|Publication number||US2749753 A|
|Publication date||Jun 12, 1956|
|Filing date||May 11, 1953|
|Priority date||May 11, 1953|
|Publication number||US 2749753 A, US 2749753A, US-A-2749753, US2749753 A, US2749753A|
|Inventors||William H Adams|
|Original Assignee||Northrop Aircraft Inc|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (12), Referenced by (22), Classifications (8)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
June 12, 1956 w. H. ADAMS 2,749,753
TEMPERATURE MEASURING DEVICE Filed May 11, 1955 nited States Patent TEMPERATURE MEASURING .DEVICE William H..Adams, Manhattan'Beach, Calif., assgnor to zNorthrop Aircraft, Inc., Hawthorne, Calif.,.a corporation of California ApplicatonMay 11, 1953, Serial No. 354,243
1 Claim. (Cl. 73-362) This :invention relates to temperature measuring instruments and particularly to vsuch instruments of the type utilizing a wire. resistance temperature responsive element and adapted for xinclusion in a Wheatstone'bridge circuit.
Many instruments of the above type are known-butall are rzlackingsin satisfactoryperformance under the conditions .required of the Vinstrument of :this invention, such conditions including great accuracy; linearity .in reading over awide rangeof temperature; capability of 4relatively high `outputvoltage `without ythe use 'of amplifiers, while drawing little current; easy but accurate adjustment; and capability .of installation at any pointat which-temperature measurements are to be taken.
Among the most generally used electrically operated temperature measuring instruments are:
Thermocouples included in .anelectrical .circuit-have a verylow output at low temperature readings, requiring theuoutput to be amplified, and thus areliable to inaccuracies ,caused by the tendency of yamplifiersfto drift. In addition, thermocouples require cold junction r'reference points which .are not .required in the .temperature measuring means yof .this invention.
Resistance bulbs-have a very low output, requiring amplification withritsattendant inaccuracy, and the .power input cannot bezincrea'sed sutiicientlyto obtain .'suiiciently highoutput'without overheating the bulbs. .Furthenthese instruments .are Inot adjustable but are vmade for :particular limitedzr-anges of temperature.
'.lhermi'stors-used in vtemperature 'measuring circuits, have a negative temperature resistance coefficient, that is, the resistance'decreases Vas .the temperature increases. Therm'istors .have aflow output requiring. ampliticationand input power :cannot zbe `increased `Without `danger .of Vdestroying the vthermistor since the rise intemperaturesdue to .an increased input voltage would ydecrease the resistance ofthe thermistor, thus increasing the flow-of current through it until destruction resulted, The-output 'ofthese devices is also non-linear.
It is an object of this invention to provide a novel temperature sensing element or .probe adapted for incorporation -in a novel electrical circuit to produce @an instrument capable of use overa wide temperature range, and adjustable so that a predeterminedrange of output voltage may be obtained for the range of temperature=to which `the circuit is adjusted.
Another/object of the invention is 'to -provide Ia n'ovel temperature sensingprobe construction adapted .for inclusion `in -a variety of circuits whereby variousmeasurements may be made, indicating conditions causing variations in temperature, .suchforinstance .fas the rate 'of 'ow of 'a iiu'id over a surface `with .consequent temperature changes of the surface lcaused yby thefriction of the fluid owingthereover.
A 'further object is to provide temperature responsive means included in electrical circuits which does not need amplifying means to provide a voltage output suiicient to be utilized in telemetering applications.
A1stillfurther=object ofthe invention is toprovide temperature measuring apparatus ofligh accuracy and `rapiti response which doesnot requirethe use of'vacuum tubes.
