US 2749910 A
Abstract available in
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
June 1956 A. FAULCONER, JR 2,749,910
2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed March 9, 1953 IN V EN TOR. ALBERT/5'40; cv/VER Jk.
June 12, 1956 A. FAULCONER, JR 2,749,910
Filed March 9, 1953 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 I N V EN TOR. flz BERT/$401 Con/ER Jk.
r4 TTOR/V E ya r r 2,749,910 1C6 Patented June 12, 1956 MASK Albert Faulconer, Jr., Rochester, Minn., assignor to Research Corporation, New York, N. Y., a corporation of New York Application March 9, 1953, Serial No. 341,277
9 Claims. (Cl. 128-29) This invention relates to devices that are applied to portions of human or animal anatomy for the purpose of administering anesthetic, oxygen, therapeutic gases, gas masks etc., or for applying vacuum or pressure to a portion of the anatomy as in the so-called portable iron lung devices. In connection with anesthetic and the like masks which are applied over the nose and mouth of a living person or animals, and similarly in respect to the portable iron lungs, a problem has always existed of fitting the mask relatively tightly to the contour of the animal anatomy. Thus, in respect to masks for humans there is the problem of fitting the mask to the facial or bodily configurations. Heretofore, masks of this character have been made with relatively large flexible edge portions, the flexibility of the edge and to some extent the flexibility of the entire mask being relied upon to provide gas-tight contact along the fitting edge. Similarly, in the portable iron lung a problem has existed to provided a tight fit between the edge of the lung and the chest portion of the human or animal patient to whom it is applied. In all such prior devices it has not been possible to provide a satisfactory contact between the sealing edge and the body portion of the patient. Thus, with reference to anesthetic masks particularly, the masks had to be provided in several sizes and shapes and even then the mask when applied with considerable pressure might fit closely at some points against the patients face and yet fit only imperfectly at other points around the contacting edge of the mask.
It is an object of the present invention to provide an improved mask for application to the anatomy of humans or animals and to provide iron lung structure having a cavity into which gas is introduced and Withdrawn rhythmically (as in the case of the iron lung) in all such devices to provide an improved form of sealing edge capable of adjustment to the human or animal facial or bodily contours for which it is intended and then to provide for fixation of the contour when the device is in place so that once adjusted and molded to the anatomical surface, it will thereafter maintain such shape for maintaining a close sealing edge against such anatomical surface.
The invention is illustrated with reference to the drawings in which corresponding numerals refer to the same parts and in which- Figure 1 shows a side view of a patients head to which an exemplary form of mask of the present invention is applied;
Figure 2 is a plan or frontal view of the mask structure;
Figure .3 is a sectional view taken along the line and in the direction of arrows 33 of Figure 2;
Figure 4 is an under side view of the mask, as it appears to the :patient when it is about to be applied. Thus, Figure 4 is a view as taken in the direction of arrows 4-4 of Figure 1;
Figure 5 is the upper end view, as in the direction of arrows 55 of Figure 1;
Figure 6 is a transverse sectional view taken along the line and in the direction of arrows 6-6 of Figure 1(but with appliance 25 removed);
Figure 7 is a vertical sectional view similar to that of Figure 3 showing a slightly different valve structure;
Figure 8 is another exemplary form of the invention, in this instance a portable iron lung applied to a patient, this view being from the right side of the patient with the device in place on his body;
Figure 9 is a sectional view taken along the line and in the direction of arrows 99 of Figure 8.
Referring to the exemplary form of face mask shown in Figures 1-6, the mask there illustrated is for administration of gases, such as anesthetics, oxygen or the like to a human being. It will be understood that the form is merely exemplary, since the invention has wide useful: ness in the gask mask, oxygen mask, anesthetic mask and similar fields of masks for humans. Animal masks are considered as Within the purview of the invention.
in the exemplary form shown in Figures 1-6, the device consists of a mask portion generally designated 10 which is composed of an outer wall 11 and an inner Wall 12 of rubber. Walls 11 and 12 are joined together to form a continuous flexible bulbous edge 16 and are like-v wise joined together around the aperture 23. The mask is cast on a mold of metal and is made by dipping the mold into a latex bath so that the rubber deposits on the mold. The mask presents a generally conical configuration on its outer surfaces, being widened in the lower or mouth covering region 11A, which is the portion which spans the mouth of the patient and extends around across the lower lip of the patient. At the upper end 118 of the mask, the generally conical shape is narrowed, this being the portion that covers the nose portion and contacts in a line up along each side of the nose and over the bridge of the patients nose.
