|Publication number||US2748443 A|
|Publication date||Jun 5, 1956|
|Filing date||May 8, 1952|
|Priority date||Jan 4, 1950|
|Publication number||US 2748443 A, US 2748443A, US-A-2748443, US2748443 A, US2748443A|
|Inventors||Dufford Harry M|
|Original Assignee||Dufford Harry M|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (3), Referenced by (11), Classifications (8)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
J1me 1956 H. M. DUFFORD METHOD OF APPLYING A BUILDING WALL FACING 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Original Filed Jan. 4, 1950 IN VEN TOR. Fag/.7. Dzzffanz K 2 g gs:
June 5, 1956 H. M. DUFFORD METHOD OF APPLYING A BUILDING WALL FACING 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Original Filed Jan. 4, 1950 INVENTOR.
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. e A, (4 I r Uflltfid S a- 1C6 .Patented June 5, 1956 METHOD OF APPLYING A BUILDING WALL FACING Harry M. DuiforeLChicago, Ill.
2 Claims. (Cl. 25-154) This invention relates to a facing for building walls, and is concerned primarily with the method of applying thereto a plastic mix, such as mortar, in a predetermined pattern whereby to simulate a structure of stone blocks having a natural and artistic texture. More particularly I aim by this invention to produce a simulated stone appearance characterized by a complete lack of repetitiveness insofar as concerns the arrangement of stones in the pattern and the texture of their exposed faces. A previous disclosure of this invention is contained in my application for patent filed January 4, 1950, under Serial No. 136,690, now Patent No. 2,616,145 of which this case is a division.
In the past various expedients have been employed for applying to the wall of a building or elsewhere a facing which is intended to simulate a stone structure. All such finishes are monotonous in that they display a regular repetition of the pattern and of the texture of the stones incorporated therein, due largely to the fact that a step of impression is employed in the process. The molds used in all such practices with which I am familiar do not permit of any extended variation either in the pattern, or in the texture of the finish applied to the stones comprised in the pattern, the result being that any such facing is deficient in naturalness of appearance and is unacceptable for many purposes.
The finish made according to my invention utilizes a changeable-pattern stencil of unusual characteristics. This stencil is open from front to back, and its size and shape may be varied within wide limits. Likewise the network of partitions which is comprised in the stencil to form the desired pattern may also be varied widely. The stencil is used when applying a mortar coating to the wall face to provide a series of interconnecting grooves which simulate joints between the blocks of stones that are regularly comprised in a building structure. The mortar face in each of the areas defined by the grooves may then be worked over by hand to pro duce a desired texture. Not only is the pattern produced upon the wall with the aid of this changeable stencil entirely variable at will, but the areas between the groove-joints are rendered susceptible of individual treatment so as to acquire a surface texture which in each case may dififer interestingly from those in other like areas. In this manner a facing may be built up on the wall with a large number of simulated stones of natural and interesting appearance, and the texture of the stones over the'entire wall face will be sufliciently varied by the individual hand treatment so as to avoid any suggestion of repetition or sameness.
My invention is concerned here with the process by which such a wall facing is produced. The design incorporated into the stencil is changeable at will and this is readily accomplished by means which permits of releasable connections between certain bars comprising the stencil frame and other bars comprising the partitions therewithin. In addition, the frame bars are optionally v extensible so that the size and shape of the stencil may readily be varied. A suggestive means that may be utilized in carrying out the method herein disclosed is set forth in detail in the following description wherein reference is made to the accompanying drawings in the manner following:
Figure l is an elevation of a portion of a building wall whereon the application of a simulated stone facing is in process;
Fig. 2 is a similar view showing the portion of a wall adjacent the eave of a gable roof;
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary sectional view, taken on line 3-3 of Fig. 1; 4
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary elevational view showing a portion of the stencil frame adjacent its left lower corner;
Figs. 5, 6, and 7 are transverse sectional views, taken respectively on lines 55, 66, and 77 of Fig. 4;
Fig. 8 is a fragmentary detail in elevation showing a modified stencil partition bar at its point of end connection with a second partition bar (or frame bar);
Figs. 9 and 10 are sectional views, taken respectively on lines 9-9 and 10-1tl of Fig. 8; and
Fig. 11, which is a view similar to Fig. 9, shows a modification in the locking means in which one of the partition bars is releasably locked to another such bar (or to one of the frame bars).
The stencil that may be advantageously employed in carrying out this invention comprises a four sided frame having a pair of vertical bars R and L interconnected at top and bottom by horizontal bars T and B, in combination with a plurality of partition bars some of which, designated as V, are vertically disposed while the remainder, designated as H, .are extended horizontally. The cross sectional form of each of the frame and partition bars is desirably that of a channel whose open side is faced toward the work.
