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Publication numberUS2744738 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMay 8, 1956
Filing dateJan 27, 1953
Priority dateJan 27, 1953
Publication numberUS 2744738 A, US 2744738A, US-A-2744738, US2744738 A, US2744738A
InventorsJulius A Hjulian
Original AssigneeCrane Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Aerator device
US 2744738 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

J. A'. HJULIAN AERATOR vDEVICE May 8, 1956 I5 Sheets-Sheet l Filed Jan. 27, 1953 May 8, 1956 J. A. HJULIAN 2,744,738

AERATOR DEVICE Filed Jan. 27, 195s s sheets-sheet 2 J. A. HJULIAN AERATOR DEVICE May 8, 1956 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed Jan. 27, 1953 9 lge/Z407? ma W .AERATOR DEVICE Julius A. Hjulian, Palos Heights, Ill., assignorto Crane Co., Chicago, Ill., a corporation of Illinois Application January 27, 1953, Serial No. 333,577

7 Claims. (Cl. 261-115) This invention relates to a device for m'ming air or other gases with liquids, and more particularly pertainsto aerators for admixing air with water passing through conduits, valves, faucets or the like discharging preferably to atmosphere.

Up to the present time, it should be noted that aerators have been of somewhat complex structure, frequently requiring the use of a number of internal parts assembled in avv particular arrangement or manner. It has been necessary to mount these parts Vin a depending member, secured to the end of a faucet spout, for example, in which special ports have been provided in the side or top of the device for the admission of air for the aeration process. There has been a tendency for these air ports to catch and collect dirt, grease, `and even soap suds wherethe user has accidentally come in Contact with the side of the device while lathering his hands, for instance. Many of the prior aerators are peculiarly subject to clogging because of their use of screens and perforated plates andv restrictions generally, and in all cases, there has been the danger of burns to the face, for instance, and damage from streams of hot water being forced out through the air ports by the formation lof back pressure for several reasons.

' The present invention is for an aeratorof comparatively simple design and having a minimum of parts. The air ports formerly accepted as being necessary to proper aeration, have been eliminated and an imperforate tube or the spout itself employed vfor suitable housing purposes.

It has been found that effective aeration can be produced by the use, within such housing means, of a hollow member having an open bottom and a plurality of openings or orificesleading into the hollow interior, the orifices being suficiently large to prevent clogging and further being angularly disposed with respect to the longitudinal axis of the member or to the direction of downstream` flow from the open bottom thereof. This aerator member need not be contained in a depending tube or housing, but as already suggested may be inserted within the discharge end of the fluid line or spout. The latter arrangement besides being more economical avoids previous unsightliness and further, the extension of the spout or tap with possible danger of back siphonage and contamination of the water system in certain installations. The present device is more sanitary .in all respects.

Other objects and advantages will become more readily apparent upon proceeding with the following description read in light of the accompanying drawings, in which Fig. l is an enlarged fragmentary sectional view of a preferred form of an aerator device according to this invention.

Fig. 2 is a sectional view taken on line 2 2 of Fig. 1.

Fig. 3 is a sectional View at the same location as for Fig. 2 but showing an alternate form of flow guide.

Figs. 4 to 1l inclusive are fragmentary sectional views of modified forms of aerators embodying my invention.'

Fig. 12 is a transverse sectionalview taken on line 12--12 of Fig. 11.

ber of Fig. 14. Fig. 16 illustrates another shower or spray head,'a'daptai` E.

' the spout.


Fig. 14 is a transverse view taken on line' 14414.7of Fig. 13. p lj t Fig. 15 is an exterior side view of'thez'cleector niemtion. v

Fig.V 17 shows another modified formof the invention.

throughout the several views.

Referring to Figs. 1 and 2 of the drawing,'1 is aflid,A conduit, such as a discharge spoutA of a kitchen sink'fauce t,-. for instance, of which 2 is the outlet` or open end portion l thereof, and 3 is the usual curved orrb'ent portionpi l' The liuid conduit or, spout v`1 is threaded at,

4 adjacent the outlet opening for attachment'of-an iterator-v device or member, generally designated. 6, within the dis-r` .A charge opening thereof, thus serving as a housingifor; n the member.