The inside of the mask is provided with a cavity at 13 bounded by the walls 12A-12A and having the for= ward (nose-embracing) wall portions at 12B and a lower inside wall portion 12C, which is generally over the patients mouth. The mask is provided with sufficient space to enclose the patients nose and mouth, but excessive space is undesirable. Referring to Figure 3, above the level of line 15--15 the inner and outer walls 11 and 12 are made with several dips so as to be somewhat thicker and hence slightly thicker than the face conrubber, is easily deflected. This face contacting portion rises at portion 16A, is shaped so as to bridge the nose of the patient, and then extends along the portion 16B along either side of the nose and thence dips downwardly at 16C where it also widens into a fairly commodious edge portion as at 16E in Figure 5 which contacts around the lower lip of the patient. It will be noted from the under side view as shown in Figure 4 that the contacting area of this smoothly curved double wall edge generally increases from the narrowest part 17A which bridges the nose, thence widens at 117B along the sides of the nose reaching a maximum at 176 at the sides of the mouth and then narrows to 17D (see Figure 3) around the lower 1i In making the rubber molding above described, a mold of metal is suitably supported and dipped into rubber latex. Enough dips are made to build up the desired thickness. Several dips are made only to line 15-45 (inverted Figure 3) so as to build up the thickness of walls '11 and 12 from line 15 to the aperture 23. The molding is then cut at a line about the diameter 20, Figure 3, and the rubber is then stretched over the mold and the mold removed. The supporting sprue of the 3 mold can conveniently enter at this line of cut (20, Figure 3). The two severed walls 11 and 12 at diameter are then joined together so as to provide the double walled structure.
After closure there is inserted a filling 22 of granular material. This granular material is preferably of granular plastic. Thus, for example, there may be used vinyl plastic granules. These granules are regular vinyl plastic molding powder and are relatively sharp and irregular granules. Other granular materials may be used (sharp sand or broken grain). I prefer to have the filling made of irregular sharp edged granules rather than smooth or rounded particles, as would presently appear.
The molding provides a circular orifice at 23 which serves as the place to which coupling 24 may be attached. The anesthetic supply system generally designated 25 attaches tocoupling 24. Any usual anesthetic supply system 25 may be used and is provided with controls at 71 andanchoring hooks at 7272. Of course, where the device is used for the administration of oxygen or other gases, other supply sources and valving arrangements may be provided at 25. The particular supply lines and valving arrangements 25 form no part of the present invention.
On the double walled structure there are also provided an evacuating port which can be of the form shown in Figures 1-6 or of the form shown in Figure 7. Any suitable evacuating port may be used. The simplest form is merely a rubber tube at 26 that is molded integrally with the mask itself as shown in Figures l-6. Into this tube, which is best shown in Figure 6, there is inserted a little two-part, screwed together, metal coupling 27 which is held in place by cementing, clamping, or just the elasticity of the rubber tube 26. The metal coupling is provided with a screen 28 which is in turn held in place by the two parts of the coupling when screwed together. To the outer end of the coupling 29 a vacuum hose 30 is applied. The vacuum hose is provided with a valve, which in its simplest form is a clamp as at 31. Any suitable valve may be used for turning on and off the vacuum. A vacuum supply is connected to the hose at 32.1 To break the vacuum, the hose 30 is separated from fitting 29. By this arrangement, when the clamp 31 is open the air between the double walls 1112-16 is drawn out from between the interstitial spaces in the granular filling 22, the air moving in the direction of arrow 33 (Figure 6). The screen 28 prevents granules 22 from being pulled off with the air. When a vacuum is thus drawn, pressure of the atmosphere is exerted over the entire exterior surfaces of walls 11 and 12. As a consequence, pressure is exerted upon the granular filling 22 and the granules then are held in compacted condition as a hard fixed mass which can only be moved or changed by the exertion of considerable force. The entire mask quickly solidifies into a hard stiff structure, so long as the vacuum is applied. It relaxes easily into a soft easily pushed and molded mass when the vacuum is released and air admitted at coupling 29.
