US 2744624 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May '8; 1956 E. HOOGSTOEL El'AL v2,744,624
PACKAGING DEVICE Filed Nov. 12, 1954 v 2 Sheets-Sheet l INVENTOR S LEON E. HOOGSTOEL COLIN A. ROSS ATTORNEY May 8, 1956 L. E. HOOGSTOEL ETAL 2,744,624
PACKAGING DEVICE Filed Nov. 12, 1954 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTORS LEON E. HOOGSTOEL COLIN A. ROSS BY%/df9/ ATTORNEY United States Patent PACKAGING DEVICE Leon E. Hoogstoel and Colin A. Ross, Troy, N. Y., as-
signors, by mesne assignments, to Norton Company, Worcester, Mass., a corporation of Massachusetts Application November 12, 1954, Serial No. 468,207
6 Claims. (Cl. 206-65) The present invention relates in general to a packaging device adapted for use in the packaging of multiple arti cles, and more particularly to a device adapted to hold such articles against movement during handling and to cushion the articles against shock incident to such handling.
It has heretofore been recognized as desirable in the art to provide cushioning means for fragile or frangible articles packed in units of one or more to a package. Excelsior, shredded rubber, paper and the like have been used for this purpose with some success but many attendant disadvantages. Materials of this sort are bulky to store and tend to create a nuisance through scattering during packaging or unpackaging of the article or articles.
Likewise, the desirability of preventing lateral or vertical shifting of articles within a package has been recognized, and the above materials have also been used for this purpose. Use has also been made, in this connection, of relatively-rigid, preformed dividers or spacers, particularly where the packaging involves a plurality of articles of the same or similar dimensions. The use of such spacers with articles of varying sizes requires the keeping of a large stock of different size spacers with attendant cost and storage problems.
One solution to the problem of shifting would be the use of adhesive to secure the articles to a support, and several devices of this type, utilizing gummed or pressure-sensitive adhesives, have been suggested. None of these, whether completely coated or coated with a patterned adhesive e. g. adhesive laid down in spaced strips, have met with wide acceptance by the trade due to the tendency of substantial amounts of the adhesive to come off on the articles held thereby, to the tendency of transitincurred shocks to be transmitted through the adhesivelycoated supports to the articles held thereon with resulting damage to such articles, and to the inability of such devices to handle articles of uneven surface contour.
Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide a packaging means capable of overcoming the above-mentioned disadvantages of the prior art.
It is a further object of the invention to provide an economical, easily-stored and efficient packaging device capable of holding and cushioning articles of the same or varying sizes during shipment within a container.
Another object of the invention is to provide a packaging means embodying a pressure-sensitive adhesive as one of the major components thereof.
Still a further object of the invention is to provide a pressure-sensitive adhesive-coated packaging means which is shock-absorbing, and which will firmly hold articles of varying sizes and uneven surface contours without the transfer of objectionable amounts of adhesive to such articles.
Additional objects, if not specifically set forth herein,
will be readily apparent to one skilled in the art from the following detailed description of the invention:
In the drawings:
, Figure 1 is a schematic illustration of the basic elements of the packaging means of the present invention.
Figure 2 is a perspective view of the preferred type of packaging means of the invention.
Figure 3 illustrates schematically the manner in which articles of irregular surface contour are held in place by the preferred device of the present invention.
Figure 4 is a perspective view of one form of the present invention immediately prior to its being utilized in the formation of a package.
Figure 5 is a perspective, partially-exploded view of the packaging device of this invention as a component of a partially-completed package.
Figure 6 illustrates one modification of the invention.
Figure 7 represents another modification of the form of the packaging device of the present invention.
Generally, the present invention contemplates the provision of a packaging means having a plurality of spaced, raised, pressure sensitive adhesive-coated, resilient, article-contacting members whereby articles held thereon are cushioned against shock and are held by many contacts of limited area to decrease or substantially eliminate transfer of adhesive to such articles. Preferably such areas are relatively narrow, parallel and uni-directional continuous, although discontinuous and non-parallel areas may also be used.
