US 2759838 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
DENTAL PLATE ADHESIVE Hugo R. Kolar, Chicago, Ill., assignor, by mesne assignments, to James L. Younghusband, Chicago, Ill.
No Drawing. Application July 13, 1953, Serial No. 367,735
4 Glaims. (Cl. 106-206) This invention relates to a dental plate adhesive, and more particularly, to a novel dental plate adhesive which inhibits the growth of or kills bacteria and substantially prevents putrefaction or malodorous decomposition of food and secretions lodged beneath the dental plate.
As will be appreciated, the problem of formulating a suitable dental plate adhesive is complicated by a number of factors. First of all, homogeneity in the composition itself both before and during use is of substantial impor tance. Also, it is important to have an adhesive composition which has peculiar fluid flow characteristics, in that it possesses an overall paste-like consistency but it is capable of flowing through a rather restricted orifice. Also, it is particularly important to provide a composition which has substantially uniform consistency or flow properties under various climatic conditions. Such a composition must be capable of flowing through relatively small orifices even under rather cool climatic conditions, and also it must be capable of retaining its paste-like consistency and its homogeneity under the relatively high temperature climatic conditions which are encountered in certain parts of the world.
Heretofore, it has been extremely ditlicult, if not impossible, to prepare dental adhesives which possessed the desired superior consistency and flow properties under the climatic conditions in even the northern and southern parts of the United States, without making certain alterations in the formulation. Also, this problem is further complicated by the relatively fine and intricate crevices which are for-med on the denture plate, and which crevices must be filled with the adhesive. In general, it has been necessary to force the adhesive into such crevices by the use of the fingers or some separate tool, because the adhesive could not ordinarily be suitably forced through a nozzle of sufficient length and finesse to apply the adhesive to such crevices. These and other problems characteristic of this art have been solved by the instant discovery.
It is, therefore, an important object of the instant invention to provide an improved dental plate adhesive composition.
his a further object of the instant invention to provide a dental plate adhesive that is effective and safe, has no disagreeable odor, has no unpalatable taste, is not irritating to the user, may be readily applied to the complicated denture surface, and functions effectively in the mouth for a period of from about eight to fourteen hours.
Still a further object of the instant invention is to provide a dental plate adhesive possessing distinct antiseptic and germicidal properties, which prevents or substantially inhibits the growth of organisms ordinarily found in the oral cavity, including bacteria, so as to effectively function as a deodorant for the mouth.
A more specific object of the instant invention is to provide a semi-solid paste-like antiseptic and germicidal dental plate adhesive consisting essentially of 30-60 weight percent of petrolatum, 30-60 weight percent of karaya gum, 2-6 weight percent of a non-toxic compat- 2,759,838 Patented Aug. 21, 1955 ible C12-C20 fatty acid ester, 0.1-2 weight percent of a substantially water-insoluble non-toxic fatty acid soap, and 0.03-3 weight percent of a substantially water-insoluble non-toxic fungicide.
Other objects, features and advantages of the instant invention will become apparent to those skilled in the art from the following detailed disclosure of preferred embodiments thereof.
The invention consists in a semi-solid paste-like antiseptic and germicidal dental plate adhesive consisting essentially of base of petrolatum and karaya gum, in weight ratios of 1:3 to 3:1, suitably softened with up to 10 weight percent of the adhesive of a non-toxic compatible high molecular weight fatty acid ester to effect paste-like consistency therein; and having intimately dispersed therein 0.1 to 1 weight percent of the adhesive of a substantially water-insoluble non-toxic fatty acid soap and a small but effective amount of a substantially waterinsoluble non-toxic fungicide.
In the instant invention, the adhesive composition has a plurality of functions including that of an adhesive as well as an antiseptic, germicide and deodorant. Since the ordinary removable dentures or dental plates often have an imperfect fit due to shrinkage of the gums and the like, the instant composition, when applied to such dentures, fills in the various interstices between the gums and the denture, functioning therein as an adhesive and also as an antiseptic, germicide and deodorant with respect to food and/or secretions which would ordinarily tend to fill such interstices.