Another form of vacuum valve which may be substituted for the tube 26, nipple 29, screen 28, hose 30 and clamp 31 is the form shown in Figure 7. For this more refined form of valve there is provided a generally cylindrical protuberance 35 having oppositely extending circular flanges at 36 and 37. Within the protuberance there is placed the valve casing 39 in which the rotary valve stem 40 is mounted for rotation by means of the exposed narrow thumb nut 41. The valve stem is held in place by the ring washer 42 and between the valve and the interior space there is placed a screen at 43. The valve stem is provided so that it may be turned to the position shown in Figure 3 in which case the port through the valve stem communicates with the tube 41 connected to the vacuum hose 42 that is in turn connected to the vacuum supply at 43. 7 Accordingly, with the valve in the position shown in Figure 3, a vacuum is drawn on the interior space between the walls 11 and 12 of the mask. When the valve is turned so as to join the port of the valve to the exhaust tube 45, air will rush in through the valve into the space between the walls 11 and 12 and the vacuum will be broken. When the form of valve shown in Figure 7 is used, the tube 26 (Figure 6) is simply omitted (or it may be pinched closed).
In use the mask is placed on the patient in the position shown in Figure 1. The usual straps or elastic bands are then placed around the patients head and attached to the hooks 72, thus pressing the mask down firmly against the patients face. At this time no vacuum is drawn on the space between the walls 11 and 12 and the granules within the mask are therefore free to move and the soft rubber lower edge 16 of the mask conforms readily to the facial configuration of the patient as shown in Figures 1 and 6. With the mask thus firmly settled into place (and the edge 16 thus conformed to the facial contours of the patient) the operator opens the vacuum connection. This is done by opening the clamp 31 on tube 30 (Figure 6) or by turning the valve 40 to the position shown in Figure 3 when using the vacuum connection shown in that figure. By either way of drawing the vacuum, the air is pulled out of the space between the walls 11 and 12 and as a consequence the exterior pressure upon the sharp granules within the space between the walls causes the granules to be compressed and held together and as a consequence the whole mask solidifies into an immovable whole. The entire mask then assumes a condition of considerable rigidity. It will be recalled that the mask having already been placed against the patients face and thus settled into a conforming condition is therefore immobilized in such conforming condition.
By use of this invention it is possible to make masks capable of being fitted to a large number of different facial configurations of persons having large and small, broad or narrow faces of irregular or varying contour. Furthermore, it is possible by this invention to provide an interior space 13 within the mask which is considerably smaller than in masks previously made. This is a distinct advantage since the amount of gases within the space 13 (around the nose and month) are reduced as compared with those in prior masks.
It is within the purview of the invention to connect the appliance 25 (or inlet coupling 24) to any stiff airway appliance placed in the patients nose or mouth, such as the projecting tip of an endotracheal tube or endopharyngeal airway appliance. In either case, the endotracheal tube or endopharyngeal airway appliance, whichever may be used, is fitted with a stiff metal guard which insures a spacing from the inner end of the inlet 24, thus establishing a free communication between the patients nose and mouth when the mask is in place.
Referring to Figures 8 and 9 there is illustrated another form of the invention in which a stiff metal housing is provided at 50. This housing has a shape and size such that it will span the chest portion of the patient to which it is applied. Around the edge of the housing there is applied a continuous hollow rubber edging generally designated 51 having a portion 52 by means of which it may be attached to the edge 53 of the housing 50. In the illustrated form one edge of the housing 50 is provided with a bead so as to be received in the edging 52 of the rubber member 51. Other methods of attachment between edging 51 and housing 50 may be used. The rubber member 51 is relatively large and has a granular filling of relatively sharp granules at 73. This filling may be of the type previously described with reference to the herein described mask. The housing 50 is provided with hooks at 5454 to which there are connected the end hooks 55 of web or elastic straps 56 that encircle the patients body. At one place around the hollow edging 51 there is provided an outlet tube 57 having a metal fitting 58 to which the vacuum hose 59 may be applied.
The metal fitting is provided with a screen at 60. On the tube 59 there is provided a clamp at 61. The housing 50 is likewise provided with an inlet tube at 63 to which the hose 64 of the air pressure applying and vacuum applying machine of the portable iron lung is attached.
Along the contacting edge of the hollow edging 51 there is provided a soft sponge rubber edging at 65. This is cemented to the rubber member 51 but is sufliciently flexible so as readily to seal to the contours of the patients body. The width of the edging 51 is such that it contacts a considerable width of the patients body and the pressure is thus distributed.
