US 2745338 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 15, 1956 R. E. wIssMAN 2,745,333
PRESS CONSTRUCTION Filed Feb. 20, 1953 6 Sheets-Sheet 1 FIG-I FIG 9 I ,Y .2 III VAN I28 I22 I26 I24) FIG-IO By REUBEN E. WISSMAN ATTORNEYS May 15, 1956 R. E. WISSMAN PRESS CONSTRUCTION 6 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Feb. 20, 1953 N m s w 5 E wQm E. O T N T. EWA U m Y B m 8 May 15, 1956 R. E. WISSMAN PRESS CONSTRUCTION 6 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed Feb. 20, 1953 m m m m REUBEN E. WISSMAN ATTORNEYS y 1956 R. E. WISSMAN 2,745,338
PRESS CONSTRUCTION Filed Feb. 20, 1953 6 Sheets-Sheet 4 7 4/ /yJ I6 3| h 33 f 31 I A 3O v 46 x I INVENTOR.
\ REUBEN E. WISSMAN BYd Wgm ATTORNEYS May 15, 1956 R. E. WISSMAN PRESS CONSTRUCTION 6 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed Feb. 20, 1953 INVENTOR.
REUBEN E. WISSMAN NJ 0 ATTORNEYS May 15, 1956 R. E. WISSMAN PRESS CONSTRUCTION 6 Sheets-Sheet 6 Filed Feb. 20, 1953 INVENTOR REUBEN E. W/SSMAN ATTORNEYS ture United States Patent PRESS CONSTRUCTION Reuben E. Wissman, Minster, Ohio, assignor to The Minster. Machine Company,.Minster, Ohio, 2 corporation of Ohio Application February 20, 1953, Serial No. 337,977
4 Claims. (Cl. 100-282) This invention relates to presses, particularly to mechanical presses, and especially to a new and improved construction for such presses involving the manner in which the crown of the press is constructed and arranged and the driving device for the press mounted therein.
Mechanical presses, in general, are constructed with a headandbed' spaced apart by uprights at the sides thereof with a platen reciprocably guided within the uprights and with a power means for driving the platen mounted in the head or crown of the press. The usual type of power. plant for driving the platen of the press consists of an electrical motor connected through suitable driving means, such as gearing, with a crankshaft that is connected with the platen by. connecting rods. The cranlishaftis usually driven by a large heavy gear which is clutched-to the crankshaftfor driving the crankshaft, and which is unclutched from the crankshaft while the crankshaft is braked in order to stop the crankshaft.
Themounting of the drive. train between the drive motor and the crankshaft in a mechanical press of-the general nature referred to is generallyv rather difiicult, particularly where an attempt is made to locate the parts of'the drive train where they can readilybe serviced.
A particular disadvantage. ofmechanical presses heretofore has been the inflexibility of design thereof in that a press constructed to operate at some givenspeed could not readily be modified to provide for. a different 7 speed. Each press thus was adapted for operation over only a relatively limitedspeed range, and any substantialchangein speed characteristics of a press had to be taken-into account at the time of designing the struc- In large mechanical presses. having. relatively long platens Withtwo points of connection with the crankshaft, the particular problem arises of transmitting, suff cient torsionaleifort to. the crankshaft to accomplishthe Work for which the. press isrdesigned without introducing undue torsional stresses in the crankshaft Such-stresses 3 arise when .the crankshaft is driven from-one end only and, accordingly, it is customary to drive such crankshafts from bothv ends.- The driving of the crankshaft from .both endscan be accomplished by locating clutchesbetween the crankshaft andthe large gears mounted theron, but the difficulty arises of synchronizing the clutches and-the. addedexpense'is encountered of providingtwo entirely independentclutch and brake units together with thebearings, by means of-which the gears are journalled on .the crankshaftandthe various other parts that must beduplicatedr Accordingly, with presses-of thisnature it'has: been the practice to drive both ends of the crankshaftby' gears mounted thereon and which aredriven inunison. by a transverse shaft having pinionson its opposite-ends meshing with the large gears orr-thecrankshaft and with the: controlling clutch and brake being located-on a/high-speed drive shaftwhich is connected through reduction gearingw withv the i said transversev shaft. This. location of the. clutch-brake unit: imposes severe loads on the clutch and brake because of the high speed 2,745,338 Patented May 15,. 1956 2. of relative movement between the interengageableclutch parts and the interengageable brake parts,.such that these parts are subjectedto severe abuse at the instants of starting and stoppingthe press. In modern practice, .where automatic loading and-unloading devices are employed and the clutch and brake are operated in rapid suc-. cussion through substantially continuous cyclingof the press, it'is found that the clutch-brake unit has-extremely short life leading. to expensive. replacement costs and expensive down time ofthe press during. repairs.