The latter member is of the said member tightly into position within the outlet opening of the conduit 1. An. annularegasket is interposed between the end of the conduit `and theshoulder 14 formed by the knurled orflanged4 portion 12 for. `uid tight connection.

A plurality of openings or oriticesl ,1a-re provided in` the upper end portion of the cup-shaped flow restricting member 6, which are disposed at an'angle with respect tothe direction of downstream iluid ow from said member at the open end 9 thereof or in the case of a cylindxfcalor straight member as shown in Figs.l 1 and2 to the -longtudinal axis of the member. It will be noted that these orifices connect the inside of the conduit 1 with the hollow;

interior 16 of the flow restricting-v member for eiecting the passage of water or rother liquid therebetween, the.

orifices being adapted to permit the inow of `the liquid'- into the latter in jet-like or relatively smalli: streams off substantial or increased velocity.

which is drawn in from the lowermost or discharge end 9. A soft, foamy, hghly-aerated stream, the---air-jof` which does not dissipate after discharge, thus flows from-:theopen end 9 of the cup-shaped aeratonmember,y and results? indicate an intimate admixture and entrapmentzof the? said air with the liquid passingvthrough `the devices' "Since the conduit or tubular housing 1 is impe'rforate 'to theE ter.'

minus or bottom of the end portion 2, it is'cl'ear thatthe supply of air necessary to said `admixture-is.renewed audi; replenished fromexterior to the conduit,being drawnin; through said end portion or more particularly, through the; bottom of the cup-shaped member inserted therein. It

Patented `May 8,1956l Fig. 13 illustrates another embodiment'of the invenv tion.

Similar reference numerals refer to fsimilar" preferably of invertedy cup shape', having a at top portion 8` asshown'and cylindrical sideg walls 7, being open at the bottom ,or `downstream endg at 9 for discharge to atmosphere., An enlargedor thick-:.1 y ened portion 10 is provided adjacent the lowerrendywhich. is threaded around the outer peripherytfor :engagement with the threading 4 at the lowerk end of thespouLconf-f duit or other fluid dischargeline 1. Apreferably.knurled portion 12 of larger diameter is provided at the bottom'.- of the cup-shaped flow restricting memberA 6 below :the'. threaded portion thereof for gripping usefulin attachment-f has been found that replenishment of such air has no turbulent effect on the discharging stream, but on the contrary, the stream is smooth and, coherent.

Inscrite.. casesinordento provide for evena more smooth and more coherent liquid ow pattern at the dis- Charse.- 9,1@ 119W euide-eenerallv designated, 1,9may be employed within'the aerator device or ow restricting meallzerdadiaesntthemen.bottom 9. thereof- .This ow guide comprises a cellular structure as shown moreclearly in Eig.; 2.., lexten.@ina.preferably, but not necessarily, across the entireA path oflt'he discharge stream of aerated liquid. It willbeobservedfthat thel flow s tructurepresents a multiplicity of small 'passageways or cells 20 for the admission f. the. ingesting air and passage. of. Outgoing adm ixed. air and liquid'having axially or longitudinally extending Side walls, In;this .strutureLtheside Walls may be formed by minis. eslfrps Qf metal. 2.1 and a circular separating4 wallj `It' iswnjot` necessary that separating walls be used onthat.' 'la' symmetrical pattern be provided. A spirall anrangement"ofcorrugationsstarting at the center. or iatfemf irregular. 'folds prevalso. be employed. if desiredgjast'long vasthey substantially fillV the entirecrosssectional -area 'of' the', tubular device with aL multiplicity of/smallcells. v

A now guide, of the ltype described isvsuited tothe present aerator in i'tsyarious forms, because of the great turbulence pfrodue'edin the liquidjin the aerator chamber. above the flow g'uidefj 'It aidsl in vimproved stratification or. channelingjof thef'owfor discharge, Under certain circumstances,-however, a corrugated,rringylike flow guide, such asilthatfillustrated in Fig. 3 and designated 2,3 mayalso be"emp'lgwedLwithl satisfactory results,y or the ow guide` mayibomittedtentirely. A ow guide is not indispensable tofthevvproeessof aeration, but it does materially improve theowe-pattern .of the discharging stream, effecting colhrenceand smbothness of the same. Anti-splash means,v