One of the most preferred formulations of the invention is set forth in table-form below:
Ingredient: Weight percent Petrolatum U. S. P 44 Karaya gum N. F 50 Isopropyl palmitate 4 1 Harmless red color is substantially all mineral oil U. S. P. containing a mere trace of coloring material and is referred to in the trade as Oil Red Color Certified.
Flavor is preferably 8.75 11. oz. oil cassia plus 12.50 fl. oz. 011 spearmint per 1000 lbs. of adhesive composition.
Preparati0n.-Melt down petrolatum with isopropyl palmitate, 8-hydroxyquinoline and color solution. Then add aluminum distearate while agitating constantly at high speed (in lightning mixer). Slowly raise temperature with continued agitation to C.; and continue agitation at such temperature until sample of mixture leaves clear film on watch glass (thereby indicating homogeneity). Then add pulverulent gum karaya, cool to 40 C. with continued agitation, add flavor and package.
The principal ingredients which form the base of the instant adhesive are petrolatum, and karaya gum (with a small amount of a suitable softening agent or plasticizer, which will be described). The karaya gum is the essential functioning adhesive ingredient in the composition and the petrolatum is the essential functioning carrier or vehicle medium for the karaya gum particles. In general, the weight ratios of petrolatum to karaya gurn may range from about 1:3 to about 3:1, but most preferably the weight ratio is about 1:1. In order that the petrolatum may carry out its function as a vehicle it is necessary to use a petrolatum: karaya gum weight ratio of at least 1:3 and usually 1:2; and in order for the karaya gum to carry out its function as imparting overall adhesiveness to the composition it is necessary to use ratios of not more than about 3:1 and usually 2:1.
Expressed in the terms of the above recited formulation, the amount of petrolatum used may range from a minimum of about 30% to a maximum of about 60% of the composition, and preferably the range is 4-0 to 50%. (As used herein, the terms and parts mean percent and parts by weight, unless otherwise specified.)
The amount of karaya gum used may range from a minimum of about 30% to a maximum of about 60% under preferred conditions, and most preferably the range is 45-55%.
As previously mentioned, a softening agent or plasticizer is preferably employed with the petrolatum and karaya gum to assure that paste-like consistency is effected in the composition. The softening agent, which most preferably is isopropyl palmitate, preferably has the true function of a plasticizer (for example, as used in the syn thetic resin arts) whereby this ingredient provides substantial intermolecular lubrication for the base ingredients. By so functioning the plasticizer provides a substantially uniform internal lubricating effect over a relatively wide range of temperatures so as to reduce the overall variation in the consistency of the instant paste-like adhesive which might be obtained under the different hot, temperate and cold climatic conditions that exist. The instant softening agent or plasticizer is, of course, non-toxic. It is also compatible with such ingredients as the petrolatum and the soap (which will be described later) and the color solution and flavor, in the sense that it is miscible therewith so that these ingredients may form a substantially one-phase system. The S-hydroxyquinoline is, of course, also soluble in this system. Also, the softening agent or plasticizer is essentially palatable, at least in the relatively small proportions used in the instant composition.
Since the instant softening agent or plasticizer is .intended to function as such it is, of course, used in the amounts necessary to carry out this specific function, namely that of effecting a paste-like consistency in the instant adhesive composition. By paste-like consistency it is meant that consistency which is more or less universally recognized as the general consistency of ordinary adhesive pastes (e. g. flour and water paste), tooth paste, shaving soap paste (dispensed in tubes), etc. It is the consistency of a material which may be caused to flow quite readily but which is more or less capable of sustaining its own weight and flow only very slowly if at all if exterior forces are not applied thereto. As will be appreciated, in compositions of the invention wherein a relatively small proportion of karaya gum is suspended .in the petrolatum little or no softening agent may be required, but in the preferred compositions of the invention the amount of the softening agent used may be as much as of the composition, although it is preferably within the range of a minimum effective amount of about 2% to a maximum amount of about 6% (above which there may be a tendency toward separation and loss of homogeneity during storage at high temperatures).