VYet another object oflthe invention is`to provide-a small, rugged, and sensitive temperature responsive device. v
A further objectfof the invention is toprovide a temperature vresponsive element which may be incorporated in standard A`N fittings such as'washers, screws, land lthe like enabling accurate temperature readings to be taken iin locations in Iwhicht is vdifiicult to use ',previouslyexisting equipment satisfactorily. j
Still further objects and features of the invention-will hereinafter appear from the following description vread in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
The invention, briefly-stated,-consistsin a temperature probe of such small dimensions and strength of construction that `it may be positioned without-diicu'ltyat any point at which temperature readings are to be taken, the probe-.being incorporatedin a circuit provided with'a relatively high input voltage and providing a suiciently high output voltage'to be used without amplification for telemetering the readings. The circuit and probe are arranged so -that` they may be adjusted `before vrinstallation 'to give accurate readings over wide ranges of temperature, such las from 70 F. to +650 F. and may also ibe readily checked after installation to ensure that the V`accuracy of the readings of the instrument has vnot `been impaired.
Figure l is a longitudinaltsection, drawn on'an enlarged scale showing a typical construction of the temperature sensitivesprobe utilizedin-th'e apparatus of the invention.
Figure la is -a `section similarto Figure l showing 'the temperature sensitiverprobe Varranged in aihollow ring.
Figure 2 is a cross section, approximately full size, through a .typical'location for the temperature sensitive probe having Athe temperature `sensitive e`lemerrt-incorpoV rated in a screw stud mounted in the skin of yan air/vehicle 'inorder `to measure the temperature -of :the skin.
'Figure '3 is afdiagram of va typical electrical circuit in which 4aprobefof the invention is incorporated.
Figure 4 is a curve showing variation of output ofthe instrument `with change 'in temperature; it will be noted thatfthecurve is practicallyfstraight'line due to `the rapid transfer ofheatifrom'thezspecimen to the temperature responsive 'elementof the-device.
Referring 'nowto 'the drawings In=Figure l thenumeral 10 indicates theleads of theh'eat sensitive element shown by 'way of example, 'the leads being preferably insulated by a vplastic coating 111 and enclosed in a protective sheath 12 of braided wire.
The fheat sensitiveelement is provided by a length of insulatediinewire -13 of about 50 feetinflength of an alloy of '70% fNi andf30% 'Fe sold commercially under the trade name Bal'co and characterized by the linearity of its temperaturevolt-age `curve Vover a wide range. -One end ofthe wireis `bared'and'-silver-solderedto a shortexposed end of one'leadfand thewire is wound around theinsulate'dr lead, which acts as a supportfor'the coil,`the other-endof receive the coil, the'insulating vmedium oeing `then set.. 'The coil is retained lin the `machine screw yor vother ern closing member by any suitable insulating cement. Such a cement should meet predetermined electrical requirements after exposure to high humidity or water immersion, should have a precisely known temperature reaction in terms of temperature and time, with the ability to withstand both low and high temperatures, and should have good mechanical strength under vibration. A cement having the required characteristics may be selected from one, or by combining more than one, of various preparations commercially available. It should be noted that by the described construction the amount of metal encasing the temperature sensitive coil is reduced to a minimum as is the thickness of the cement used to iill the space between the coil and the wall of the bore of the small fastening member in which the coil is mounted.
The completed probe is then carefully calibrated for its temperature voltage curve over a range of the extent expected to be encountered in use.
In Figure 2, the screw 14 is shown inserted in a hole drilled in the metal skin of a high speed airplane 15 and is retained therein by a washer 16 and nut 17 of a suitable plastic such as nylon.
It will be noted that there is little or no metal in proximity to the coil of the probe which could cause heat losses by conduction, and that the temperature sensitive coil is in close proximity to the part the temperature of which is to be observed since the cement coating is very thin.
In the event that it is desired to en-case the element in a washer-like container; the Washer may be grooved, and the heat or temperature responsive element bent into an arcuate form positioned in the groove, the open side of which is then covered with metal foil silver soldered thereover. Alternately the container may be stamped out of sheet metal to provide a body in the form of a hollow ring open at the back, the open side being closed by a at ring o-f thin metal silver soldered to the body after the heat sensitive element has been placed in position. The latter form of enclosing member is shown in Figure 1a with the same numerals as used in Figure 1 with the addition of letter a.
The probe is connected in a suitable bridge-type circuit, that shown in Figure 3 incorporating features basic to the novel circuit.