Accordingto the present invention, a novel structure has been devised whereby the advantage is obtained of locating the clutch-brakeunit as near the load as possible, thus greatly reducingthe amount of inertia load to be started and stopped thereby and, at the same time, reducingthe relativespeed betwecn theinterengageable clutch and brake parts thatexists when'the clutch-brake unit is mounted on the high speed drive shaft. This was accomplished bylocating the clutch-brake unit on the intermediate transverse shaft, bothends of which are geared to the large gears: that are rigid with the-opposite endsof the crankshaft.
Having the foregoing in: mind, it is-a primary object of the present invention to provide a mechanical press construction in which the difiiculties referred to above are avoided.
A still further object isthe provision of a mechanical press having a power plant mounted in the head or crown thereof which can readily be serviced at any time.
A- particular objectis theprovision of a mechanical press having an-imp-roved typecrown so arranged that no gearsproject therefrom requiring unsightly housings and guards V e A'still ful'thcr object is-the provision of a mechanical press in whichthe crown is soconstructed that an oil sump integral therewithcanbe provided for the drive gear mounted onthe crankshaft.
I Another particular object. of :this 1 invention isthe provision-of amechan'ical press design-which-is adapted for readilyhaving the; speed of operation thereof changed at anytime and in a-simple manneiz A-still furthenobject of this invention is the provision of-apress drive arrangement with a-friction clutch-brake unit so located therein that'the operating speed of the 'presscan be'cha'n'g'edwithoutrequiring any change in Figure 3 is a transverse sectional view indicated' byline 3- -3 on Figure- 2;
Figure 4 isa transverse secti'onalview" indicated by line 44 on Figure 3;
Fig'ureS 'is a fragmentary'perspective view showing how-the brake-disk= of the clutch-brake unit forming a part of the drive train'of the pressiis' held stationary;
Figure 6 is'a fr'agmentary. view'showingv how the drive motor of. the press is mounted;
Figure 7 is"a' vertical sectional view located by.' line 7-7 on Figure 2 showing. the upper endof one'of the strain rods of the press;
Figure 8 is a fragmentary: perspective view showing the manner. in which bearings are provided-for the ends of thecrankshaft; c
Figure 9 is a fragmentary plan sectional view showing the manner in which one corner of the platen is guided on the uprights of the press; Figure is a front elevational view of the platen guiding arrangement of Figure 9; and
Figure 11 is a sectional view on line 11--11 of Figure 2 showing a bearing support for one of the shafts of the drive train.
Figure 12 is an isometric 'perspective view illustrating the arrangement of the motor, flywheel and shaft, intermediate shaft with brake and clutch and crankshaft with associated gearing.
Referring to the drawings somewhat more in detail,
in Figure l a press construction according to my invention is illustrated, and it will be seen that this comprises a bed or base casting 10 on which rest the spaced uprights 12 and 14 and on the upper ends of which there is mounted a head orcrown 16. Strain rods 15 having nuts 17 (Figures 2 and 7) connect the crown, bed and uprights together.
Platen 18 is reciprocably guided along the uprights 12 I and 14 as by the guiding means 20 extending along the uprights, and power means are mounted in the crown of z the press'for supplying power for reciprocating the said platen;
The arrangement of the driving means in the crown of the press will be more clearly seen in Figures 2, 3 and 6. In these last mentioned figures it will be noted that the crown of the press is hollow and has ribbing and partitions therein so that space is provided for receiving shafts, pulleys, gears and the like.
A drive motor 22 mounted on a tiltable platform 23 on top'of the crown of the press drives a pulley 24 over which a plurality of V-belts or other flexible driving elements 26 pass. Elements 26 also pass around a pulley 28 mounted rearwardly of the center line of the crown of the press on the end of a shaft 30.