More specifically, referring now to Figure 1 of the drawings, the present invention contemplates in its preferred form the provision of a corrugated-type material of a resilient nature 10, such as a good grade of kraft paper or the like formed into corrugations in any manner known to the art, with a relatively thin coating (e. g. 0.002 to 0.004") of a pressure-sensitive type of adhesive 11, said adhesive being preferably applied solely to the crests of the corrugations, on one side only of the material. The corrugated material may be secured, on the surface opposite the pressure sensitive adhesive-coated surface, to any suitable backing, as for example kraft paper, to form single face corrugated board as illustrated in Figure 2, or to a more rigid or more flexible backing as may be desired. In some instances it may be desirable to use the corrugated material without any backing whatsoever, but in all instances, one face of the corrugated material must be open to receive the pressure sensitive adhesive coating.
The corrugated material illustrated in Figure 2 is standard single face having a liner or backing of kraft, bogus or sulphite, approximately 0.009" thick and a kraft, chip,
chestnut or straw 0.009" corrugating medium. The corrugations may be varied if desired, but .the usual A-flute (36 flutes/lineal foothigh) or B-fiute (50 flutes/- lineal foot- A to Ms" high) have been found to give good results.
By forming a packaging device in the above-described manner, three important results are achieved. Firstly, the placing of articles to be packaged on the pressure-sensitive adhesive-coated surface causes the corrugations to be compressed to some extent but, due to the fact that there are a plurality of such corrugations, a certain amount of compressibility and resiliency remains. This provides a cushioning effect which will take up shocks ithout transmitting them in their entirety to the packaged articles. Secondly, due to the presence of adhesive on the tips of the corrugations, the pressure of irregular-surfaced articles on such corrugations causes. a deformation of the corrugation in what amounts to a mirror image of the surface irregularities of the article itself. By virtue of this property, all edges of the article are securely and firmly held to the adhesive-coated surface. Reference to Figure 3 of the drawings illustrates this second feature of the invention. The corrugations 13, carrying coating of pressure-sensitive adhesive at the crests 14 thereof, are depressed when an article such as a cup 15 is placed thereon. Surface irregularities 16 in the 8dhCSllC-CO11- tacting surface of the cup are mirrored in the adhesivecoated corrugations and result in a firm uniform bond between the cup and the corrugated member. Thirdly, by virtue of having the adhesive on spaced, raised projections of the backing sheet, only a relatively small amount of adhesive actually contacts the surface of the article packaged, and transferrence of the adhesive to the article is substantially eliminated.
In manufacturing the packaging device of the present invention, the pressure sensitive adhesive may be applied to the tips or crests of the corrugations in a number of ways, as by brushing, reverse roll-coating, metered calender rolls or the like. Preferably, a continuous length of the corrugated material, with or without a backing member secured to one face thereof, is run through a reverse roll coater of the type commonly used to apply gummed adhesive to labels or the like; the pressure sensitive adhesive applied thereby; a protective liner placed over the adhesive-coated surface; and the material rolled into large rolls for future cutting into the desired packagesize increments.
As a pressure sensitive adhesive for the corrugations, it is desirable that the Well-known rubber base type be used. Many variations in such compositions are known to the art and may be employed to suit the desired end result as to tack, aging properties, stain resistance or the like. Typical adhesive compositions which will give good results are illustrated in U. S. Patents Nos. 2,156,380; 2,415,901; 2,416,925; and others. Alternatively, it has been found that the following pressure sensitive adhesive compositions will give good results:
COMPOSITION A Parts by weight Smoked sheet 100 Zinc oxide 5O Dehydroabietic acid 85 Alkylated polyhdroxy phenol (antioxidant) 2 Lanolin 3 Tolusol, for 40% solids.
COMPOSITION B Smoked sheet 100 Heptane, for 35% solids.
While the pressure sensitive adhesive is generally applied directly to the tips or crests of the corrugations, it
is within the scope of the present invention to first apply a bonding or primer coat to the corrugations to incr'osc the nond between the corrugations and the adhesive. lvjtfij types of primers are known to the art and a selec tion of the one best fitted for the particular adhesive mass "-d may readily be done by one skilled in the art. Typii examples or primers which are satisfactory for this purpose are illustrated below:
COMPOSITION A-l Parts by weight Smoked sheet Dixie clay 100 Zinc resinate 50 Alkylated polyhydroxy phenol (antioxidant) 1 Tolusol, for 40% solids.