In the circuit, A and B indicate main leads between which a suitable source of electrical power is connected, supplying for instance 85 volts D. C. with the circuit constants shown.
In order to be able to adjust the circuit so that a range of to 5 volts output will be obtained over the expected range of temperature and with a probe wound to a known value of resistance, in the circuit shown the probe resistance being 5400 ohms, an adjustment to set the recording instrument such as a V. T. V. M. (not shown) to read volts at the high end of the temperature range is provided by the adjustable resistance R1 which has a value of 50,000 ohms.
A separate adjustable resistance Rs is provided in the line C across leads A and B to adjust the instrument to give a reading of zero at the low end of the temperature range, the value of R9 in the circuit shown being 35,000 ohms.
Fixed resistances are positioned in the iixed arms of the circuit, Rz being 4000 ohms, R3 5000 ohms, R1 5000 ohms, and a resistance Ra of 5000 ohms inserted in series with the arm of variable resistance R9.
Resistances R5 and Re which may be adjustable are of a value depending on the range of temperature to be measured and are provided so that the accuracy of reading of the instrument after installation may be readily calibrated against the curve obtained from the instrument before installation.
Preferably, to guard against damage to the instrument by a surge of voltage should the probe become open, a Thyrite resistor T is connected across the output from the instrument, and a fuse F is positioned in an outputlead. The resistor is a commercially available protective device having the characteristic of decrease of resistance with increase of voltage. In the event of a sudden increase of voltage the resistance of T instantly drops to a value passing suiiicient current to blow the fuse F.
Tests of the instrument in use have given an output linear within about 5%, and stability under normal conditions fo-r a period up to days is within about 1%.
Resistance of the leads in the circuit shown is of no consequence, thus enabling the probe to be positioned at various points at which temperature is to be measured without having to move the equipment operated by the output of the instrument, such as oscillator the frequency of which is controlled by the output of the instrument and which transmits the signals to be received by distant ground equipment.
The maximum current drain of the instrument is very small, being about 7 ma. at the low end of the temperature scale.
The temperature sensing element or probe is very rugged notwithstanding the small diameter wire used therein which is of the order of one mil and may be readily designed to withstand pressures of 5000 lbs. per square inch.
While in order to comply with the statute, the invention has been described in language more or less specic as to structural features, it is to be understood that the invention is not limited to the specic features shown, but that the means and construction herein disclosed comprises a preferred form of putting the invention into eiect, and the invention is therefore claimed in any of its forms or modifications within the legitimate and valid scope of the appended claim.
What is claimed is:
Electrically operated temperature measuring means of the kind described and comprising: a concentrated multilayer coil of wire; insulated leads connected to the ends of said coil on one of which leads the coil is wound and supported; an enclosing member of minimum thickness and of heat conductive material recessed to receive said coil and adapted to be secured at any point at which temperature readings are to be taken; a layer of electrical insulating medium of minimum thickness securing said coil in said member; a Wheatstone bridge-type .circuit in which said coil is connected as one arm thereof; means for supplying high voltage to said circuit, means for adjusting the output of said circuit to zero at the lower limit of a range of temperature to which said coil is subjected, means for adjusting the output of said circuit to a predetermined value at the maximum temperature to which the coil is subjected, the output of said circuit being utilized to operate equipment recording the temperatures measured by said instrument; and an element the resistance of which decreases with increase of voltage ar ranged between the output leads of the device and a fuse arranged in one of said leads.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 845,413 Haagn Feb. 26, 1907 1,460,530 Brown et al. July 3, 1923 1,715,374 Krueger June 4, 1929 1,867,870 Baker et al. July 19, 1932 2,113,610 Bacon Apr. 12, 1938 2,181,981 Smith Dec. 5, 1939 2,182,554 Galle Dec. 5, 1939 2,285,118 Jones June 2, 1942 2,365,706 Keinath Dec. 26, 1944 2,463,984 Lederer Mar. 8, 1949 2,680,583 Davis June 8, 1954 FOREIGN PATENTS 251,291 Great Britain July 22, 1926
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|U.S. Classification||374/183, 338/226, 338/25, 338/317, 374/185|