US 2746177 A
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y 2, 1956 F. MACCARONE FOOTWEAR AND PROCESS OF MAKING SAME 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed April 29, 1953 INVENTOR. FRED Macaw/20m:
flTTURNEYS May 22, 1956 F. MACCARONE 2,746,177
FOOTWEAR AND PROCESS OF MAKING SAME Filed April 29, 1953 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 IN V EN TOR. Ema MHCU/IR ONE HTTORNEYS May 22, 1956 F. MACCARONE FOOTWEAR AND PROCESS OF MAKING SAME 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed April 29, 1953 INVENTOR. 5; BY FRED MAGCARONE (741; MM
ATTORNEYS United States This invention relates .to footwear ands-the. process of making same.
Flexibilityof footwear across the sole. hastreceived.
Wide :consideration among. shoemakers. for ..many .years andmany suggestions have beenadvanced with .the purpose of increasing .such flexibility .Some suggestions in volved reducing. theamount. of .material embodied in atent the portions .of.footwear which 'are.subject-.to bending.
or flexing duringuse by the .wearer... Many of such-. sug.;
gestions. required great accuracy. in preparing. the .parts embodied in .the footwear.and.assembly thereofl.
The object .of thisinventionis .toproducetfootwear,
both open and closed,. pumps, strap, and other types,
flexible across that portion which bends duringuse by thev wearer In the :practice .of this ..invention,-.standard.. shoe .makingequipment, with whichshoe factoriesare now provided, may. be largely. used and. the. major portions of shoe parts arentilized withno changes therein..
In one phase of:this.invention, theuse of aninsole is entirely eliminated andin another phase thereof .the. full insole is used-but notunitedv centrallyto .the outsole, leaving that portion. of the footwear free to flex,
This invention.providesmeans .Which can-be utilized in making a series \ofconsecutive shoe sizes whereas 'heretofore. eachshoesize required thatihe. parts making up.
the shoenbe specially. cut or .preparedlfor that particular size.
In the drawings, Fig.1 is a planyiew. of. an assembly of parts which. comprise -the.shank, toepiece and center piece; Fig. .2 an outside. edge .view of.Fi'g.'. .l; Fig; 3 a planviewof the combined upper.and assembly of Fig'.
1; Fig.1 4 underside of..Fig-,3 with the. last .in position;
Fig. VS a side. elevation ofthecomplet'edshoe; Fig. 6 a
in connection with the manufacture of an open toe and.
open back shoe, the illustrations representing, in actual size, a 3 /20 ladies .shoeri The assembly 1 is composed of three parts, the toe piece 2, the rear part member or sha'nk.3, and the resilient girth stretcher or center piece 4. Thetoe'piece '2 and shank 3 represent these parts cut'frorrr a normal insole of the'size required forthespecifio shoesize'as aforementioned; to more readilyexplain-these -features of the invention, and the portion of the full insole lying between the'parts 2 and'3 has-been discardedp Actually, in the manufacturebfthe'parts' 2 and 3,.they 1would .be cut independently; from. a sheet'sof suitable material,
leather or composite material usually used-in making shoe shanks.
The centerpiece 4 consists of a sectionof resilient 11131.. terial the edges 5 whereof have a contour.generally..con--- forming to the corresponding portions of the lower edges of the'upper 6 and is preferably one-half of an inch nar-. rower than the corresponding portionof the distance... across the forepart ofthe shoe. The resilient materiaL. or fabric from which the centerpiece-4 is cutris preferably' of the Woven type having incorporated therein rubber threads, which under stretching; action extend and thereby cause theusame to be extended and. which. tends to contract when released and permitted to relax. Such resilient material is preferably one with therrubber... of latex threads running crosswise, which type of-ma-. terial is known as oneway stretch fabric. .Other types. of resilient material may be utilized including two way... stretch fabrics with rubber .or .latex threads, providing; they have the capacity and power to draw or pull the. edges of the .upper 6 and the .usual lasting allowancefi towardone another and hold themin positiononthe, last with the lasting allowance overlying the bottom of the. last.