The preferred softening agent or plasticizer is a high molecular weight or long chain fatty acid ester. Such an ester is preferably a C14C24 ester wherein the long chain (Cm-C) is in the acyl radical, and the alcohol source radical is a C2-C5 alkyl radical. The preferred acid or acyl radicals include those of dodecanoie (lauric), tetradecanoic (myristic), hexadecanoic (palmitic) and octadecanoic (stearic) acids, all of which are alkanoic acids. Other common long chain fatty acid such as oleic, linoleic, etc. may also be used; but the alkanoic acids are the most stable chemically. The preferred alcohol source radicals are alkyl radicals such as ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, butyl, isobutyl, sec. butyl, etc. to the amyl radicals; although the propyl and butyl radicals are the most preferred. Compounds which are particularly useful as substitutes for isopropyl palmitate in the foregoing formulations include isopropyl stearate, isopropyl oleate, isopropyl myristate, isopropyl laurate, n-butyl stearate, iso- 4 butyl oleate, isobutyl laurate and tert. butyl myristate (i. e. Crz-Crs acyl).
Another important aspect of the invention resides in the use of these fatty acid esters for the purpose of carrying out the dual function of plasticizer for the base and dispersing agent for the soap (which will next be described). This additional latter function is of critical importance since the dispersing and/or mutual solubilizing effect resulting from the presence of such esters effectively causes an intimate dispersion of the otherwise relatively inert and insoluble soap throughout the entire base, so that the soap may more effectively carry out its own functions.
The soap is a member of the family of compounds so named which are metal salts of long chain fatty acids. In the instant invention the soap used (much like the softener) is substantially Water-insoluble, non-toxic, chemically inert, compatible with the base (and softening agent), palatable in the amounts used, etc. It is known that such soaps are formed by the reaction of a fatty acid (or glyceride thereof) with a base to obtain the corresponding salt; and if a monovalent (e. g. alkali) metal base is used the soap is usually water soluble, whereas a polyvalent metal base produces a substantially water insoluble soap. A water soluble soap is less desirable in the instant composition because it Would tend to leach out of the adhesive in the presence of oral fluids. The polyvalent metals preferred are those of group H (pericdic system), such as Ca, Mg, Zn, etc., and group III, such as Al. Calcium stearate, magnesium stearate, zinc stearate and aluminum stearate may all be used; but it has been found that aluminum distearate gives distinctly superior results. It appears that the less advantageous results obtained using the stearates, as contrasted to aluminum distearate, may be because of the additional potentially reaction valence available in the latter compound. The principal function of the soaps herein is believed to be that of dispersing agent for the karaya gum particles, and the hydrophilic -OH on the aluminum distearate may materially assist its dispersing function with respect to the hydrophilic karaya gum particles. It has also been noted that the dispersion (and subsequent stable homogeneity) of the karaya gum suspension in the base is materially improved if particle sizes of about 60-80 mesh are employed. Using particle sizes in this range appears to result in a synergistic effect between the soap, plasticizer and petrolatum whereby uniquely stable homogeneity in an intimate karaya gum dispersion is obtained. Additional size reduction of the karaya gum (as by colloid milling) seems to reduce the effectiveness of the gum as an adhesive; whereas less size reduction impairs the homogeneity of the system.
The soaps preferably used are (nontoxic) polyvalent metal-fatty acid soaps derived from C12-C1s alkanoic acids such as those hereinbefore described in connection with the softener. The stearates are most preferable, but laurates, myristates, palmitates, etc. may be used effectively. Of course, such soaps also have certain plasticizing and/ or softening properties, particularly in cooperation with the ester plasticizers; but the principal function thereof is that of a gum suspending agent and the ester plasticizer usually carries out the primary plasticization and mutual compatibility functions. Between the two, softening to the desired paste-like consistency is obtained; and the soap may be used in proportions up to about 2%, and preferably within the range of about 0.1 to 1%.