At the frame corners (see Figs. 4 and 6) the channel legs a of one bar, the vertical bar L, for example, are cut away to allow the connecting web b to project endwise for overlying the webs b of the adjacent horizontal bars T and B, the distance of this web projection being sufficient to permit of a limited rotative movement about a pivot which is here shown as a bolt 15 which traverses registering holes formed in the overlapped webs, with a wing nut 16 or other pressure device coacting therewith in the usual way. Each projecting web I; may be outset slightly to form a shoulder 18 at about the point where it overlies the web'of the adjacent bar, this shoulder assisting in the maintenance of a right angle at the frame corner. For a different angle the pivotal connection is first relaxed to allow one or both the frame bars to swing into another rotative position.
The size of the stencil frame will be determined in the light of experience. For convenience in description we may assume it is 32" x 36", with the long dimension horizontal. The size of the channel bars is also rela tively narrow, a width of /2" or so being suggested. The frame bars, both vertical and horizontal, are desirably extensible, this being accomplished (see Figs. 4 and 5) by utilizing for each bar a pair of channel sections 20 (outer) and 21 (inner) of slightly different cross-sectional size so that one section may slidingly interfit with the other. Into an elongated slot at in the Web b of one of the channel sections is projected a securing bolt 23 based on the web b of the other interfitted section,- the bolt being equipped with a wing nut 24 whereby to tighten one bar section to the other 'in any selected position of endwise adjustment. 7
So that neither bar section may separate transversely from the other, the interfitting legs a and a of the outer and inner channel sections may be slanted inwardly. to a slight extent; this convergence of the legs also facilitates withdrawalof the stencil from the surrounding mortar as will be hereinafter explained in detail. There is also provided, according to-Figs= 8-11, aplurality of closely spaced holes 25, about 1" apart, in the inner legs a of the several outer bar sections 20, other complementary holes 26-then being formed in'the adjacent-legs a of the inner bar sections 21 so as to register'therewith in each of the lengthwise adjusted positions of the frame bars, all-for a-purpose that will presentl'y'appear.
The partition bars now to be described are illustrated in detail in Figs. 4 and 7. At opposite ends of these bars, also of channel cross section, thewebs may be extended sufficiently beyond the legs d to provideend walls 0 when bent laterally (see Fig. 7). According to the construction of these figures, a block 36 having a deep slot 31 is fitted within the channel of the partition bar; the end Wall e of the bar is received within this slot as are also-the inside legs a and a of the frame bar sections to which the partition bar is to be joined. This block which projects inwardly of the legs a and a but slightly is provided with a bore 32' whose axis is parallel with and extends lengthwise of the partition bar and with a cross bore 33 which aligns with a hole 34 in the web 6 thereof. A locking pin 36 is slidably fitted in the bore 32 so as to engage the end Wall e of the partition bar and exert thereon a frictional clamping pressure which is transmitted to the adjacent legs of the frame bar. To advance and hold the locking pin in itseffective position a wedge pin 37 is slidably fitted in the cross bore 32, this pin having a tapered-face 38 in engagement'with a like tapered end face of the locking pin. When driven forwardly the wedge pin will advance the locking pinto frictionally lock the partition bar to the frame barat a selected point; to release this look the wedge pinis driven back'again by a suitable implement which isentered'into the hole 34. With this type of lock no holes and 26 need be provided in the legs of the inner and outer sections of the extensible frame-bars.
The locking means illustrated'in-Figs. 8-10 makes use of elongated brackets 49 affixed, as by welding, near opposite ends of each partition bar within the channel thereof; the two spaced legs 1 and g of such a bracket will then he transversely of the partition bar with the outer leg g adjacent the end thereof to provide an end wall therefor. in the legs 1 and g of such a bracket I provide aligned holes 41 through which 'a locking bolt 42 is slidably fitted. The acting end of this bolt is doubled back upon itself to provide a cross sectionally elongated head 43, thereby requiring that the conforming hole 41 provided for its reception in the bracket leg g be elongated in the form of a slot. A plurality of keeper holes 25 and 26, spaced closely apart, are also provided in the adjacent legs a and a of the frame bar, each of these holes being elongated as indicated clearly in Fig. 10.
A spring 47 which is coiled around the bolt exerts opposing pressures on the bracket leg 1 and the bolt head '43, tending to maintain the latter in an advanced position wherein it is engaged with one of the keeper holes 45. The tailend 48 of the bolt is laterally turned to extend through a slot 49 in the web of the partition bar so as to provide means for manual retraction of the bolt.