The center piece 4 has securedto it at its forward edge the toe piece?. and at its rear edge, the forward edge ofzthe shank 3. The amountof overlap of ithe'gcenteri piecewith the toe pieceand shank may be. varied ac-. cording to the size of the shoe-in which. it is to be.p1aced. Theassernbled center piece, toe piece and shank shown w.- in Big. 1 and utilized in Figs. 2, 3, 4 and 5. representsthe proper. size. for .a 3 /2C shoe- The length .of ,the resil ient .centerpieced is sufticientto allow. the .initialpo si-W tioning .of these parts to utilize the assembly, in a series. L of.shoe.sizes,.viz:. 3C and B; 3 /20 andB; 4C. and:.B..=
A shoemaker will readily knowhow each. of.the.men1-.-. bers-2 and .3 must be positionedwith,respectto the cen-u ter pieceto .provide. the proper predetermined..,size of the shoe he contemplates'rnakingh The'parts 2, 3 and; 4, when-placed in their proper. relation,..n1ay..be= cemented-a. together, or stitched, stapled, .or riveted together.
In the same -manner, theparts .2, .3 andA may. be initially. cut to .such sizes in .order that they, maybe utilized to makeother ranges of: shoe sizes as-vwillnbe readily. understoodby a shoemaker;
The upper 6 is cut to the usual size .(to 3 /21? sizeas illustrated in Figs. 1 toS). The lasting allowance 8 of. the upper 6 is stitched as illustrated in Fig.1? to the edges;,. of the center piece 4 while the center pieceis re1axed,--1 thereby uniting upper, center-piece, toe pieceandshankw Any suitable type of stitches may be used which will leave the-seam line-generally flat. 1 The shankis then; shaped in the'usually employed molding machine to-the'.-irequired configuration.
Theshoe last 7, of the required size to make the shoe. under construction, is then inserted into-the, uppeninthe manner. usually practiced in-shoemaking and thei-last is driven home in the-usual manner, whereupon the center;- piece'4, the toe piece 2, shank-.3, the upperd and-thelasting allowance 8 assume their proper relative -posi-- tionsfl When the last is inserted in the assembled upper, center; piece,.toe piece, and shank, the pressure or force of seatfl ingi therlast causes the resilient materialto stretch- ;orextend at such places-and along such lines-seas rte-permit? 1116781108 upper'to assume the size and configuration ofw the-last to which it corresponds in size.v The lasting allowance will also conform tothe edge ofthe last'and iz liein: close relation to the last edge;.after the.= lastqhas beenz-driven home and the lasting-allowancevhas beeni hammered.
The shank may then-be tacked to thealast as usually practicedrin shoemaking. Cement is thCDxflPPllfidytO ther;
toe piece and the forward ends of the center piece in order to secure such parts together and the rear edge of the center piece is likewise cemented to the shank even though these parts might have been previously stitched, riveted or stapled together.
If necessary, the piece of footwear is given the usual roughening operation along the surface of the lasting allowance. Cement is then applied over the lasting allowance, the outsole is put in place and the last carrying the piece of footwear is then inserted in a conveyor machine or other suitable machine whereby the outsole is securely cemented to the piece of footwear. The shoe is then finished in the usual manner.
In some instances, the shoemaker prefers to form shoes with wings 9 and as shown in Fig. 4. Such wings are also cemented to the shank as illustrated in Fig. 4.
It is to be noted that the major portion of the normal shoemaking procedure has not been changed. The uppers, lasting allowance, soles, shank reinforce, back straps, all retain their normal cut and configuration. The lasts are of standard size and so used; the last molding machines and the sole attaching machines are also of standard 'types.
In the drawing, Figs. 1 to 5, the center piece 4 lies next to the outsole and the toe piece and shank overlie the center piece. The center piece may be used reversed whereby the toe piece and the shank lie undermost and the center piece overlies them.
In the modification shown in Figs. 6 to 9 a full insole 11 is utilized as shown in Fig. 6 which insole is prepared in the usual manner (a size 413 as illustrated) for use in the production of a given shoe size. The upper 12 is likewise cut and formed to a predetermined size, corresponding to the size of the insole 11. The center piece 13 of resilient material is cut to a width smaller than the insole (it may be cut one-half inch smaller in width than the insole) and less in width than the measurements of the shoe size under construction and is secured to the upper by the stitches 18. The difference in crosswise dimensions of the center piece to the shoe size is sufficient when the last 14 is driven home into the upper to put the elastic under tension, which causes the lasting allowance 15 on both sides of the upper to be drawn into position with respect to the last.