such''as as'reen or'plurali-ty of screens may be employed, if"desire d;althouglrfit'is preferable to avoid the use of s'rnalli openings -whichare likely to clog from deposits or` collection of foreign-` matter, rendering the device inoperative. In this connectiom the orifices 15 at the top of the ow-frestrictingn-:member 6- are ofsuicient size to easily permitwthe pas'sageiof" such -matter therethrough, while notfsodargelas topreduce Jthe velocity of the jet streams belour-tirateJdegreenecessary for proper operation of the device v @heroe-:fthe advantages ofthe present aerator is its compactnessg-whichisachievedeby placing the oricesISeV in'L thel upped-endportionof' the hollow flow restricting. members-fadi-acent-the-flat top 8 thereof; The particular shapegofethe topisgnotVV critical and may be dished or rounded-g--ifidesired-a- The-orifices' may also lead into the holloweinterioro-f themember flush with the underside of the at top, but best results-are had by providing at leastt'slighuspacingpofetheinner limits of4 theorices bet lowthe inner-surfaceeofl-the topor -by the use of'an up. wardlyedishedforrscurvedftop. This is particularly applicableafontheiFigfl and otherfforms in `whichthe orifices arewdisposediat-right-angles-to= the longitudinal axis of downstream-huid flow from theopen bottom of the aeratonlmemberr -Slh-is arrangement provides for maximum compaotnessandlas shown-infFig. 1, the iiow guide 19er:-Y 'tendingf--fronrinear-thelower-end of the member up to.,

substaiallwthe!4 bottom ofthe orifices at the top for maximumreffecti-venessee Althoughefourr symmetricaland annularly` arranged oricestare ishowntsee Eig. 2), the' numberI of openings lfuisfnobcriticalp oo many -rnight cause an interference in .proper;-liquid'idispersaland mixing ofthe same with air' on'havertendency-sto(llup--the interior ofethe `aerator memben withiliquidiito-the-.exclusion'ofthe air necessary forgthe-aerationprocess.l Limitation of the orices. to four,

asfshownfpermits the use of'larger -openings .than would I otherwisebe-possibleoradvisable, thusk dlastically redne-y issrlreppssiptl'ityff elgeipaby herdnessdeposit-Qr other.-

wise. In connection with the latter, it should be noted that suicien't clearance is provided between the upperpart` of the cup-shaped aerator member 6 and the inside of the conduit to eliminate restriction at this point and consequent collection of foreign matter and further to provide for free fluid ow past the top and into the orifices 15.

It is not necessary that; the side walls 7 of the aerator or flow restricting member 6 be cylindrical or even straight, but the same may beI longitudinallyv bent or curved with no. apparent. eiect on the qualtyer. amount-cf. aeration-otv the Water discharging-- therefrom. Thus.tl1e structure is capable of numerous modifications Without departing from the objective.

Fig. 4 shows a modification whereinthe use of a curved member conforms to the interior shape of the conduit 1. The ow restricting member in this form is the same as that of Fig. l except that it extends further into the conduit.- ordischarge spout 1 proper byv virtue of the curved shape noted and is provided with an annulary ange 11,

11 and the lower end surface of the conduit 1 torinsure.

a iiuidtight connection, the flow restricting member being secured to the conduit by a hollow nut or ringmember. 28 whichthreadedly engages the exterior of the conduit at-29, The4 nut member is preferably knurled for gripping between the fingers and is of the same insidediameter at 30 as. the cup-shaped flow restricting member 6. It is 'further providedwith a shoulder 31 forl support of the latter member...

Itshould be noted that a ow guide has not been illustratedin'Fig. 4. Such means may, ofcourse, be used to improve the coherence and qualityl of the discharge stream, but it has been found that the tubular side` walls of' the hollow member 6, and, in this case, the inside of the nut or ringrnember at 30 confine and direct the ow, havinga 'ow guidingfunction. As the length of the tube. 0rv hollow member isrincreased,.the need for separate iiow guide means decreases, and therefore, hasbeen omitted for illustration.

The length of the side walls or tube for omissionof. separate guide meansv is optional. In this connection, the tube may beof appreciable length, and the distance between the orifices and the point of air intake .therebelow relatively removed without apparently effecting theaerationprocess. vIthas been found that a hose severalfeet long mvay beisecuredy to the end of a device of theFig, l

or Fig, 5 form in a fluid tight-manner, and highly,l aeratedl waterpflowed from the lower end.

