US 2749821 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
June 12, 1956 J. M. TIEN ET AL PHOTOCOPYING APPARATUS 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Sept. 16, 1953 INVENTORS (/flC/f M. 775 7'50 SHEA/Q M4 ATTO RN EY June 12, 1956 J. M. TlEN ET AL 2,749,821
PHOTOCOPYING APPARATUS Filed Sept. 16, 1953 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 lNVENTORS Me/z M. 77 w Tsu SHE/VG M4 BY Wwd:
ATTORNEY United States Patent 2,749,821 rnorocorrnse APPARATUS Jack M. Tien and Tsu Sheng Ma, New York, N. Y.
Application September 16, 1953, Serial No. 380,389
3 Claims. (Cl. 95'--77.'5)
This invention relates to photographic copying apparatus. It relates, more particularly to such equipment for photocopying or contact printing, in form that may be used in copying a page in a boundvolume such as a book or magazine and without a dark room.
In the numerous photographic machines'now on the market, there is ditficulty in obtaining exposure to the copying process of the edge of the printed matter nearest to the backbone of .a tightly bound volume such as a book or magazine. The procedure ordinarily followed, in an effort to meet this difiiculty, is opening the book and pressing the book as nearly fiat as possible, to expose the printing which is to be copied. Frequently there is blurring of the print of the printed page near the backbone of the volume, because of improper focus at that part of the page. Also the commercial equipment is heavy, cumbersome and relatively expensive.
we provide a simple device which is portable and may be taken by the reader himself to the library or other room where he may wish to make photographic copies and that gives a clear copy of all the printed page, whether bound in a tight volume or not.
Briefly stated, our invention comprises a translucent, generally tubular support provided with a longitudinal opening adapting the tubes edge, which defines one side of the opening, to fit into the groove at the backbone of an opened volume while the edge defining the opposite side of the opening rests upon the upwardly convex or bulging surface of the page that is opposite the one which it is desired to copy. A conventional source of light of photochemical activity is disposed within the support. Our invention comprises, also, the herein described means of holding this source of light centrally or axially within the support.
A modification of the invention includes a clip member for holding the photosensitive copying paper, tightly and in conformed relationship, against the page to be copied and around the said support. Another modification includes means, such as a defiectable curtain or a shape retaining member, substantially closing the said longitudinal opening within the tubular support,
The invention will be illustrated by description in connection with the attached drawings to which reference is made.
Fig. 1 is a perspective view of the preferred form of the invention, the various parts being in disassembled relationship for purposes of better display.
Fig. 2 is a perspective view of the apparatus in assembled form, with the sheet of copying paper, the page to be copied, and a protective sheet in the condition of being only partially bent around'the' support, the holding clip being removed and the view being partly broken away for clearness of illustration.
Fig. 3 is a transverse sectional view of the assembly of Fig. 2 after the various sheets have been completely bent or shaped around the translucent support and the cliphas been placed in position.
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary sectional view showing an as- 2 sembly of operating parts when the copying paper is behind the page to be copied, this being the condition for giving a direct reading negative.
Fig. 5 is a transverse sectional view of the modification in which a curtain is included to cover the opening in the tubular support.
Fig. 6 is a partial longitudinal sectional view on section line 6-6 of Fig. 3, the view being inthe direction of the arrows.
Fig, 7 is a fragmentary perspective of amodified form of the invention.
In the figures there are shown a translucentv support 2 provided with a longitudinal opening at least as long as the page to be copied, with end closing pieces 4 and 6, a conventional source of photochemical light- 8, here in the form of a tubular incandescentlight with leads 10 for attachment to a conventional source of electric current (not shown). Fluorescent or lumiline light may be used. The end 4 includes a slot 12 for insertion of the lamp and end 6 contains a circular receiver 14. to receive an end of the lamp.
The member 16, for closing the longitudinal opening in the tubular support is shape retaining, of arcuate cross section and of size and proportions to slip through the arcuate slot 20 in the end piece 6 and to be receivedin the arcuate element 18 in end piece 4.
There are shown also an open volume 22 (here a book) with backbone 24, page 26 which is to be copied, the copying paperv 28, protecting sheet 30 suitably oflight opaque material, and clip 32' shaped to fitover the assembly as shown in Fig. 3.
