US 2748249 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
y 9, 1956 M. COLLERATI 2,748,249
METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR HEATING FLUIDS Filed March 9, 1953 FIG. I
F I G.
INVENTOR MARIO COLLERATI ATTORNEY nite States METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR HEATING FLUIDS This invention relates to an electric heater, and more particularly to an apparatus for heating a quantity of fluid such as water.
The object of the invention is to provide an electric heater which will efficiently and economically heat a large volume of fluid such as water in a minimum of time.
Another object of the invention is to provide an electric water heater which is constructed so that the danger of accidental explosions is minimized so that damage to installations or personnel will be prevented.
Still another object of the invention is to provide an electric water heater which utilizes a stationary body of fluid that is heated, there being a tubular conduit immersed in the body of fluid whereby there will be a minimum amount of electrical energy used in heating the fluid.
A still further object of the invention is to provide an electric water heater which can be installed at any elevation and wherein the electric heater is simple and inexpensive to manufacture.
Other objects and advantages will be apparent during the course of the following description.
In the accompanying drawing, forming a part of this application, and in which like numerals are used to designate like parts throughout the same:
Fig. 1 is a longitudinal sectional view taken through the electric water heater, constructed according to the present invention.
Fig. 2 is a sectional view taken on the line 22 of Fig. 1.
Referring in detail to the drawings, the letter a designates a tank or container which is adapted to hold a quantity of liquid e such as water therein. Extending through the tank a is a tubular conduit b through which water circulates, and the inlet end for the Water is indicated by the numeral 1. The outlet end is shown at the top of the coil and the outlet is indicated by the numeral 2.
Arranged in the lower portion of the tank a is a heat generator and the heat generator 0 includes a plurality of heating elements which are adapted to be connected to a suitable source of electrical energy by means of wires 3 and 4. Connected to this circuit is a thermostatic circuit breaker d which can be adjusted as desired to vary the amount of heat being supplied.
A valve means is provided for automatically controlling the level of liquid or fluid e in the tank a, and this valve means is indicated by the letter f. The valve 1 may be secured within the upper portion of the tank a and the valve 1'' may be actuated by a float member 6 which is secured to a rod 5.
There is further provided a safety valve which is indicated by the letter g. This safety valve g communicates with the interior of the tank a through a pipe 7 and in the event that pressure exceeds a predetermined amount in the tank a, the safety valve g will permit steam to be safely discharged therethrough. A means is provided for mm o ice
indicating the liquid level of the fluid e within the tank, and this means comprises a tube h which may be made of any suitable material such as glass. Arranged below the level indicating tube It is a drain cock i which is connected to the lower portion of the tank so that the tank can be emptied as when the liquid e is to be changed. Also, the drain cock i can be used to empty the contents of the tank when parts are to be replaced inside of the tank.
The tank a comprises an inner casing 8 and an outer housing 9. A cover 10 is mounted on the upper end of the inner casing 8, and a cover 11 is mounted on the upper end of the housing 9. A base 12 closes the lower end of the housing 9, and a bottom wall 13 is mounted on the bottom of the casing 8. The space within the casing 8 is indicated by the numeral 14. This space 14 defines the water heating chamber. The letter i designates a compartment in which is positioned the circuit breaker d and access can be had to the compartment j by removing the cover 12. The lower end portion of the housing 9 is indicated by the reference character 9a.
There is provided between the casing 8 and the housing 9 and the covers therefor, a space or cavity which is filled with a suitable insulating material, and the insulating material is indicated by the numeral 15. An annular ring 16 supports the insulating material 15 thereabove.
The tubular coil b is preferably made of a material having a high rate of heat conductivity and the inlet end 1 of the conduit b is adapted to be connected to a duct or pipe 17 which leads from a water feed line. For connecting the end portion 1 to the pipe 17, there is provided a stufling box 18, Figures 1 and 2. The outlet end 2 of the conduit b is connected to a discharge pipe 19 by means of an intermediate coupling which includes a stuiiing box 20. The valve device 1 which controls the amount of Water entering the casing 8 is connected to the casing and housing by a mechanism that includes a stufling box 21, and leading from the stufiing box 21 is a tubular pipe 22 which leads from a feed line.
The heat generating mechanism 0 embodies a pair of jackets 23 which are made of a heat conducting material, and the jackets 23 each include flanges which may be secured to the bottom wall 13. Positioned within each of the jackets 23 is a heating unit 24 which may be an electrical resistance wire, and the wires 3 and 4 lead from the resistances 24 to a suitable source of electrical energy. The thermostatic circuit breaker d is electrically connected to the wire 4 and there is further provided a manual circuit breaker 25 which can be used for disconnecting the electric current when the apparatus is not being used.
