US 2745136 A
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. May 15. 1956 M. L. DELAMARE DEBOUTTEVILLE 2,
APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR MAKING WOOL-LIKE ARTIFICIAL FIBRES Filed March 10, 1952 5 sheets-sheet 1 i a, W,
flA/ M v May 15. 1956 M. DELAMARE DEBOUTTEVILLE 2,745,136
APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR MAKING WOOL-LIKE ARTIFICIAL FIBRES Filed March 10, 1952 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 May 15. 1956 M. DELAMARE DEBOUTTEVILLE APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR MAKING WOOL-LIKE ARTIFICIAL FIBRES 6 5 3 t 1 e :w m 4 4 I 2 w Filed March 10, 1952 M; Mime 2/ III/WWW, ALA/Z11 0, V An United States PatentO APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR MAKING WOOL-LIKE ARTIFICIAL FIBRES Marcel Louis Delamare Deboutteville, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France Application March 10, 1952, Serial No. 275,804
Claims priority, application France March 14, 1951 6 Claims. (Cl. 18-8) natural wool shows that their cross section varies along their length, the surface of said fibres appearing as covered with so-called scales or hooks which, together with their curliness, help in given them their felting properties.
Numerous attempts have been made, heretofore, for
giving artificial fibres the properties resulting from this particular feature of natural wool, but such attempts have not led to the expected results. Thus, it has been suggested to manufacture curly fibres by passing them, in a viscous condition, on a cylinder from which they are removed by means of a knife; unfortunately this curliness lacks stabilityand the said method does not make it possible to obtain scales or hooks. The artificial fibres thus obtained cannot be formed into felt if they are not mixed with natural Wool. It has also been suggested to impart to the coagulation bath, movements adapted to give a yarn issuing from the spinneret changes in direction with a view to also giving a certain curliness to said yarn, but this process does not seem to have ever been worked out and, in any case, it could not lead to the obtention of surface variations similar to those of natural wool.
For the purpose of obtaining such variations, it has also been suggested to laminate the artificial fibres, upon their issuing from the coagulation bath and while they still of fer a certain pliability, by passing them between cylinders engraved in a manner corresponding to the desired surface variations. It will be obvious to the man of the art that this is purely a mental concept and that the proposed means could never find an application on an industrial or even a laboratory scale.
The object of the present invention is to provide a method and a device which makeit possible to obtain, industrially, artificial fibres having books or scales and cross sectional variations, comparable in all respects with those of wool and natural fibres and other surface or diameter modifications which may be caused by various vibratory frequencies.
According to the invention, the fibre, immediately after having been spinned and at least partly coagulated, is continuously passed, under a flattened S shape, over two guiding members, such as grooved rollers, secured to the vibrating parts of a tuning fork, magnetostriction bar or tube, or other vibrating unit, capable of vibrating according to two opposed, synchronised movements, at a frequency of at least 100 cycles per second. After passing over said guiding members and being submitted to their 2,745,136 Patented May 15, 1 956 ice vibratory action, the fibre is wound up on a conventional take-up reel.
Means are provided to cause the vibrating member to vibrate permanently at its resonance frequency. Such means maycomprise an electro-magnetic winding and in a device capable of generating in said winding an alternating current, the frequency of which is the resonance frequency of the vibrating member. This device may be arranged, for instance, to be controlled by the resonance vibration of the vibratory member itself or for being driven in forced oscillations at said frequency.
Experience shows that the longitudinal vibratory motion imparted to the fibre is transmitted to the, head of the spinneret and acts so as to create on the microscopic surface of the fibre, the desired scales as well as periodical cross sectional variations.
The invention is described in greater detail hereinafter With reference to the appended drawings, in which:
Fig. l is a diagrammatic, elevational view of a first embodiment of a device for carrying out the invention.
Fig. 2 is a top view of the same device, with the diagrammatic representation of the electric set up for vibrating the tuning fork.
Fig. 3 is a partial, sectional longitudinal view of a secnd embodiment, comprising a tube vibrating by magnetostriction.
Fig. 4 is an elevational, micrographic view of a fibre of natural wool.
Fig. 5 is a similar view of a fibre of ordinary viscose.
Fig. 6 is a similar view of a fibre obtained according to the invention.
In the example shown in Figures 1 and 2, 1 is a spinneretfhead for the drawingof viscose fibres, said head 'being supplied with viscose solution by a tube 2 and being placed in a coagulation bath 3 contained in a tub 4.
Above the coagulationbath, between the spinneret 1 and 'a take-up reel 5, for receiving the spun yarn as it is produced, a tuning fork 6 is arranged, the branches 7 and 8 of which carry, at their free end, a grooved roller 9 made of glass.
The fibre 10, spun through the spinneret 1 is passed, as shown in the drawing, on rollers 9, then attached to the take-up reel 5. The latter is driven in rotation, by means not shown in the drawing, so as to ensure the winding of the fibre 10 as it is spun, the rotational speed of the reel being determined as a function of the speed of spinning, which, in its turn, depends on the pressure of the coagulable solution in the tube 2, so as to obtain the desired drawing of the fibre, as is usual.
During the drawing, the tuning fork 6 is vibrated, said vibration being sustained, at the resonance frequency, by an electromagnet 11, acting on branch 7 of the tuning fork, and which receives from a generator amplifier 12 supplied by 'the source 13, an oscillating current the frequency of which is controlled by an electromagnet 14 influenced by the same branch 7 of the tuning fork. The vibratory motion of the tuning fork has the effect of moving the pal-L leys 9 closer to or farther away from each other and con sequently 'to stretchand release periodically the fibre It) by periodical lengthening and shortening of the length of fibre between the spinneret 1 and the reel 5, the periodic variation of said length being equal to four times the vibratory amplitude of the tuning fork. There is thus imparted to the fibre a longitudinal vibration which is transmitted up to the spinneret 1.