In the manufacture of the shoe of Figs. 6 to 9, cement is applied on the underside of the lasting allowance at the shoe toe, and a series of tacks 16 are then driven through the cemented portion of the lasting allowance and into the last as usually practiced in shoemaking by the use of a bed lasting machine whereby the toe portion of the lasting allowance is cemented to the underlying insole 11. In this type of operation a narrow line of cement is applied to the edges of the forepart and shank of the insole corresponding in width to the overlap of the lasting allowance as indicated at 21 in Fig. 6. This application of cement is made before the insole is inserted in the shoe and is allowed to dry as is well understood in shoemaking. In this type of shoe it is preferred to form a series of perforations 17 through both sides of the lasting allowance wherethrough cement or a solution is applied to soften the cement on the insole. The cement or solution spreads through the perforation 17 'and contacts the cement, softening it and causing it, when it resets, to cement the underside of the lasting allowance and the top surface of the edges of the insole together while the parts are on thelast. The outsole is then attached in the conveyor machine and the shoe finished in the usual manner. If desired, a small area of flexible cement may be applied to the center portion of the forepart of the outsole to keep it centered with respect to the flexible insert and the shoe.
In Fig. 10, the bottom of a closed shoe is illustrated,
- last when driven home.
in Fig. 10. The last is then inserted and driven home. Cement is applied to the toe piece 2 and to the underside of the lasting allowance underlying the toe piece. Cement is also applied to the shank 3 of the shoe and to the lasting allowance overlying it. The shoe with the last therein is then put into the bed lasting machine which drives the tacks into the toe of the shoe and into the last and simultaneously tacks the shoe seat (not shown) to the shank and to the last. It is to be noted that when the last is driven into the shoe of Fig. 10 the resilient material of the centerpiece stretches to conform the shoe size to the last size and retains the lasting allowance over the edge of the last. The shoe is then finished by the usual method of cementing a soleto the upper and the shoe otherwise finished in the usual manner.
In Figs. 11 and 12, a strap type sandal is illustrated which embodies a full size insole such as is shown in Fig. 6. The straps 19 are stitched to the resilient centerpiece by the stitches 20 as shown in Fig. 12. The insole is then inserted in the shoe and is preferably at this stage not secured therein. The selected size last for the shoe is then inserted in place and driven home. The resilient centerpiece will stretch in order to compensate for the size of the shoe. It is to be noted that the straps actually form the upper of the shoe and are to be consideredas the upper in the appended claims. If necessary, the portion of the upper to which the sole is to be applied is roughened, cement is applied and the sole then cemented in position in the usual method of shoemaking and the shoe finished in the usual shoemaking manner.
The center pieces 6 and 13 preferably have outer edges which conform generally in contour to the shape of the lower edge of the shoe upper and are materially smaller than the desired shoe size. In fact, the varying widths of the center pieces must be less than the distance between the inner edges of the lasting allowance when in the position in the footwear. The difierence in the relative widths of the center piece and the opening which it is to span must be such as to require the center piece to be stretched from the relaxed position when the last is inserted and pressed into the'upper. This construction insures that pull will be exerted on the upper and force it to conform to the shoe last and retain it and the lasting allowance in fixed position until the outsole is attached, which then secures the parts in their permanent relation.
According to this invention, the width of the shoe, or other piece of footwear, is determined and formed by the Inasmuch as the resilient center piece is of less width than the ultimate shoe size and has the capacity to stretch when the last is driven home (and tends to relax when the force or pressure is released) it will compensate for the extra amount of material required to form the shoe to the size of the last. Thus, putting the center piece under tension while inserting the last, draws the lasting allowance over and downwardly with respect to the edges of the last. When the sole of the shoe is applied and secured to the upper, while the last is still within the shoe, the shoe size is fixed and the removal of the last and release of pressure on the center piece will not affect the shoe size. The center piece, when released of the pressure of the last, remains under some tension in position in the shoe and'provides a foot rest for the ball and sole portions of the wearer's foot.
1. In a shoe,, a bottom assembly including a toe piece, a rear part member and an elastic girth stretcher in the space between the toe piece and the rear part member, said girth stretcher being attached at one end to the toe piece and at its other end to the rear part member, said girth stretcher being of less width than the toe piece and the rear part member along the portions to which it is attached to the toe piece and the rear part member.