In the construction .of'Figs. 4 and 7, the partition bar is clampedtightly to the frame bar so as to remain connected therewith during operative handling and use of the stencil. frame. In addition, the partition bar is prevented from turning about an axis longitudinallyv of'itself, and this is an important point. The same objectives are attained by the construction of Figs. 8-10, the crosssectionally elongated form of the bolt'head assuring a non-rotative mounting of the partition bar'in the frame.
In'Fig'. 11a generallyrsimilar bolt connection is pro.- vi-ded,'but 'in this'case the bolt '51 is straightfrorn end to end so as to preserve a round contour-at'everypoint. The bolt is supported by 'two spaced legs h andi depend- 'these legs.
ing from a bracket 52, the bolt being slidably fitted through a pair of alignedholes 53 which are formed in A coiled spring 55 surrounding the bolt exerts a forward thrust upon a pin 56 which extends laterally therefrom and through a pair of registering slots 57 and 58 in the bracket. and bar Web c, respectively. This pin affords a means by which the bolt may be manuallyretracted against the tension of the spring 55. The web 0 of the partition bar H in this construction is desirably extended beyond. the outer bracket leg 1' so as to overlie and engage with the web b of the proximate bar R; and substantially at a point which is opposite the leg i the bar web c is humped out to provide a shoulder db'for engagingthe Wfib'b, thereby tocorrectly fix the angular position of one bar relative to the other. In this construction, a plurality of aligned holes 25 and 26 is provided lengthwise of the inner webs a and a of the frame bars, each to receive the acting end of the bolt 51 to establish a releasable connection therewith. The extending end of the web c which overlies and maintains engagement with the outer face of the proximate bar web acts to prevent any rotative-movement of the partition bar whenmounted in placeas just described.
A multi-sided stencil frame which is variously adjustable provides a mounting'for a plurality of partition bars which also are adjustable to various positions so as to produce achangeable-pattern stencil. For example, Fig. 2 suggests a stencil pattern that is adapted for positioning adjacent an inclinedeave 61 at one end of a building having a gable roof.' Here the top frame bar T is shown as considerably shortened, and the left frame bar L considerably lengthened so as to-extend obliquely in parallelism with the cave, the remaining frame components-still remaining in their usual vertical and horizontal positions. The connecting means of Figs. 8-11 are such as to permit the partition bars to join with any frame bar that is obliquely disposed. It is manifest that the-present stencil, because of its flexibility as to size and shape, will therefore be'suitable for use in various places upon walls where irregular conditions-are encountered. A'lso'in Fig. 2 the pattern provided by the partition bars carried inwardly of the frame is somewhat different from that illustrated in Fig. 1. These two figures show two of many possible variations in the stencil pattern.
It will be noted that each partition bar is equipped at each of its ends with means for releasably'securing it to one of the channel-bars of the frame or. to another partition bar. The same assortment of partition barsassembled-into a stencil may be combinedto'produce any one of a number of different patterns; and by selecting partition bars of still different length either from the same or other assortments the pattern may be varied still fur 'These changes may be made readily in one and the same stencil, or several stencils may be made up, eachhaving a pattern differing fromtheothers, the several stencils to be used in any order-consecutively, alternately, at random, or otherwise. The point is that the pattern exhibited in each stencil is that of a desired arrangement of stones of varying size and shape to be reproduced'by transference to a predetermined area-upon the Wall of a building in the manner now to be explained.
The stencil, completed. and ready for use, is a unitary structure, open from front toback except for the several bars comprised in the frame and partitions. By using bars of channel cross section, the stencil ismade light and rigid, and may be handled with ease and facility by a skilled workman, perhaps with the aid'of a handle bar 62 as per Fig. 1. To the building wall W whereon the facing is to be-placed is firstsecureda suitable lathing 65 to which is keyeda scratch-coat of plastic mix, and over this is spread-and bonded theusualbrown coat 67. It is upon a foundation such as that'that I build an outer coat of mortar'M or the like'which, With the aid of the present stencil is fashioned into simulated stones S havingan entirely natural appearance. These stones may appear at random, or at regular, irregular, symmetrical, or asymmetrical places, or according to any other desired arrangement, and be variously colored and textured. There is accordingly full opportunity for avoidance of repetition or sameness in design.
Having completed the foundation to which the simulated stonework to be afiixed, the workman places the stencil against the wall at the first point of application. It will be noted that the open sides of the channel bars are faced toward the wall for engagement therewith, and that the channel legs are converged inwardly toward the wall. Mortar of an appropriate mix and color is then spread upon the wall foundation through the openings between the frame and partition bars of the stencil, and applied to the desired thickness. When done, the stencil is removed by an outward pull away from the wall. In this movement, the frame and partition bars are free to separate and draw away from the applied mortar, and the linear spaces which they formerly occupied in the mortar-applying operation then appear as grooves 76 of perhaps /2 or so in width. The location of these grooves is, of course, predetermined by the pattern that is built into the stencil, and they simulate perfectly the joints that regularly appear between adjacent stones in a masonry structure.