The tuning fork 6 may be replaced by a nickel bar or tube set in vibration by magnetostriction. Fig. 3 shows such a vibrating mounting. The two pulleys 9 on which the fibre has to pass are mounted respectively at the two ends of a nickel tube 15, held at its middle in a fixed support 16.
The tube 15 is coaxial with two coils 17 and 18 arranged 3 on both sides of support 16. The terminals of coil 17 are connected respectively to the positive terminal of a current source 19 and, through an ammeter 20, to the plate :21 *of.-.a. triode tube 22l;the cathode..23 ofswhichais connected to the negative terminal of source 19. The :ter-
a'ninals of coil 18;:are-connected, ongtheone hand to the negativeterminal of source 19:and,-.on the other hand,: to
the grid 24 of triode22, avariable condenser 25 being inserted between those of, the terminals ofeoilslTand 18 which are not connected with source. 19.
It may beseen that it is thus possible to create inside .coil 17 an oscillating-field which, by magnetostriction, causes tube 15 to vibrate longitudinally; thejoscillationfrequency of said fieldbeing controlled by the'converse phenomenonwhich develop-s insidecoillS. The operation of 'the'condenser- 25 makes itpossible to bring the plate .current in triode 22 to zeroand thus to make said fre- ;quency equal. to theuresonance'frequency of thenickel tube 15.
.Experience shows that the vibrationsimparted to the fibre why the tuning fork 6 or the .tube.15 are transmitted along said fibre unto thespinnerethead, at a point where the fibre being drawn is still in a viscouscondition. These vibrations impart to .the fibre periodic variations in cross section and surface scales which have an appearance similar to that of the scales in natural wool; as appears from the comparison of Figures 4 and 6 which show, the first, a fibre of natural wool, enlargedSOO times and the second a viscose fibre, obtained according to the invention, with a vibration frequency of 450 cycles per second, for a drawing speed of 1 meter per second, said twofigures being reproductions of microphotographs obtained by the applicant.
The comparison of Fig. 6 with Fig. 5, which shows a viscose fibrewhich has'not been subjected to the treatment according to the invention, "makes apparent the structural modification caused in the fibres by said treatment.
It should be understood that in the above specification, and in the following claims, the expression coagulable solution, when used, designates just as well a solution as a melt capable of leading to the formation of artificial fibres, through spinning and solidification bycoagulation, evaporation or the like.
What I claim is:
1. A method for the production, on the surface of artificial fibres, superficial irregularities comparable with those existing in wool and other similar, natural fibres, comprising the steps of spinning in a coagulation medium a. coagulable substance adapted to form an artificial, continuous fibre through coagulation in said medium, doublebending said fibre in a flattened S-shape, substantially immediately after it has been spun and at least partly coagu lated, submitting said fibre to a high frequency-succession of extensions and releasements by applying respectively at the two angles of said 8 shape double bending, synchronized vibratory movements of opposed directions in a plane which is parallel to the plane ofthe fibres at a frequency of at least 100 cycles per second and continuously winding up the fibre after it has been submitted to said vibratory movements.
2. A device for imparting to a freshly spun, and atleast partly coagulated, artificial fibre, ,superficial irregularities comparable with those existing in wool and other similar, natural fibres, comprisinga vibrating member having a resonance frequency of at least 100 cycles per second, and two parts of which are adapted to vibrate synchronously in opposed directions in-avplane which is parallel to the plane of the. fibres, a guiding member secured on each of said two'parts, saidguiding, members beingadapted to guide the artificial fibre substantially in a plane, and means for causingthe vibratingmember to'vibrate permanently at its resonance frequency.
3. A device for imparting.:to.=a-freshly: spun, and at least partly coagulated, artificial fibre, superficial irregularities comparable with those existing in-wool-and other similar, natural fibres, comprising a tuning fork having a resonance frequency of at least 100 cycles per second, a guiding member secured to each branch of said tuning fork, substantiallytat theencl of said branches,- said guiding members beingzadapted to guide :the artificialfire substantially in a plane and. meansfor causing said tuning fork to vibrate permanently at its resonance frequency.
'4. A/devicerfor'impartingto a freshly spun, and at :least partly coagulated, artificial fibre,v superficialv irregularities comp arable .with those existing in wool and other similar, natural fibres, comprising a tuning forkhaving a resonance vfrequency of at. least -100- cycles" pergsecond, a grooved rollerpivotally mountedsubstantially at the ends of each branch of said tuning fork, the grooves in said rollers'beingsubstantially in the same plane, and means -for-causing said tuning fork to vibrate permanently at its resonance frequency.
5. A-ldevice. for imparting to a freshly spun, and at least partly. coagulated, artificial fibre, superficial irregularitiescomparable with-thoseexisting in wool-.and'other similar, naturalfibres, comprising a bar shaped'member adapted-to vibrate longitudinally according to the magnetostriction phenomenon, at a resonance frequency of at least 100 cyclespersecond,aguidingmember secured substantiallyateachend of said ,-bar-shaped -member, said guiding members being adapted to guide the artificial fibre substantially in a plane, parallel to said bar-shaped member, and-means for causing said' bar-shaped member to vibrate longitudinally and-permanently at its resonance frequency.
6. A device for imparting to a freshly spun,-ancl at-least partly coagulated, 1 artificial fibre,.-superficialirregularities comparable withthose existing inwool andother similar,
material fibres, comprising abar-shaped member adapted References Cited in the file of this-patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,898,085 Dreyfus et a1. Feb, 21, 1933