Figz 5 shows another embodiment of the invention,v in

which anpextension pieceor housing 35 ofy conduit forml is securedto the. end of the spoutor conduit 1. as bythreading` at. 29 thus making a. combinedconduit. A shoulder it is of straight cylindrical side walls` and preferably.

shorter in length.v A gasket 13 isinterposed between the. iiange 1v1 of this member and the.. lower. end surface of` the conduit 1 as inthe. previous forms, the member 3.5..

being drawn up tightly at 29 for uidtight. connection.

The combined conduit is thus imperforate. to the open. end.

37 thereof. The side-Walls 7 of theV ow restrictingymember. are also oriiiced at 15 adjacent the iiat. topr 8 the orifices. being annularly arranged and disposedfatright.-

angles to ,thedirection of downstream. iiuirlowz atgthe open endv 9: of the member or, to the axis. thereof since. the member in this case is cylindrical or straight aswas:

the case in the Fig. 1 form. Amixing chamber 18.\is..also provided, in this instance,M comprising. substantially. the

entire hollow interior 16 of the flow restricting, member.`

6, siIJCethe latter. isrelatively. short. A- ow. guide-19,

prefelably' ofthe. type shown in Figs. land V2; maybeem.-

ployed ,which .extendsy from substantially the lower'ffend 37 of the conduit-like housing member 35=to-.the:.bnttonry of the cup-shaped member 6, resting against the flange 11 or lower rim of the member.

The lower inside diameter of the conduit housing 35 should preferably be as large as the inside diameter of the flow restricting member 6 or larger, the `latter being the relationship shown in Fig. 5. Referring to the flow guide, the outer ring or corrugated strip 21 or the ring 23 of the Fig. 3 form may not extend beyond the inner wall of the cup-shaped member 6, remaining completely under the step, if desired, to provide a more definite path for the introduction of the air in the stepped arrangement of Fig. 5; that is, the air may be more easily channelized to the exclusion of the discharge stream. In this arrangement of course at least a slight amount of space should be provided between the top of the ow guide and under surface of the step for free flow of air into the mixing chamber.

The cup-shaped ow restricting member may extend further into the spout or conduit 1 if increased length for iiow guide and mixing purposes is desired. Fig. 6 shows a similar conduit 1 and attachment piece or conduit housing 35'to which a cup-shaped member 6 of greater length isprovided. In this case, the inside diameter of the latter member and of the depending housing or conduit section are of the same size, although the step relationship of Fig. 5 may be used, and a longer flow guide like that of Figs. 1 and 2 may be inserted which extends within both members for better discharge ow characteristics.

Since it is not essential f-or 'the openings or orifices to be in the side walls 7 or if in the side Walls` to be disposed at right angles to the axis of the iiow restricting member 6 or to the direction of downstream vflow from the open end 9, the annularly arranged orifices 41 4in this case are located Iby -way of example in the ffia-t top 8 and are inclined towards the downstream side of the member so that the jet streams `therefrom intercept to accomplish substantially the same result as before. A somewhat larger mixing chamber 18 is necessary for this arrangement and disposition of orifices and the ow guide 19, which may either be integral or of separate sections, c-anno-t extend as 'far towards the orifices as in the previous forms. vIn this case, substantial clearance is not necessary between the outside of the aerator member 6 and the inside of the conduit 1, inasmuch `as the -orices 41 lare in the top portion rather than in `the `side lwalls of Ithe member.

Fig. 7 shows a further modified form of aerator device or flow-restricting member 6 as applied to the 'conduit '1 and depending attachment piece or conduit section 35. It will be noted that this member instead of being cylindrical has substantially conical side walls 7 presenting` an open bottom at 9 'and converging towards the top or upstream end. The top limit surface 8 may be either pointed or flattened, -as shown. Four annularly arranged orifices are provided in the upper end portion, preferably disposed at right angles to the direction of downstream uid flow at the open end of the member. However, the orifices may als-o be inwardly inclined towards the downstreamside as in -F-ig. 6, being in this case at or approximately at right angles to lthe side walls. A flow guide 19 of the type shown in Figs. 1 :and 2 may also be provided, extending up 'to the lower limits of the hollow conical flow restricting member 6.

