, 1916 1,217,174 Hedley et al Feb. 27, 1917 1,658,110 Warren Feb. 7, 1928 1,796,112 McArthur Mar. 10, 1931 1,798,542 Koch et a1 Mar. 31, 1931 2,074,354 Ash Mar. 23, 1937 2,141,781 Allen Dec. 27, 1938 2,144,889 Moodie Jan. 24, 1939 2,173,727 Ramstrum Sept. 19, 1939 2,228,732 R-abe Ian. 14, 1941 2,247,273 Blomberg June 24, 1941 2,247,340 Webster June 24, 1941 2,346,123 Willson Apr. 4, 1944 2,455,429 Lucien Dec. 7, 1948 2,497,072 Cooper Feb. 14, 1950 2,577,836 Willson Dec. 11, 1951 2,589,894 Ten Eyck Mar. 18, 1952 FOREIGN PATENTS 547,342 Germany Mar. 31, 1932 183,092 Switzerland June 2, 1936 OTHER REFERENCES Article, Shape Engineering, in The Architectural Forum, January 1943, pgs. 5960.

Article, Structural Mobility: Two-Story Mobile House, in The Architectural Record, I uly 1936, pgs. 64-65.

Camp Car, in Motor Vehicle Monthly of November 1927, pg. 32.

Custom Built House Car, in Autobody and Reconditioned Car, of June 1941, vol. XX, No. 6, pgs. 16 and 32.

Nitecoach," article, in Motor Vehicle Monthly" of September 28, 1928, vol. 64, No. 6, pgs. 21-23.

Article, A Motorlounge, in The Autocar" of December 18, 1936, page 1212.

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U.S. Classification296/156, 52/198, 52/218, 52/66
International ClassificationB60P3/32
Cooperative ClassificationB60P3/32
European ClassificationB60P3/32