The 8-hydroxyquinoline specified in the most preferred formulation hereinbefore set forth has been found to be uniquely superior as a substantially water insoluble, nontoxic chemically inert, compatible and palatable fungicide (which also functions as a bactericide). In particular, this fungicide has been found to function in a superior manner in the composition of the instant invention. The compound, 8-hydroxyquinoline, is particularly suitable for use in the instant invention because this compound is only slightly soluble in water and does not tend to leach out of the adhesive readily during use. Certain salts of 8-hydroxyquinoline, such as 8-hydroxyquinoline sulfate, may also be used, but such salts must be used in a somewhat larger quantity so as to provide a corresponding amount of the 8-hydroxyquinoline and such salts are generally somewhat more Water soluble than S-hydroxyquinoline itself. In general, the range of proportions for 8-hydroxyquinoline is about 0.03-3% of the adhesive, which constitutes a small but effective amount of the fungicide in the overall composition. About 0.05 to 0.5% is the preferred range.
The amount of color solution employed is merely that amount which provides a suitable amount of coloring: however, it is advisable to use a minimum amount of this material (if it is a mineral oil base material) because excessive amounts of mineral oil may tend to separate out from the instant base material under high temperature storage conditions. The amount of taste or flavor ingredients employed is, likewise, a matter of choice essentially.
It will be understood that modifications and variations may be eifected without departing from the scope of the novel concepts of the present invention.
I claim as my invention:
1. A semi-solid paste-like antiseptic and germicidal dental plate adhesive consisting essentially of base of petrolatum and karaya gum, in weight ratios of 1:3 to 3:1; and having intimately dispersed therein aluminum distearate as a suspending agent for the karaya gum, isopropyl palmitate as a dispersing agent for the aluminum distearate and a plasticizer for the adhesive to impart paste-like consistency thereto and a small but eifective amount of a substantially water-insoluble non-toxic fungicide.
2. A semi-solid paste-like antiseptic and germicidal dental plate adhesive consisting essentially of base of petrolatum and karaya gum, in weight ratios of 1:3 to 3:1; and having intimately dispersed therein 0.1 to 1 Weight per cent thereof of a non-toxic polyvalent metal Crz-Cra alkanoate as a suspending agent for the karaya gum, 2 to 6 weight per cent thereof of a C2C5 alkyl ester of a C12C18 alkanoic acid as a dispersing agent for the metal alkanoate and a plasticizer for the adhesive to impart paste-like consistency thereto and 0.03 to 3 weight per cent of the adhesive of S-hydroxyquinoline.
3. A semi-solid paste-like antiseptic and germicidal dental plate adhesive consisting essentially of 44 weight per cent of petrolatum, Weight per cent of karaya gum, 4 weight per cent of isopropyl palmitate, 0.5 weight per cent of aluminum distearate, 0.1 weight per cent of 8-hydroxyquinoline, 1.4 weight per cent of harmless red color and a trace of palatable flavor.
4. A semi-solid paste-like antiseptic and germicidal dental plate adhesive consisting essentially of 30-60 weight per cent of petrolatum, 30-60 weight per cent of karaya gum, 2-6 weight per cent of isopropyl palmitate, 0.1-2 weight per cent of aluminum distearate, and 003-3 weight per cent of a substantially water-insoluble nontoxic fungicide.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 618,166 Clarke Jan. 24, 1899 825,268 Eilertsen July 3, 1906 2,248,999 Johnson July 15, 1941 2,496,387 Fink Feb. 7, 1950 2,574,476 Heath et al Nov. 13, 1951 2,623,913 Lawrence Dec. 30, 1952