From the foregoing, it is apparent that there has been provided an electric heater which includes a chamber 14 for holding a charge of water e. The valve device insures that the water e will remain at the proper level. When the electric circuit to the heating element 24 is completed, the water e will be heated whereby the tubular coil b will also be heated by conduction. Thus, the water entering the coil b through the pipe 17 will be heated and the hot water at the desired temperature will be discharged through the pipe 19 in the direction of the arrow Fa. The pipe 19 can be used for conveying the hot water to a shower head or any other appliance desired and due to the efliciency of the heating apparatus, a plurality of shower heads or appliances can be simultaneously supplied with hot water. The temperature of the water leaving through the pipe 19 is maintained constant because the temperature of the water 2 is maintained constant. The water e for filling the chamber 14 is supplied through the duct 22 and the direction of water through the duct 22 is indicated by the symbol Fb.
The present invention can be utilized in installations of any height because the outlet pressure of the hot water does not depend on gravity and the hot water will be supplied. regardless of the height at which the apparatus is installed. Furthermore, there will be no danger of explosions since there is only a small quantity of water in the coil 1) so that even if overheating in the coil b does occur, the pressure will be gradually dispersed in the line whereby the danger of explosion will be eliminated. As previously stated, the present invention permits the water circulating through the coil b to be maintained at a constant temperature since the temperature of the stationary charge e is maintained at a constant temperature, the charge e acting as a heating agent for the circulating water so that the circulating water will be heated with a minimum consumption of electrical energy.
in the electric heater of the present invention the water being heated is moving continually through the coil b and the coil b is heated by a charge or body of water e which is positioned in the tank a. The heater can be installed at any height and the pressure of the outgoing water does not depend 011 the elevation of the apparatus, but is dependent only upon the pressure existing in the water line.
The tank can be made of a suitable material such as sheet metal and the heating elements 24 are automatically maintained in operation. Also, the electric heater has an unlimited capacity since the water to be used is continually passing through the tubular coil b.
The letter F indicates the direction of flow of water through the inlet pipe 17 to the tubular coil 11.
1. A heater for supplying heated liquid under pressure comprising a closed tank for liquid, a conduit extending through said tank and communicating with the interior thereof and adapted to be connected with a supply. of liquid, valve means in said conduit and means responsive to the level of liquid in said tank to close said valve when the liquid level reaches a point in the upper portion of said tank which is spaced from the top thereof, heating means extending into said tank for heating the liquid therein, said means comprising electric heating elements adapted to be connected to a source of electrical energy, a safety valve arranged in communication with the upper end of said tank at a point above the level of liquid maintained in said tank, a continuous tubular coil positioned within said tank below the level of liquid maintained therein and having an inlet and outlet exterior of said tank whereby liquid may be passed through said coil under pressure and heated by the hot liquid Within said tank, and a drain cock communicating with the lower portion of said tank.
2. A heater as recited in claim 1 in which said safety valve is pressure-responsive and opens when the pressure in the space at the top of said tank exceeds a perdetermined value.
3. A heater as recited in claim 1 in which said tank is constituted by a cylindrical body and an upper and a lower cover are secured thereto to form said closed tank.
4. A hea er as recited in claim 2 in which said tank is surrounded by a housing constituted by a cylindrical body and an upper and lower cover, insulation interposed between said housing and said tank except at the bottom of said tank, said lower cover being removable to permit access to said lower cover of said tank.
5. A heater as recited in claim 4 in which said heating elements are mounted on the lower cover of said tank and extend upwardly into the lower portion of said tank.
6. A heater as recited in claim 4 in which said housing is spaced from tank at the lower end oi said tank by an annular ring and said insulation is supported by said ring.
7. A heater as recited in claim 2 in which a vertically disposed transparent tube is positioned exteriorly of said tank and communicates with said tank at its upper and lower ends.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,503,972 Berg Aug. 5, 1924 1,522,474 Hostkotte Ian. 6, 1925 1,560,528 Baum Nov. 10, 1925 1,907,357 Kovesdy May 2, 1933 2,036,815 Leader Apr. 7, 1936 2,081,206 Parker May 25, 1937 2,402,899 Knapp June 25, 1946 2,590,442 Miller et al Mar. 25, 1952 2,635,173 Radi Apr. 14, 1953