2. In a shoe, an upper having a bottom margin, and a shoe bottom assembly including a toe piece, a rear part member and an elastic girth stretcher positioned between the toe piece and the rear part member and secured in edge-to-edge abutting relation to the bottom margin of the upper, said girth stretcher having less width than the interior of the shoe forepart.
3. In a shoe, a bottom assembly including a toe piece, a shank member and an elastic center piece bridging the space between the toe piece and the shank member and having its side edges ofiset inwardly from the side edges of the toe piece and the shank member respectively, said elastic center piece having less width than the interior of the shoe forepart.
4. In a shoe, a bottom assembly including a toe piece, a rear part member and a center piece bridging the space between the toe piece and the rear part member and having its side edges ofi'set inwardly from the edges of the toe piece and the rear part member, and a fitted shoe upper having a bottom margin arranged in edge-to-edge abutting relation to the center piece and in underlying relation to the toe piece and the rear part member respectively, said center piece being attached at one end to the toe piece and at its other end to the rear part member, said center piece being of less width than the interior of the shoe forepart.
5. In a shoe, a bottom assembly comprising an outsole, an insole assembly comprising a toe piece, a rear part member and a center piece in the space between the toe piece and the rear part member and having its side edges offset inwardly from the edges of the toe piece and the rear part member, and a shoe upper having a bottom margin arranged in edge-to-edge abutting relation to the center piece and positioned between the outsole and the toe piece at the toe end of the shoe and between the outsole and the rear part member at the rear part of the shoe, said center piece being attached at one end to the toe piece and at its other end to the rear part member, said center piece being of less width than the interior of the shoe forepart.
6. In a shoe, a bottom assembly including a toe piece, a rear part member and a center piece having its side edges oifset inwardly from the edges of the toe piece and the rear part member, and a shoe upper having a bottom margin arranged in coplanar relation to the center piece and in overlapping relation to the toe piece and the rear part member, respectively, said center piece being attached at one end to the toe piece and at its other end to the rear part member, said center piece being of less width than the interior of the shoe forepart.
7. A shoe comprising a bottom assembly including a toe piece, a rear part member, an elastic center piece expanded widthwise of the shoe and a shoe upper member 6 having a lasting margin secured to the center piece in edge-to-edge abutting relation thereto, secured to the toe piece in overlapping relation thereto, and secured to the rear part member in overlapping relation thereto, said elastic center piece having less width than the interior of the shoe forepart.
8. The process of shoemaking which comprises the steps of providing a fitted upper having a lasting allowance, providing a fabricated unit comprising a shank piece of size corresponding to the heel and shank portions of the bottom of a last on which the shoe is to be conformed, and a center piece of thin flexible elastic material of width less than the forepart of the last by an amount greater than the lasting allowance of the upper on opposite sides of the shoe, attaching said fitted upper to the center piece in edge-to-edge relation by stitching, then forcing the last into the shoe thereby stretching the elastic center piece to draw the upper snugly against the forepart of the last, lasting the upper to the shank piece, and thereafter attaching an outsole.
9. A shoe comprising an upper, an outsole and a fabricated insole, the insole having a shank piece co-extensive with the interior bottom of the shoe in the heel and shank areas and a relatively thin flexible center piece of elastic fabric having width less than the interior of the shoe forepart, the margins of the upper being secured in over lasted relation to the shank piece and in edge-to-edge relation to said elastic fabric.
10. A shoe comprising an upper, a tread sole and a fabricated unit comprising a heel, shank and toe portions respectively co-extensive with corresponding interior areas of the shoe bottom, and a relatively thin, flexible ball portion of elastic fabric having Width less than the ball portion of the shoe, the margins of the upper being secured in edge-to-edge relation to said elastic fabric in the ball portion and in over lasted relation to the shank and toe portions.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 204,785 Ballou June 11, 1878 1,784,806 Fried Dec. 9, 1930 2,135,170 Covanagh Nov. 1, 1938 2,185,993 Haskell Ian. 2, 1940 2,451,570 Lyness Oct. 19, 1948 2,485,114 Sanchioni Oct. 18, 1949 FOREIGN PATENTS 2,425 Great Britain of 1898 493,544 Belgium Feb. 15, 1950