'lFig. 8 `shows a further modified device wherein a cupshaped flow restricting member 6 is used which is substantially the same as that of Fig. 7 except -that here the side -Walls 7 thereof are curved or outwardly flared towards the bottom rather than straight as in that figure or in 'the previous forms. formance of 'the device is similar to those previously described.

'Referring now `to the modifications in Figs. 9 and l0 of the drawings, wherein upwardly and downwardly dished or concave flow restricting members 45 and 47, respectively, are illustrated, 'the latter members are supported In `all other respects, the per-v across the path of fluid ow through the conduit 1 and the extension or conduit housing 35 attached to the end thereof. The annularly :arranged orifices 46 and 4S are inwardly and outwardly inclined, respectively in the two `forms shown. The mixing -chambers '49 and 50 in these embodiments are formed by the side Walls 38 of fthe conduit housing 35 -below the orificed flow restricting members and 47. The process of mixing and diffusion in the first of these forms, namely, Fig. 9, is substantially the same as that of Fig. 6 and similar to the other forms previously described, while the jet streams of the lFig. l0 form tirst irnpinge on and are deflected from the side walls 38 of the housing member 35. Flow guides 19, simlar to lthe ow guide described in connection withFigs.

1 and 2, may also be employed in these forms, being ofsomewhat shorter length to provide the necessary mixing space for suitable diffusion of the jet streams and :admixture of the liquid with air drawn up lfrom the open bottom 37 'of lthe conduit means 35 and through the flow guide.

Figs. l1 and 12 show a similar embodiment to lthoseof Figs. 9 and 10, except for the use of a ilat plate or disc 53 rather than dished members and the use of yboth inwardly and outwardly inclined orifices 54 and 55 respectively. Thus, this form is essentially a composite of the previous two forms, although the ow restricting member 53 can be limited `to either inwardly -or outwardly inclined orifices as suggested by Figs. 9 and l0 taken singly. The number of orifices in the case of dual inclination as .shown should preferably be limited to eight; four inwardly inclined and four outwardly inclined orifices preferably, but not necessarily, arranged in concentric relation, or the inner orificesY 55, which are inclined outwardly in the figures, but could be inwardly inclined towards the downstream side could be limited to two. A liow guide 19 like that of Figs. l and 2 may also be used below the mixing chamber for the production of a more coherent flow pattern of the discharge stream of aerated water. An adaptation of the novel aerator device for spray or shower-bath purposes -is illustrated in Figs. 13 through l5. .The saerator or fiow restricting member 6 is of inverted hollow -cup shape with curved side walls 7 and of uniform circular `cross section similar to that of Fig.v 4, except that the top 8 is formed of a separate -piece united 'to the upper end of the member by peening or rolling Aover of the side walls 7 at 61. The top -is recessed =at 62 for the reception of a centrally positioned curved 'stem 63, the latter being secured therein by suitable means, such as by vriveting at 64. An annular retaining nut is threadedly secured at 29 to the conduit 1, being provided with a shoulder 66 for support of the aerator member through the ange 11 as shown. The usual gasket 13 is employed for effecting a uid tight connection. The lower end of the stem 63 is threaded at 69 for adjustable reception of a pilot or cone defiector generally designated 71 which depends below the device in the path of the discharge stream. This member is slotted at 73 for the purpose of more ltightly engaging rthe stern through resiliency of the member in order to retain the member on the threads in the position selected and to prevent the adjustment from changing. The lower part 74 of this member is disc shaped, theouter periphery being knurled to facilitate manual adjustment if necessary.

Oriiices 15 are provided in the upper end :portion of the inverted cup-shaped flow restricting member 6, being angularly disposed with respect to the direction of downy device. 'The latter structure is unlike thel arrangement of Figs. 1, 5, 7, and 8 where the orifices are arranged in parallel relation with the bottom of the aerator member `6. The stem 63 is shaped so as to extend along the center of fluid ow through the curved aerator member, so as to ana-mesa produce adesirablefeven-discharge stream: l-t-shoul'd` also bef noted that-the.A annular nutmem-ber ' at'.VVV

llfto---.`c:ooperatey with the.conical. sunfa'cef75 oftherpilotumember.'` inidivertingror: spreadingl the-discharge stream,l of.