COMPOSITION B-l Tolusol for 40% solids.
As above-stated, the packaging device of the present invention is preferably prepared with a temporary liner covering the adhesive-coated surface. Such construction is shown in Figure 4 of the drawings with the liner 20 pa tially removed from the adhesive-coated side 21 of the corrugated member 22. This liner is preferably made of a tough, cheap, easily-disposable material such as paper, embossed polyethylene or the like, which may be treated to have only a slight afiinity for the particular pressure sensitive mass on the corrugations. This is accomplished by coating the face of the liner in contact with the adhesive with any suitable release agent as, for example those illustrated in U. S. Patents Nos. 2,395,668; 2,496,349; and 2,548,980. The embossed polyethylene is generally satisfactory without the application of any release coating to the face of the liner. The liner serves to protect the pressure sensitive adhesive from dirt, dust or the like, and also to prevent damage to the corrugations prior to actual use of the device in the formation of a package.
In use, the device of the present invention finds its greatest application in the packaging of fragile articles, such as china, glassware or the like, wherein a number of such articles are placed in the same container. For example, referring to Figure 5, glass tumblers 30 are placed on the adhesive-covered corrugations 31 of a device 32, made in accordance with the present invention, and placed in a conventional shipping carton 33. Handholds 34 are usually cut in the packaging device as illustrated to provide for ease of removal from the container. As illustrated in Figure 5, a plurality of layers of the combined packaging device of this invention and its as soeiated load of articles supported thereon may be contained within the same package. It is frequently desirable to provide two of the packaging devices of the present invention per layer of articles packaged, i. e. one member at the base and one at the top of the articles with the adhesive surface of each of such members against the articles. Also illustrated in Figure 5 is a further modification of the invention wherein flock 35 or other decorative material of a similar nature, i. e. short fibers or granules, has been applied to the adhesive-coated corrugations not covered by the articles mounted on the packaging device. By this added feature, the entire layer, i. c.
packaging device plus associated articles, may be removed from the package and placed directly on a retailers shelf to form an attractive display item. The flock, in addition to being decorative, serves to cover the tacky adhesive and prevent adhesion of dirt, dust or the like to the display item. Articles sold may easily be detached from the surface of the packaging device, and either replaced with a similar article or the adhesive thus exposed covered by additional flock or other decorative material.
Due to the limited adhesive area resulting from the coating being applied to the crests of the corrugations, the tendency for adhesive to come off on the articles removed from the device is materially reduced. Variations in the particular adhesive mass, and the use of a primer will also aid in this respect.
A number of severe packaging tests have been conducted on fragile articles packaged in accordance with the present invention and illustrate the advantages enumerated hereinbefore. The following examples are illustrative of some of the tests which have been conducted:
Example I Packages were made up of china cups and glass tumblers in accordance with the present invention, utilizing the preferred form of packaging device illustrated in Figure 2 of the drawings. The packaging devices of the present invention were cut to fit the corrugated cartons used and packed as indicated below. The corrugated material was standard single face having a thin (0.002 to 0.004") coating of a rubber-resin type pressure sensitive adhesive on the crests of the corrugations only. In each case a 200# test corrugated carton was the container, and the drops referred to in the following table mean drops taking place in a conventional seven foot diameter tumbling drum:
Package Drops Results 366 No shifting and no A. Single layer of 12 five ounce glass breakage.
tumblers-Packaging device of Fig. 2 applied to top and bottom of layer. B. Sin le layer of 12 eleven ounce cupstumblers alternately-each tier mounted top and bottom to a paekaging device similar to that of Fig. 2.
Example 11 To illustrate the capability of the devices of the present invention to prevent shifting and breakage of heavy articles, a plurality (48) of 4 ounce (liq.) screw top glass jars were filled with fine flint abrasive and packaged as in C of Example I in two tiers of 24 jars each. Each jar Weighed approximately 6 ounces. A drum test was run as in Example I, and after 198 drops the carton was opened to show no breakage or signs of shifting of the ars. 1 While as stated herein, it is preferred to coat only the tips or crests of the corrugations with pressure sensitive adhesive, it is possible to have the adhesive also in the valleys of the corrugations. This is generally uneconomical since the articles to be packaged will not be in contact with the adhesive except at the crests of the corrugations, but may be desirable if flock is to be applied, in order to obtain a uniform ornamental coating over the exposed surfaces.
