US 2748446 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
June 5, 1956 F. H. MASON 2,748,446
TUFTED RUG AND METHOD OF MAKING SAME Filed Nov. 25, 1952 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5
INVENTOR. FRED H. MASON 'ATTO RN EYS TUFTED RUG METHOD OF MAKING SAME Fred H. Mason, Natick, Mass., assignor to General Latex & Chemical Corporation, (Jambridge, Mass, :1 corporation of Massachusetts Application November 25, 1952, Serial No. 322,446
4 Claims. (Cl. 28-74) This invention relates to the manufacture of rugs of the type known as tufted, stitched and/or hooked rugs, wherein the pile or tufts are punched, stitched or hooked into a woven fabric backing which type is herein collectively referred to as tufted rugs, as distinguished from the more conventional types such as Jacquard, Wilton, Axminster and the like, wherein the pile is woven into or otherwise formed as an integral part of the rug structure.
Tufted rugs, although considerably less expensive than the more conventional rugs, are subject to certain wellrecognized disadvantages such as the ease with which the tufts may be separated from the backing, the tendency to wrinkle and curl, poor resistance to wear, the difiiculty in overcoming slipping when laid on a smooth floor, etc.
The principal objects of the present invention are to provide a tufted rug which not only overcomes the aforementioned disadvantages, but which has an appearance and wearing qualities comparing favorably with the more conventional types, and to provide an eflic-ient and economical method of manufacturing such rugs so that they may be sold at a price substantially less than the more conventional types.
Further objects will be apparent from a consideration of the following description and the accompanying drawings, wherein:
Fig. 1 is a an isometric view of the obverse face showing the successive steps in manufacturing a tufted rug in accordance with the present invention;
Fig. 2 is a view similar to Fig. 1, but showing. the reverse face;
Fig. 3 is an enlarged section through the tufted rug before application of the underbase;
Fig. 4 is a view similar to Fig. 3 after the application of the underbase; and
Fig. 5 is a view similar to Fig. 4, showing looped tufts.
In accordance with the present invention tufts are applied to a woven fabric base in any convention manner so as to provide a tufted surface simulating a pile fabric. The fabric base may be of any conventional material such as sheeting, drill or burlap, but where economic considerations are of great importance light weight fabrics such as crinoline, osnaburg and the like may be advantageously used since the underbase, hereinafter described, provides a most reliable reinforcement. The tufts or pile may be of the V or W type and either stitched, punched or hooked into the fabric base. Such tufts may be in the form of loops, cut or uncut, and may comprise vegetable, animal and/or synthetic fibres and the tufts may be of either uniform or varying length and twist.
Having prepared the tufted fabric base, there is applied to the reverse side of the fabric an underbase consisting essentially of an elastic matrix adhering to the fabric base and anchoring the tufts thereto and resilient granular material or coarse filler distributed throughout the matrix so as to produce a relatively rough undersurface which enhances the resiliency of the underbase. The weight of the underbase should be between a minimum of approxiatent O "ice mately 16 ounces per square yard and a maximum which need not exceed 48 ounces per square yard which gives a thickness of between approximately 5 inch and inch. A lesser amount or weight does not give sufiicient reinforcement, particularly when using a light weight fabric, and an underbase in excess of 48 ounces per square yard is unnecessary as well as uneconomical.
The elastic matrix may comprise natural and/or synthetic rubber, or the so-called elastomers, which may be applied in the form of an aqueous dispersion or latex, a heavy cement or a plastic compound. Where natural and certain synthetic latices are used, they may be either prevulcanized or vulcanizable compounds and where cements, doughs and the like compounds are used they may contain the usual vulcanizing ingredients, fillers, etc., so long as they are capable of firmly adhering to the fabric backing and penetrating the interstices thereof so as to anchor the tufts.
The granular particles or coarse filler preferably comprises any of such well-known resilient materials as crumb rubber, e. g., Vulcrumb, ground scrap or reclaim, ground cork, vermiculite, and the like low gravity resilient granules having a particle size between approximately 5 and 40 mesh and of low water absorption. The ratio of the granular particles to matrix may vary froma minimum of the order of 0.5:1 to a maximum of the order of 4:1, the preferred ratio being appromately 1: 1.
The underbase may be applied in any conventional manner as by a gauge knife, doctor blade or roll, or by calendering, and one or more coats may be applied in order to attain the desired thickness or weight. The coating may be dried in any conventional manner as by passing the coated fabric through an infra red drier, hot air drier, or a combination of both; and if desired a smoothing roll may be employed after preliminary drying to produce a more uniform thickness. Vulcanization, if necessary, may take place during the drying, or as a subsequent operation.
Specific examples of What is now considered the preferred formulations are as follows:
Example 1 Dry parts Natural latex (concentrated to 61%) Ammonium caseinate (stabilizer) 0.5 7 -ethyl 2 methyl undecanol 4 sodium sulfate (wetting agent) 1.0 Water to give total solids 55-65% Potassium hydroxide 0.75 Sodium orthophenylphenate (preservative) 0.5 Alkyl aryl sulfonate (dispersing agent) 0.7 Sulfur 0.3 Zinc oxide 5.0 Zinc mercaptobenzothiazole 0.5 Zinc dibutyl dithiocarbamate 1.0 Symmetrical dibetanaphthyl paraphenylenediamine (anti-oxidant) 1.0 Ground vulcanized rubber particles Sodium polyacrylate (thickener) 0.3
In this example the sulfur and/or zinc oxide-zinc dibutyl dithiocarbamate is added just prior to the application so as to prevent a premature cure and maintain stability.