Shaft 30 is supported on the crown of the press in the spaced bearings 32 which are located on the upper ends of two of the partition walls formed within the crown of the press. At the end of shaft 30 opposite pulley 28 there is mounted a pinion 34 that meshes with a gear 36 that is rotatably carried by an intermediate shaft 38 extending transversely of the press crown and located somewhat forwardly of the center line'of the crown.
An important feature of this invention resides in the, arrangement of shafts 30 and 38 and the bearings 32 for ,shaft 38, and the block members 31 reversed 'in their respective recesses to provide for the proper center to center distance for shafts '30 and 3:8.
A fly wheel 39 is mounted on shaft 30 between bearings 32, and the function of fly wheel 39 is to store energy when the platen of the press is stationary and to release this stored up energy tothe platen during a working stroke thereof.
One of the important features of the present invention will be evident at this point, and this feature concerns the mounting of pulley 28 on the extreme end of shaft 30. This constructional feature makes it a simple matter to replace the V-belts or flexible driving elements 26 and permits the use of endless molded V belts without any disadvantage. V
The gear 36 that is driven by pinion 34 is adapted for being selectively clutched to shaft 38 by operationof a will be described morein detail hereinafter.
Referring particularly to Figures 2and 3, it will be -clutch-brakeunit generally indicated at 40 and which I noted that shaft 38 is journalled at spaced points along. the top of the crown of the press at the end partition walls thereof by bearings 42. Shaft 38, at its outer ends, has the pinions 44 mounted thereon which mesh with the large.
gears 46 that are secured to' the opposite ends of crank shaft 48.
The crankshaft 48, as will best be seen in has spaced throws thereon receiving the ends of connecting rods 50 which extend to and are pivotally connected with platen 18 as at 52.
The central part of crankshaft 48 is supported by bearings mounted at the bottom of center partitions in the press head, these hearings being identified by reference numeral 54in Figure 3, while the outer ends of the crankshaft inwardly of the gears 46 are supported in bearings 56, the construction of which is illustrated more in detail in Figures 2 and 8. In these last mentioned figures it will be noted that the end partitions or walls of the crown are provided with elongated openings 58 of a size to receive the crankshaft 48 by axial movement thereof vinto the press crown. The upper ends of the apertures 58 form one-half of the bearings 56 and the lower onehalf of the bearings 56 take the form of detachable caps. As will best be seen in Figure 3, each end of the press crown comprises a recess 60 in which one of the gears 46 is positioned. These recesses 60 are adapted for being closed by a cover plate 62 so that the gears are at one time guarded by being in a closed compartment, and
at the same time can run in a pool of oil thus providing for adequate lubrication of the gears at all times.
In connection with the compartments referred to above, Figure 3 will serve to reveal that the crown of the press is formed with the center transversely extending part 64 positioned above the platen of the press and the side parts 66 positioned above the uprights 12 and 14, and which side parts extend downwardly below center part 64 so that compartments 60 are formed completely within the crown of the press. This construction of the press crown, which forms an important feature of the present invention, is of advantage over previous constructions in that the gears at the ends of the crankshaft do not project beyond the sides of the press, but are, rather, located within compartments in the press crown and which compartments are completely within the press crown and do not extend down into the uprights of the press whereby a joint in the compartments is eliminated.
The elimination of the joint in the compartments which would customarily appear at the upper ends of the uprights is of importance because casting problems are reduced, and the problem of making an oil-tightjoint between the press crown and the uprights is likewise eliminated. The uprights of the press, according to this in-. vention, can be relatively simple, and regular castings and casting complexities attendant the forming of thecom partments for the gears 46 are all confined to thecon-I I struction of the press crown.
According to the present invention, therefore, the press can be more quickly and readily assembled and there is no possibility that, during use of the press, the joint between the crown and the uprights will become sprung or commence to leak whereby the lubricating fluid for the gears 46 might become lost. f
The clutch-brake unit 40 is illustrated in some detail.
clutch-brake devices that could be employed. The clutch may be of the'type disclosed in United States Patent 2,180,218, issued to the same named inventor. InFigure 4 the gear 36 is bolted to hub 72 which is journalled on shaft 38 by bearings 74. Hub 72 has a flange connected rigidly with a clutch shell 76 having spline means 78 on which clutch plates 80 are slidably mounted.