In the assembly shown in Fig.4, the sheet to be photographed lies against the translucent support with the copying sheet on the side of the paper away from'the support.
The deflectable flexible curtain 34 (Fig. 5) serves to close the opening defined between the edges 36 and 38in the generally tubular support member 2. The curtain isdefiected inwardly. when necessary to permit a bulging part of the book pages to protrude partly within the support.
The edges 36 and 38 are free, that is, unobstructed by any underlying part of the apparatus. Also the edges are spaced apart so that the opening defined therebetween is of substantial width. These features adapt one of the edges to fit into the groove at the backbone of an opened book while the other edgerests upon a page opposite the page to be copied and at asubstantial distance from the said groove.
In the modification shown: in Fig, 7, the clip 32 is replaced by cover 43 with fasteners 45 for clipping to the edges 36 and 38 of the support, at positions beyond the ends of the page to be printed. This cover is flexible and is fitted tightly over the assembly of sheets.
The operation of the device will be largely evident from the description that has been given and particularly from Fig. 3. The longitudinal opening defined between the edges 36 and 38 adapts the one edge to fit into the groove atthe backbone 24 of the book or other volume while the opposite edge restsupon the curved, upwardly bulging page 40 opposite the page which isto be copied. The page to be copied is bent around the cylinder and held smoothly thereover. The photosensitive copying sheet is also shaped around the cylinder and caused to conform closely with the page to be copied, the copying sheet being either inside the page to be copied or outside, the positionsdepending upon whether the page to be copied is printed on both sides.
- When the assembly has been made, with the copying sheet on the proper side of the page to be copied, then the protecting sheet 30.is applied and finally the clip 32 or the flexible cover of Fig. 7, although the clip and cover may both be dispensed with and the assembly held manually though less conveniently.
After the assembly is made, the page to be copied and the copying paper are in conforming relationship around the support 2, the source of light is then activated, as by turning on the electric current for the selected period of time. Then the current is turned off, the assembly is stripped, and the photocopying paper is processed in accordance with the conventional process for the particular copy paper which has been used. This may be an exposure by the dry transfer or two exposures by the wet process. The processing may be photomechanical for papers designed for such finishing operation, as with Verifax matrix paper.
Except as herein described the materials of construction are those which are conventional for parts of the types of elements shown herein.
The tube is translucent. It may be either clear or clear except for translucent coloring. It is shape retaining after being formed during the process of manufacture. Examples of material that may be used are glass and various plastics including polyacrylates such as polymethyl meth acrylate, cast phenol and formaldehyde condensation products, polystyrene, cellulose acetate, and glass-fiber-reenforced plastics. The end pieces 4 and 6 are suitably of the same material as the main body of the tube 2 although metal, wood, plastics, or any combination of materials described above is satisfactory for the parts 4 and 6 as well as the closing member 16.
Electrical connections for the lamp 18 are of any form that is convenient for the kind of electric current avail able, whether battery or power line.
The protecting sheet 30, curtain 34, and the cover of Fig. 7 are flexible sheets that are at least reasonably strong. Examples are strong paper, rubberized cloth, or flexible plastics such as polyvinyl chloride resin. This sheet is suitably black or of light absorbing color on one side and white or light reflecting onthe other. In the assembly shown in Fig. 3, in which the copying sheet comes between the page to be copied and the source of light, the black side of the protecting sheet 30 is turned towards the page to be copied. In the other type of assembly in Fig. 4, in which the page to be copied comes between the source of light and the copying sheet, the white side of the cover sheet 30 is turned toward the copying sheet, so as to increase the reflection of light in that direction.
The clip 32 and also the fasteners 45 are any kind of firm but somewhat springy material. Examples are 'springy beryllium copper alloy, steel, or brass.
Curtain 34 is supported within the tube 2 by a conventional, heat resistant adhesive (not shown) that may be applied as a solution of any one of the plastics described above, in a volatile solvent therefor.