The compound may be prepared by standard methods using either individual dispersions of the vulcanizing ingredients or a master batch of the same; and the granular material of rubber particles may be mixed in either without prior dispersion, or prewetted with a portion of the water indicated and all or part of the wetting agent.
Example 2 Dry parts Synthetic latex (GRSZOOO) cone. to 60% 100 Ammonium caseinate (stabilizer) 0.5
7-ethyl 2 methyl undecanol 4 sodium sulfate (wet- A typical mesh analysis of a satisfactory granular resilient filler is as follows:
Per cent Passing mesh 100 mesh 50 30 mesh 20 40 mesh 10 80 mesh trace In any case, the major portion should be of 20 to 30 mesh for the most satisfactory results.
Referring to the accompanying drawings which illustrate the construction of a rug, carpet or mat constructed in accordance with the present invention, the numeral 1 designates a woven fabric base or backing of unbleached cotton having a count of about 32 x 40. Cosely spaced rows of tufts 2 are punched into or otherwise anchored to the fabric backing 1 so as to produce a pile surface 3 on the obverse face of the fabric backing, it being understood that the tufts 2 may be cut or sheared as indicated in Figs. 3 and 4, or looped as shown at 2' in Fig. 5.
After having prepared the tufted fabric base the underbase 5 in the form of a latex dispersion having the composition of either of the above examples, is applied using a gauge coater set to provide a gap between 0.075" and 0.100 which produces a dry coating or base of approximately 28 ounces per square yard. The coating was dried under infra red lights for about five minutes. As shown in Figs. 4 and 5, the underbase 5 consists of a matrix 6 of rubber which anchors the ends of tufts 2 to the fabric 1 and granular particles 7 which produce a relatively rough surface.
Samples of the finished rug were tested for oven age at 100 C. and after five days showed no discernible aging, and Fadeometer tests after 60 hours showed only a very slight change. Another sample after being boiled in a standard wash-yellow dye solution for a total of five hours, showed no discernible effect after drying, indicating that the piles of the tufted fabric may be dyed after application of the specialized rubber backing.
It will be noted from the foregoing that the underbase 5 is not only effective firmly'to anchor the pile or tufts and also to provide a reinforcement for the fabric backing, but furthermore acts as a sizing or stiffening agent which overcomes the tendency of the rug to curl or wrinkle and imparts anti-slip properties. When the tufts or piling are closely spaced and properly sheared, the rug not only has an appearance but also wearing qualities comparing favorably with conventional rugs of similar weight.
It is to be understood that this disclosure is for the purpose of illustration and that various modifications may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as set forth in the appended claims.
1. The method of making a rug of the class described,
which comprises applying to the undersurface of a fabric backing having closely spaced tufts producing a tufted outer surface, a coating of a fluid composition consisting essentially of a dispersion of resilient granular particles having a size between approximately 5 and 40 mesh and an aqueous elastomeric latex, the ratio of granular particles to latex solids being between approximately 0.511 and 4:1, and thereafter drying said coating to produce a non-cellular matrix which adheres to said fabric so as to anchor said tufts and provide a reinforcement for said fabric, said granular particles producing a relatively rough, resilient surface, the dry weight of said matrix and granular particles being between approximately 16 and 48 ounces per square yard.
2. The method of making a tug of the class described, which comprises applying to the undersurface of a woven fabric backing having closely spaced tufts producing a tufted outer surface, a coating of a fluid composition consisting essentially of a dispersion of resilient granular particles having a size between approximately 5 and 40 mesh and an aqueous rubber latex, the ratio of granular particles to latex solids being of the order of 1:1, and thereafter drying said coating to produce a non-cellular matrix which adheres to said fabric so as to anchor said tufts and provide a reinforcement for said fabric, said granular particles producing a relatively rough, resilient surface, the dry weight of said matrix and granular particles being of the order of 28 ounces per square yard.
3. A rug comprising a fabric backing having tufts projecting from one face thereof, and a non-cellular underbase having a weight of between approximately 16 and 48 ounces per square yard and consisting essentially of an elastic matrix adhering directly to the opposite face of said backing so as to anchor said tufts and provide a reinforcement for said fabric, and resilient granular particles having a size between approximately 5 and 40 mesh dispersed throughout said matrix, a ratio of granular particles to matrix being between approximately 0.5 :1 and 4: 1, said granular particles producing a relatively rough, resilient surface.
4. A rug comprising a woven fabric backing having tufts projecting from one face thereof, and a non-cellular underbase having a weight of the order of 28 ounces per square yard and consisting essentially of a rubber matrix adhering directly to the opposite face of said backing so as to anchor said tufts and provide a reinforcement for said fabric, and resilient granular particles having a size between approximately 5 and 40 mesh dispersed throughout said matrix, the ratio of granular particles to matrix being approximately 1:1, said granular particles producing a relatively rough, resilient surface.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,591,018 Cutler July 6, 1926 1,608,243 Schavoir Nov. 23, 1926 1,816,574 Foster et al July 28, 1931 2,016,876 Stolzenburg Oct. 8, 1935 2,119,457 Dyke May 31, 1938 2,147,362 Bloomberg Feb. 14, 1939 2,217,137 Roth et a1. Oct. 8, 1940 2,351,498 Fowler June 13, 1944 2,575,851 Taylor Nov. 20, 1951 2,678,081 Rainard et al May 11, 1954 OTHER REFERENCES Transactions of the Institution of the Rubber Industry, Aug., 1944, pp. 53-65.