Shaft 38, in turn, has keyed thereto, as indicated by key 82, a hub member 84 having external splines 86 on which are slidably mounted the movable clutch plates 88 Figure 3,
that are interleaved with clutch'plates 80. Hub 84' also comprises theiclutch plate 90 stationary thereon at the right end thereof. Still another plate at the left side, identified at 92, forms a cylinder 94 for receiving the annular piston 96. Plate 92 also extends radially outwardly and forms one of two spaced brake plates 98, the otherof which is integral with piston 96. Disk 100, between plates 98, is provided with notches (Figure which receive the edges of brackets 102 mounted in the crown of the press thereby rigidly to hold plate 100 against rotation while at the same time permitting some axial movement thereof.
Friction disks 104 are provided between the several clutch plates and brake plates for efiecting frictional engagement therebetween. Springs 110, acting on studs 112, normally make the clutch ineffective and urge the brake: plates into braking engagement. A supply of pressure fluid deliveredto cylinder 94 through the conduit means114 and passage 116in shaft 38is operable to force the clutch' plates into frictional engagement while simultaneously disengaging the brake plates.
According to known practices, a conduit connected. to passage 116 by a rotary joint can be employed for supplying. pneumatic pressure to the passage or exhausting the passage as by a solenoid operated valve in the conduit. The pressure of this supply can be regulated and controlled so the clutch will act as a safety link in the drive train andslip upon the platen encountering, a predetermined overload.
In this connection, the location of the clutch according to this invention is important because the clutch operates at a much slower speed than it would if it were on the high speed shaft 30 and the inertia mass which it must accelerate at the time of starting the press is much smaller. The clutch, accordingly, is considerably less abused in the location according to the present invention than it would be if it were mounted on the high speed drive shaft 30.
Another important advantage obtained from locating the clutch-brake unit 40 on the intermediate shaft 38 is that in making speed changes in the press the clutch-brake unit is much less affected than if it were located on the high speed drive shaft 30. For example, in a press adapted for operation over a wide range of speeds, the clutch must be capable of delivering full tonnage at the lowest speed, and with the clutch located according to the present invention no change in the structure thereof is necessary to accommodate to the higher speed.
At the same time the location of the clutch-brake unit according to this invention on the intermediate shaft 38 between the flywheel 39 and the crankshaft has definite advantages in connection with starting and stopping the press platen and with the action of the press during a period of overload.
As to the starting of the press, at the instant of closing the clutch the stationary mass on the output side of the clutch must be accelerated to operating speed, and during this interval the clutch experiences its severest service. By placing as much of the drive train as is practicable on the input side of the clutch the inertia load, consisting of the platen and crankshaft and the portion of the drive train between the clutch and crankshaft, that must be set in motion by the clutch upon closing thereof, and stopped upon closing the brake, is kept at a minimum.
Similarly, upon opening the clutch and setting the brake, the same inertia load must be brought to a halt and this is more readily accomplished with the brake located according to this invention than if a greater inertia load were located between the brake and the platen.
As to the slipping of the clutch under conditions of overloading of the platen, the location of the clutch on the intermediate shaft places most of the inertia of the rotating parts on the input side thereof whereby, under the conditions when the clutch will slip, the shafts and gearing on the output side thereof are protected and cushioned from the loads that would be imposedrthereoniif the halting or slowing down of the platen under overload". conditions would also have-to stop or slowdowna direct connected inertia load that also included'the inertia load of theparts mentioned above.
While the clutch-brake unit, locatedaccording to: this invention, ofiers the advantages referred to above itoffers also an advantage over. the location thereof at a still higher speedlocation. in that no problems ofheat dissipation arise with the unit of thisinvention in the described location. The unit is'of adequate size to dissipate all of the generated heatso as to preventheat damage to-th'e clutch and brake facings while still'being sufficientlysmall to; permit economical manufacturing.
ltwill be seen that the clutch-brake unit provides means for selectively clutching gear 36 to shaft 38' and for unclntching the gear from the shaft While simultaneously locking the shaft againstrotation.
At this point reference may be'had to Figure 2, wherein-it' is to be noted that all of the drive train loading from motor 22 to gears 46 is accessible'from above the press so that at any time service on the pressis required, such as adjustment, replacement or repair of the clutch-brake unit, it can readily be accomplished in the simplest'possible manner. This is of advantage, not only in theconstruction of the press, but also in the maintenance thereof.