With the device in place as shown in Figure 8 and with some pressure applied by means of the straps 56, the edging 51 conforms itself to the patients body. A vacuum is then drawn on the interior space 73 of the edging by opening the clamp 61. Exhausting of air from the granule filled space in member 51 causes atmospheric pressure to be applied upon the granular filling 73 which accordingly causes the entire member 51 to assume a condition of rigidity conforming to the patients body. In this way a shaping and solidification of member 51 is achieved such that uniform pressure is applied between the edge 51 through the soft rubber or sponge rubber strip 65 against a strip-area of the patients body around the edge of the housing 50. Accordingly, as a vacuum is periodically drawn by means of the tube 64 upon the interior of the space 50, and then released, the patients lung cavity will periodically be drawn outwardly and released as shown by the double arrows 66. If desired, a connection 68 may be made between the tube 64 and the tube 59 through a check valve which permits the air to be moved in the direction of the arrow 67 through the check valve. In this way every time the vacuum is drawn on the tube 64 the same vacuum may be used for sustaining a condition of evacuation within the hollow interior filling 73 of the edging. Of course, by opening the clamp 61 the tube 59 being then unconnected to the source of vacuum, the vacuum would be broken. That is to say, where the cross connection at 63 is used between the tubes 64 and 59, the outer end 59A of the tube 59 would be connected to atmosphere rather than to a source of vacuum.
As many apparently widely different embodiments of this invention may be made without departing from the spirit and scope thereof, it is to be understood that I do not limit myself to the specific embodiments herein.
What I claim is:
1. A hollow cup-like housing having an edge shaped so as generally to fit the contour of an anatomical body portion, said housing having at least an edge portion of hollow construction and made of flexible material conformable to said body portion, said edge portion of hollow construction being filled with a granular filling, said edge portion of hollow construction being provided with an outlet equipped with a screen through which the air within said hollow construction may be evacuated without withdrawing the granular filling therefrom, said cup-like housing being provided with an outlet port from the interior thereof when the edge is in place against the anatomical body portion.
2. The apparatus of the type described in claim 1 further characterized in that the hollow cup-like housing is in the form of a mask shaped generally to enclose the nose and mouth portion of a patient, and said outlet port connects to the exterior of the housing in which the nose and the mouth of the patient are enclosed when the housing edge is against the face of the patient.
3. A mask for applying anesthetics, oxygen and the like to human beings comprising a generally conical shape composed of an outer and inner wall spaced from each other so as to form a closed hollow space, said walls being integrally joined at their outer edges to form a soft resilient flexible terminal edge capable of being deformed under pressure to conform to the face of the wearer, a granular filling in the space between said walls, a vacuum connection through one of the walls of said mask into said space, said vacuum connection having a screen therein so as to permit the evacuation of air from said space between the walls without withdrawing the granular filling therefrom, said outer and inner walls being connected to form an entrance aperture from the exterior of said conical shape into the interior of said conical shape.
4. A face mask comprising a generally conical shape having an apex, said shape being composed of outer and inner walls, said walls being connected together about the apex of said conical shape, a metal fitting having flanges fitted to said opening for attachment thereto of a gaseous supply of anesthetic, air, oxygen or the like materials being administered to the patient, said walls being converged slightly from each other in the direction away from said apex and terminating in bulbous flexible edge conformable to the face of the patient when slight pressure is placed thereon, a granular filling between said walls and in said bulbous edge, a connection through one of the Walls to the interior of the space between said walls for withdrawing air from between said walls, and a screen in said connection.
5. The apparatus of claim 4 further characterized in that said walls and bulbous flexible edge are composed of molded rubber and are thinnest at said bulbous edge.
6. An apparatus for application to the body of a patient comprising an enclosure having a margin shape so as generally to conform to a line of contact against the patients body, a flexible contacting edging on the margin of said enclosure, said edging being hollow, bulbous and flexible walled and filled with a granular filling, an air evacuation connection to said edging, said connection being provided with a screen for evacuation of the air from the interior of said hollow edging without withdrawing the granular filling therefrom, a valve in said evacuation connection, said enclosure being formed with an inlet opening for attaching a tubular conduit thereto.
7. The apparatus of claim 6 further characterized in that said enclosure is of stiff construction.
8. The apparatus of claim 7 further characterized in that means is provided on the stiff enclosure for attaching retaining straps to it.
9. The apparatus of claim 7 further characterized in I that said evacuation connection leading into the hollow edging is cross-connected to an inlet into the stifi enclosure and a check valve is provided in said cross-connection allowing the passage of gases therethrough from the hollow edging to said inlet.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,472,754 Mead June 7, 1949 2,488,922 Mead Nov. 22, 1949 2,540,567 Bennett Feb. 6, 1951