While the foregoing has been directed to the use of corrugated board as a base for the adhesive coating, it is also within the scope of the invention to utilize spaced raised areas of a shape other than the narrow, uni-directional-continuous corrugations described above. Referring now to Figure 6 of the drawings, 40 represents a sheet material of kraft paper, strawboard, plastic or the like which has been deformed to provide a plurality of spaced, raised projections 41, giving the surface of the sheet a pebbled appearance. The pressure sensitive adhesive coating 42 is applied to the crests of these projcctions to complete the modified form of the packing device of the present invention.
Also, another modification of the invention may comprise the provision of other than parallel corrugations. In Figure 7, the backing sheet 50 has been formed with grid or wattle-type projections 51 on the surface thereof, the crests of which are likewise coated with a pressure sensitive adhesive layer 52.
In forming the backing members illustrated in the preferred form of the invention and also in the various modifications hereinbefore referred to, it will be understood that where the terminology raised members, projections, crests or the like is used, such terminology is intended to cover the situation wherein the backing sheet is subjected to a die stamping or other treatment designed to depress all but selected spaced areas as well as the more normal procedure of raising the spaced areas above the plane of the rest of the backing sheet.
Obviously, many other modifications and variations of the invention as hereinbefore set forth may be made without departing from the spirit and scope thereof, and therefore only such limitations should be imposed as are indicated in the appended claims.
1. A packaging device comprising: a backing member having a plurality of spaced, raised, compressible and resilient areas; and a pressure-sensitive adhesive covering the upper portion only of said raised areas.
2. A packaging device comprising: a backing member having at least one face containing a plurality of spaced, raised, compressible and resilient projections; a coating of pressure sensitive adhesive applied to the tops only of the projections on one face only of such member; and a protective removable liner applied to said one face over said pressure sensitive adhesive coating.
3. A packaging means, wound upon itself in roll form, comprising: a long, continuous, flexible, corrugated backing, the corrugations of which are compressible; a coating of pressure-sensitive adhesive applied to the crests only of the corrugations on one face only of said backing; and a protective removable liner having only slight afiinity for said pressure-sensitive adhesive applied over said adhesive.
4. A package element comprising in combination: a backing member having a plurality of spaced, raised, compressible and resilient, pressure-sensitive adhesive-coated areas, said member between said spaced, raised areas being free of pressure-sensitive adhesive; and a plurality of articles afiixed in spaced relationship on said member, with those surfaces of such articles which are in contact with said member contacting only and at least partially compressing the spaced, raised, resilient pressure-sensitive adhesive-coated areas thereof, the surfaces of such articles immediately adjacent such contacting surfaces being adhesive-free.
5. A package comprising in combination: a container; and a plurality of packaging elements disposed Within said container in superposed relationship; said packaging elements each comprising a member having at least one compressible corrugated face having a pressure-sensitive adhesive coating on the raised portion of said corrugations only of one face only thereof, and a plurality of articles afiixed in spaced relationship to one another on said member by contact only with said adhesive-coated corrugations, said articles at least partially compressing said corrugations and being free of adhesive immediately adjacent the points of contact between said articles and said corrugations.
6. A package element comprising in combination: a backing member having a plurality of spaced, raised, resilient, pressure-sensitive adhesive-coated areas; a plurality of articles affixed in spaced relationship on said member with those surfaces of such articles which are in contact with said member contacting only the spaced, raised, resilient, pressure-sensitive adhesive-coated areas thereof; and a coating of decorative material applied over and adhering to the adhesive-coated portions of the backing member remaining exposed after said articles are affixed to said member.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Hayden et a1 June 7, 1932 McManus et al July 6, 1943 Scholl Ian. 3, 1950 OBrien Dec. 11, 1951 FOREIGN PATENTS Great Britain 1913