It has been mentioned that the platen is guidable along the'uprights 12 and 14-during its reciprocatory movement in the press, and a detailofthis guiding arrangementis illustrated in Figures 9 andlO.
Each of the uprights 12 and 14 preferably has one guiding surface formed thereon by a fixed but detachable gib, while the other guiding surface is provided by a detachable and adjustable gib. In Figures 9 and 10 a detachable and adjustable gib is illustrated at 120, and it will be seen to extend parallel to a machined surface 122 on the inner face of upright 12 and to be adjustably retained in position on the upright by cap screws 124 that extend through slots 126 in the gib and into threaded engagement with upright 12.
The position of gib on the upright may be adjusted by the provision of shimmed spacers 128 spaced along machined surface 122 between it and gib 129.
It will be apparent that gib 120 can be adjusted relative to spacers 128 either toward or away from the corresponding guiding surface on platen 18 to get a close fit of the gibs against the corners of the platen.
It will be understood that this invention is susceptible to modification in order to adapt it to different usages and conditions, and, accordingly, it is desired to comprehend such modifications within this invention as may fall within the scope of the appended claims.
1. A press of the character described, having a frame and a platen mounted for reciprocation thereon, and a drive motor for operating mechanism to actuate the platen, in combination with a flywheel and flywheel shaft driven by the motor at a predetermined speed, an intermediate clutch and brake shaft with a friction plate clutch and brake mounted thereon having a gear driven from said flywheel shaft at a lesser speed than the flywheel shaft, a pinion on said intermediate shaft, a crankshaft, gear means thereon for engaging the pinion on the clutch and brake shaft whereby the crankshaft is operated at a speed lower than the intermediate clutch and brake shaft whereby the clutching and braking function is performed at relatively slow speed as contrasted to the speed of the flywheel shaft.
2. A press of the character described, having a frame and a platen mounted for reciprocation thereon, and a drive motor for operating mechanism to actuate the platen, in combination with a flywheel and flywheel shaft driven by said motor at a predetermined speed less than that of the motor, an intermediate clutch and brake shaft having at least one gear means at each end, said clutch being of the friction plate type and said clutch and brake shaft being driven from said flywheel shaft at a lesser speed than the flywheel shaft, a crankshaft, and gear means at each end of the crankshaft. larger than the gear means at each end of the clutch and brake shaft and meshing therewith whereby the speeds of the motor, flywheel shaft, clutch and brake shaft and crankshaft are progressively lower from the motor to the crankshaft.
3. A press of the character described, having a frame and a platen mounted for reciprocation thereon, and a drive motor for operating mechanism to actuate the platen, in combination with a flywheel and flywheel shaft driven by said motor at a lower speed than the motor speed, a pinion on said flywheel shaft, an intermediate clutch and brake shaft with a friction plate clutch and brake thereon, a gear on the intermediate shaft engaging said pinion on the flywheel shaft adapted to drive the brake and clutch shaft at a slower speed than the flywheel shaft, pinions on either end of said clutch and brake shaft, a crankshaft, gears on either end of said crankshaft engaging the said pinions on said brake and clutch shaft whereby the speed of the crankshaft is materially slower than that of the brake and clutch shaft and the brake and clutch shaft is materially lower in speed than the flywheel shaft, whereby the braking and clutching and declutching can be effected at lower speeds.
4. A press of the character described, having a frame and a platen mounted for reciprocation thereon, and a drive motor for operating mechanism to actuate the platen,
the combination of a flywheel and flywheel shaft driven 8 j by the motor, an intermediate clutch and brake shaft carrying a friction plate clutch and brake, a crankshaft, said motor being arranged to drive theiflywheel shaft with its flywheel, the intermediate clutch and brake shaft and the crankshaft through interconnectinggearing so that the flywheel shaft will rotate at high speed and the crankshaft will rotate at low speed and the brake and clutch shaft will rotate at an intermediate speed while still being in the 'line of power fromthe motor to .thecrankshaft to permit clutching and de'clutching' at a lower speed than the motor speed and at not as low. a speed as the crankshaft to save wear on the clutch, brake and gearing.
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