The same stencil with the same or a different pattern may again be applied to the next adjacent wall area that is to be operated upon. It is optional, of course, to use another patterned stencil instead. A further spread of mortar is applied through the re-positioned stencil to the foundation awaiting its application, and thereafter the stencil is again removed. This operation is repeated as often as necessary until the entire building wall has been covered, one or more stencil patterns being used in these operations. While this work is proceeding other workmen with the aid of trowels or other tools then go over each of the mortar areas defined by the grooves 70 to fashion the surface thereof into desired textures. Skill acquired in this operation will enable the workmen to proceed rapidly, and produce various texture finishes with great dexterity, the effect being wholly natural and very attractive to the eye.
It is optional to vary the procedure, within certain limits, from that hereinbefore described. For example, texture finishing of the applied mortar may take place while the stencil frame is maintained in its origin-a1 position upon the wall; in other words, the order of the stencilremoving and texture-finishing operations may be reversed in case there should be any advantage in so doing.
When the stencil frame is to be placed in a second position immediately adjacent a position which it has previously occupied for a mortar-applying operation, it is desirable that each pattern to be produced on the wall should connect up with and appear as a continuation of the pat terns already established. To assure of attaining this objective the frame bar proximate to a pattern already built up on the wall is positioned in the groove-joint along the border of that pattern. By so proceeding, there will be a single groove-joint along the common border of two immediately adjacent pattern applications, thereby maintaining the integrity of the overall pattern that is extended over the wall in its entirety.
For convenience in description, I have throughout this specification referred to stones as the building units to be simulated. This term should be construed to include any kind of blocks, or other equivalent units. Also in specifying a wall to which the present invention is applicable, I would have it understood that this term includes either the inner or outer side of the wall of a building, or of a partition interiorly thereof, or, in fact, of any wall whether or not it be structurally any part of a building.
1. The method of applying a variable texture finish in a desired pattern to the surface of a wall whereon is a foundation suitable for its reception, which comprises positioning against the foundation a frame having partitions defining a plurality of openings arranged in accord ance with a predetermined pattern, in applying a mortar mix through the stencil openings over the entire areas thereof and against the wall foundation for bonding thereto to form a layer of the mortar mix having a thickness greater than the thickness of the stencil, in then removing the stencil frame by a movement outwardly from the wall to leave intact, as grooves therein, joint impressions in the applied mortar layer formed by the frame and its partitions during the mortar-applying operation, and then working over the surface of said layer of mortar mix in each of the groove-enclosed areas individually to form the same into a desired texture.
2. The method of applying a variable texture finish in a desired pattern to the surface of a wall whereon is a foundation suitable for its reception, which comprises the steps of positioning against the foundation in a first position a stencil frame characterized by a plurality of openings of size and shape such as to form a desired pattern, in applying a mortar mix through the stencil openings over the entire areas thereof and against the wall foundation for bonding thereto, in removing the stencil frame by a movement outwardly from the wall to leave behind, as grooves therein, joint impressions formed in the applied mortar during the mortar-applying operation, in re-positioning the stencil frame in a second position immediately adjacent the first position with one of the frame sides rested in the next adjacent groove formed in a preceding mortar-applying operation, in then applying therethrough more of the mortar mix for bonding to the wall foundation, as before, and then removing the stencil frame, as before, and in repeating this operation until a desired portion of the wall area has been mortar-coated with a continuous pattern of groove-joints extended thereover, and in working over the surface of the mortar mix in each of the groove-enclosed areas individually to form the same into a desired non-uniform texture.
References Cited in the tile of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,341,528 Walling May 25, 1920 1,564,578 Kennedy Dec. 8, 1925 2,595,142 Herck Apr. 29, 1952
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|US1341528 *||Jul 22, 1919||May 25, 1920||Walling William Fred||Means for producing imitative-tile flooring and the like|
|US1564578 *||Oct 15, 1924||Dec 8, 1925||Henry G Kennedy||Pattern for marking walls and method of using same|
|US2595142 *||Feb 12, 1949||Apr 29, 1952||Ce Brick Corp||Method for producing designs on building walls|
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|US4349588 *||Sep 8, 1981||Sep 14, 1982||Henry Schiffer||Simulated brick or tile|
|US4624082 *||Jun 27, 1985||Nov 25, 1986||Mansfield Peter W||Grid system and method for cast forming monolithic concrete roof covering|
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|WO1999025933A1 *||Nov 1, 1998||May 27, 1999||Sharon Dana||Attached decorative stones|
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|U.S. Classification||264/33, 52/745.9, 52/314, 264/35|
|International Classification||E04F21/04, E04F21/02|