aerated Water.VV

In, another'modicatiornV Fig',I 16: showsanotherspray.A

or: showerhead f arrangement in `whichi aoarect"A head or conduitthousing i81.' is.y attached. to.- the. discharge-.end "2 lofi# a conduit oruidline 1Which may ybef-either'a'f-pipe: asshownforl af flexible rubber tubingzorthedike Lfor :shampoo z or'rin-singc-purposes, forl example.r Theaerator device or.

ow: restrictingmember is of .cylindricalfcupshape and substantially the same as in .the-Figs., 5 form; being-apro.- vided with orifices 15 in the; sidel wallsfl fdi'sposed inf .co.-

planarV relation .and substantia1ly=at right. angles .of the aXisoEJth'e member and to= downstream fluid 'ow at the open.-endf9.thereof and providinga. mixing chamber 18 anda flange 11, for support of the member.y The flange rests on a .shoulder 82 in the head.'orlicasing'member \8]\ and -is drawn `up tightly against `thea gasket` 1-3' at the lower end. of the conduit 1-fby means lofscrew threads ats29e For thepurfposetot spreading the aeratedliquidsor water owing from the open end. 910i the ow restricting member so astofbetter lill the showerhead casinglSlfforfspray purposes, a unitary diverterfS'S isirprovided. vTheupper portion 483,` of this diverter is of s'tem-liketorm and-extends:v

Within the-inverted cup-shaped membertalongthe center. oriaxis-.thereotg being secured through-a recessat the-^topw as byvpeaningor riveting at 84."v The lowerpart-.S is.-y of. conicabshape and is equivalent to the conicalfmember: 71of the Fig; 13 form,4 except that .the same is vwithin'thewA casing 81fand-is non-adjustable, as shown:

A owguide 19 may be employedawithin-the.shower-J' head or.y casing member S1 adjacent the open or bottom end.89ithereof,`the How kguide being substantiallyithe same andl for the same purposeas the Figs.' lk and `Zzguideexcept:r

that itis .of` greaterfdiameter and.- is providedawithaadditional 'spacers 87 and corrugating.portions-88ztoqtillthe= space:across thebottom of the casing. A rubber :guard or ring 90 of 'conventional4 design is=preferablyemp1oyed around theouter periphery ofthecasingiadjacentvthe-.'dis: charge end' 89-'th'ereoftoprotect'theuser against contacte, with the ilowfrestric'ting member and for-.thepurposes ordinarily intented for such members.

sarily always required.

mounted. within the conduit 1.

side walls: 7 'anda ilat` topV 3 and orifices 15 4'throughtheside-walls. disposed infco-planar relation substantially-` at right angles to the laxis o the member and to the ldirec-`l tion -of `downstream'- ow therefrom, whenithe memberl ris in .thellowermost (shown in dotted lines)y position for -userv asv-van-aeraton An actuating stem 100 is-secured to the-v memberby suitable means as byl riveting ab 101rand=ex tendsthrough-the` casing v9S at the top vfor manual lowering and raising `otlthe aerator member 99 Sbyrmeansof4 a.knobi102 into and out fof position, respectively inthe restricted' lowerrportion v)6 of' the conduitvl fadjace-nt'the outletvopening' thereof.

The i. inner diameter othe lower portiorrA of4 the conduitis of only -slightlygreaterdiameter: thanrthe outer diameterof thetaeratorimer-uber.'A

99;, the; latter being provided' with an- 0.-,.ring 103' fwithin armani-rulerV groove ad jacentthe lower end fof ther-same. for.:A

is also.'- providedaroundthe-:stem iat:- the top;

Itfshould also be'-noted that thetsideiwalllof tliexconduit'f istrelievedrattf to :permit the :passage-iol?l wateror liquidy 8 behind: the-:aeratormember 99 Lanidinto thefhollowlinte'riorc of the member through the"orices1--'1-5 VKleadirig#fthereirito wh'emf.tlffevaerator-rmember is infthel loWermostf-'position indicated. 'oninfannintermediatelposition notf-showrn -The"` the: nomaerating or-fully raised" positiorr;