The purpose of the flexible curtain 34 as well as the .7
shape retaining arcuate insert strip 16 is to prevent the accumulation of dust or other foreign material within the tubular support 2 when the apparatus is not in use. When the apparatus is in use, the flexible curtain 34 does no harm. It is over-width (as compared to the width of the said opening in the support) and can be pressed out of the way, if necesary, by the upwardly bulging part of the volume being copied. The strip 16, on the other hand, is withdrawn before the actualexposure in copying a page from the book with bulging page such as shown at 40 in Fig. 3. a
When it is desired to photocopy a loose piece of paper, which does not involve the ditficulties referred to in connection with photographing from a bound volume with narrow margin and steeply convex surface of sheets near the center line of the open book, then the strip 16 does not interfere with the wrapping of the said page around the support; the strip may be left in position during use of the equipment on the separate, loose sheet.
The edges 36 and 38 should be as thin as consistent with 4 necessary strength. A suitable wall thickness for the support 2 is A to 4: inch. The light source should be centered within the support, so as to give equal intensity of illumination of the copying sheet during exposure. Also, the generally tubular support 2 may have various shapes in cross section and the edge of it that rests upon the part of the page of the volume not being copied may be contoured as desired. The end 4 or 6 or both may be united permanently to the tubular support 2, as, for example, by a conventional adhesive (not shown).
More complete directions for the disposition of the copy sheet in relation .to the printed page to be copied follow, for various types of printed pages:
I. Page printed one side only.
a. Page translucent.
1. For direct reading negative: Page to be copied P comes between light source S and copying sheet C, nonreflecting NR or reflecting R side of cover towards C.
2. For reverse reading negative: C between S and P, R towards P.
b. Page opaque. For reverse negative only. tween S and P, NR or R towards P.
II. Page printed on both sides, may be used for reverse negatives only.
P a. Paper translucent: C between S and P, NR towards P b. Paper opaque: C between S and P, NR 'or R towards C be- The apparatus described is simple and inexpensive in construction, light in Weight, and effective in making accessible portions of the pages of tightly bound volumes which otherwise would require extensive and expensive equipment to flatten the book and hold the book flat during the copying process.
It will be understood that the term translucent is used to include light transmitting and clear.
It will be understood also that it is intended to cover all changes and modifications of the examples of the invention herein chosen for the purpose of illustration which do not constitute departures from the spirit and scope of the invention.
What we claim is:
1. In photocopying apparatus, for use in copying a page from a volume in the form of a book, magazine, and the like including a generally tubular, light transmitting support provided with a longitudinal opening and adapted to support over its surface a page of the matter to be copied; two free edges of the support defining therebetween the said opening, being of length at least equal to the length of the material to be copied and being spaced apart at a distance adapting one of the said edges to fit into the groove at the backbone of an opened volume when the other of said edges rests upon a page of the volume opposite the page to be copied and at a substantial distance from the said groove; a source of photochemical light within the tubular member; and means for holding a sheet of copying paper in conforming relationship over the page to be copied, the improvement comprising a removable shape-retaining closing member of length and width at least equal approximately to the dimensions required for closing the said opening when the closing member is in place and end pieces closing the ends of the said generally tubular support, one of the end pieces being provided with a slot of size and shape to cause the closing member to be introducible therethrough and the other end piece being provided with an element to receive an end of the closing member, the said slot and element being located at positions in the respective end pieces so as to hold the closing member in place for closing the said opening. I
2. In photocopying apparatus, for use in copying a page from a volume in the form of a book, magazine, and the like, including a generally tubular, light transmitting support provided with a longitudinal opening and adapted to support over its surface a page of the matter to be copied; two free edges of the support defining therebetween the said opening, being of length at least equal to the length of the material to be copied and being spaced apart at a distance adapting one of the said edges to fit into the groove at the backbone of an opened volume when the other of said edges rests upon a page of the volume opposite the page to be copied and at a substantial distance from the said groove; a source of photochemical light within the tubular member; and a resilient gripping member of size and shape to fit over substantially the entire area of the sheet of copying paper and hold the said sheet in conforming relationship over the page to be copied.
3. The apparatus of claim 1 in which the said means for holding the sheet of copying paper consists essentially of a resilient gripping member of size and shape to fit over substantially the entire area of the sheet of copying paper and hold the said sheet in conforming relationship over the page to be copied.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,290,478 Matias- July 21, 1942 2,512,487 De Lacy -c- June 20, 1950 2,572,930 Heldens Oct. 30, 1951 2,681,603 Grinten June 22, 1954 FOREIGN PATENTS 987,549 France Apr. 18, 1951