Ity shouldvralso be lnotedf th'at athrottling actionrnayffb'el` hada in -whiehnaeratorf'member v:99"-is"-in an intermediate" position in -whcl1 somevaerationi lis -pr-.ovidedt the` extent" ofifw-h'idh V`being `dependent luporvthe*particular position'v` selected; l This. f-modilidi arrangement U4therefore" provides a 4variable'r control? off the iiid vdischarging'` through the" outletaopeningy at 971' Althoughifthefforiees @in Figs.' l Athrough -9 and 517 l and" thefiriuerforices iFig: 1l have'b'een arranged for inter-1y ceptionof lthe j e'tstreams,v iti is'. not the-desirel to limit their invention to such specific action inasmuchi-as'the same mayinot uniformly-take,plaeefor to'any great'extentyi at all;I int some of the -items tof be'-'prodccd1 Impingen'lentJ of lthe :jet streams orrth'e sidewalls' `ofth`e-mixling chamber inrthevforminFig. 10"and' against the-'centrally'disposed stems-in1-the -Fig'ss 1'3 land' f 163forrns''has already` been relied@ om Irnpingement"onx the side-wallsor-partialinter-Vv ception-'andl impin'gement'will take 'placeiif theforices Vof ali'gned'gfresultingfinr'the action ofFig.; 1'0; for'instance.'

Inconnectionlwith Figszo' `through -12 I'and 16;' separate flow restrictingmembersr have: therein 'been' illustrated? The srnemembers'may, of course be formed or'otherwise "-made integral-with'the-extension or conduitA housing at thelo'wenend of the conduit and in this 4conuectiomth'eA owf'restrictingvrnembers illustrated' in-'someY or alli-of" these iguresi-and-f'alsoinFigs. l throughll-and` 13 could be adapted for formation with or integral connection'to' thecontluitorspout' 1. Certain yof these ow restricting" member-S101* means', particularlythoseof Figs: 9 through' l2 fondus-tance, could be inserted or `formed Withirrthe conduit; Wellv back Vof or Vupstream `ofl the' outletror 'di's" charge'fopening; iffdesired." lf suiciently' spacedfrom the outletfopening; thespecial flow guidemeans hereiri= above couldfbel eliminated.

IniFi'gs.` 6-and -9 through 12 or'whenever ther loriiices' areldis'posed innonecoplanar relation to-eachother; annu# lar surface meansfsuch-as'a shoulder or protruding ange'" may be employed-below'the orificesto serve as bathe" means for improved deflection and diffusion of the streams or-'liquid ltherefrom.

Althoughthe presentl invention'has beenapplied to the aerationfoflwaterorother liquidjthe same could' beem ployedi for lthe mixing or solution'of other' gases Withotlii" liquids? I'n this connection', the gaslor gases couldbe drawnintothe conduit'through anend opening as inthel drawing -gures or through an'openingor openingsin the sidewalls permitting introductionv of the gas; The l'a'tter could-be 'in'communication with `a jacket or ,supplyjlines oflthegasorgasesforinstance andthe conduitmay not" terminate but -may conductthe mixture downstream.; The terms-aeration ori-aerator in the specification' and.' claims are therefore' not'intended to'restrict the invention -necessarily'tothe'admixture or" airwith liquid, but should beinterpretedfmore broadly alongA the -lines` indicatedf" It" isv thus seen lthat a novel aeratorl combination .or 'the' like has been producedl which is comparatively "simple'in' construction;'broadofiapp1ication-and effective' in opera-` It'Y should:4 be 'further understood that although 'certain' embodiments have been lillustrated and' described, thesev discldsuies-are `only representative-of the'invention vand the latter should kbe'limited only by'the spiritof 'thesame' 4andi-'by th'e scope ofthe appended claims;

I claim:

1. An aerator combination lorfthe like compn'sin'g'conduit' meanshav-ing an end portion, illowrestricting *means* for saidlcondu'itmeans extending across the `path of liquid ow `itheret-hrongh-,l'sa-id lovv restricting means hvin'gfan inner orificed portion substantially upstream from said end portion of the conduit means, the orifices thereof being disposed inwardly in angular relation to the direction of fluid discharge through said end portion of the conduit means and being adapted to permit the passage of liquid through the orificed portion in substantially intercepting jet streams of substantial velocity whereby the liquid is diffused and broken up into fine particles and drawing in fluid such as air from exterior to said conduit means upstream through said end portion thereof for admixture with the liquid and production of an aerated stream flowing from said conduit means, said conduit means being substantially imperforate to the terminus of said end portion of the same said aerator combination being of uniform internal size from the point of discharge substantially to the inner orificed portion, the internal size not being less than a circle within which the inner ends of the orifices of the orificed portion fall, the inner ends of a minimum of two orifices falling adjacent said circle, said aerator combination being sufficiently open across the inside thereof from the point of discharge to said orifices to permit an established and continuous o-w of the fluid such as air into the region of the aerator combination into which the inner ends of the said orifices open and the passage therefrom of admixed fluid such as air and liquid during operation of the device.

2. The subject matter of claim 1, said orificed portion of the flow restricting means extending below the orifices thereof to provide a chamber for the diffusion and breaking up of the jet-streams, said aerator combination including means within said portion thereof of uniform internal size adapted to channelize the fluid such as air at the periphery of said latter portion, said channeling means extending up to within at least proximity of said chamber of the flow restricting means.

3. An aerator combination or the like comprising conduit means having an end portion, means extending within said conduit means for the restriction of liquid flow therethrough, said flow restricting means being hollow on the inside and open at the downstream end, said flow restricting means having a plurality of orifices adapted to permit the passage of liquid within the hollow interior thereof in intercepting jet streams of substantial velocity whereby the liquid thereof is broken up into fine particles drawing in uid such as air from exterior of said conduit means upstream through said end portion thereof for admixture with the liquid and production of an aerated stream flowing from said conduit means, said conduit means being substantially imperforate to the terminus of said end portion of the same, said ow restricting means comprising a single member removably secured at the lower part thereof to said conduit means, the latter member extending across the entire inside of said conduit means and being so secured to the conduit means in fluid tight relation therewith, said orifices of the fiow restricting means being predeterminately spaced above the portion of said flow restricting means secured to said conduit means, said orifices communicating solely with the portion of the conduit means upstream from the portion of the flow restricting means secured to said conduit means and under upstream fluid pressure during operation, said flow restricting means being imperforate between said orifices and said part of the flow restricting means secured to said conduit means, at least part of the hollow interior of said ow restricting means forming a chamber for the restricting means for the admixture of the liquid and fluid such as air.

5. The subject matter of claim 3, said single member comprising said flow restricting means having at least a substantial portion of relatively thin walled inverted cupshape formation, said orifices of said ow restricting means being substantially above the bottom of the thin walled portion, the side walls of said thin walled portion being laterally spaced from the inside walls of said conduit means for free unrestricted flow of liquid through said orifices and settlement of scale and foreign matter below said orifices.

6. The subject matter of claim 5, the orifices of said flow restricting means being substantially circular in cross section, the axes thereof extending substantially in a single plane, said flow restricting means being of uniform substantial thickness around each of said orifices for giving direction and a measure of cohesion to said jet-streams so as to form a relatively sharp area of interception at the center of said flow restricting means substantially along said plane.

7. The subject matter of claim 5, said conduit means comprising an open ended conduit member and an annular body member attached to and depending from the conduit member, said single member of the flow restricting means being of inverted cup-shape with an annular flange extending outwardly thereof, said latter flange being interposed between an upwardly facing shouldered portion of said body and said conduit member, said aerator combination also including means within said portion thereof of uniform internal size adapted to channelize the fluid such as air at the periphery of said latter portion of the aerator combination, said channeling means extending up to a point at least near the bottom of said inverted cup-shaped flow restricting member.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,213,140 Andrew Jan. 23, 1917 1,880,880 Dietsch Oct. 4, 1932 2,103,425 Lehman Dec. 28, 1937 2,347,476 Graham Apr. 25, 1944 2,395,621 Funke Feb. 26, 1946 2,541,854 Bachli et al. Feb. 13, 1951 2,558,238 Collins June 26, 1951 2,570,669 Hannigan Oct. 9, 1951 2,605,144 Northup July 29, 1952 2,624,559 Hyde Jan. 6, 1953 2,643,104 Holden June 23, 1953 FOREIGN PATENTS 12,660 Norway Aug. 3l, 1903 1,000,443 France Oct. l0, 1951

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U.S. Classification239/428.5, 261/DIG.220, 239/590.3, 210/198.1, 210/460
International ClassificationE03C1/084
Cooperative ClassificationY10S261/22, E03C1/084
European ClassificationE03C1/084