US 2762265 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Sept. 11, 1956 A. w; KUIJVENHOVEN 9 GUN MOUNTINGS CARRIED BY MOVABLE SUPPORTS Filed July 24, 195 0 INVENTOR .N M M W K m M 0 N ATTORNEY nite Application July 24, 1250, Serial No. 175,589
3 Claims. (Cl, 89-41) My invention relates to gunnery arrangements carried by unstable supports such as ships, aircraft, tanks, etc.
The chief object of my invention is to provide an arrangement of this type which is better adapted to meet the requirements of practice than those used up to this time.
A preferred embodiment of my invention will be hereinafter described with reference to the accompanying drawings, given merely by Way of example, and in which:
Fig. 1 is a diagrammatical view of a gunnery arrangement according to my invention;
Fig. 2 shows this arrangement in a more detailed fashion.
As a rule, when a moving target is being engaged, the line of fire (axis of symmetry of the gun) and the line of sight (direction of aim of the sighting device) are not parallel but make with each other an angle (the aim-off angle) which is a function of the relative speed of the target, the direction of motion thereof, the range and various ballistic factors. Thus, the angles of training and total elevation (i. e. the angles made by the line of fire with horizontal and vertical datum planes respec tively) which are required to aim the gum correctly will generally differ from the angles made by the line of sight with said respective planes. Furthermore, if the gun and the sighting device are suspended in such manner that the positions of the axes of rotation of their suspension means depend upon said angles, the angles of rotation about these axes necessary to achieve true stabilization will in general be different for the gun and the sighting device.
The known methods for stabilizing guns come into two main classes.
According to the methods of the first class, there is an individual three axis suspension on the one hand for the gun and on the other hand for the sighting device, the rotations about the axes of these suspensions being the algebraic sum, on the one hand of the rotations necessary for obtaining the datum planes and on the other hand of the rotations with respect to these planes corresponding to aiming. The stabilizing device is therefore called upon to achieve certain rotations concerning the gun suspension and other rotations (difierent from the preceding ones) concerning the sighting device sus ension. Another solution would consist in having the rotations required for stabilizing one of these systems achieved by the stabilizing device, these rotations being then converted by a supplementary apparatus for stabilizing the other system. Anyway, this solution calls for two three axes suspension systems and a stabilizing device for separately controlling different rotations for these respective suspension systems.
According to the methods of the second class, the horizontal datum plane (and possibly a vertical datum plane) is formed by a gimbal suspended platform controlled by a stabilizing device through servomotors. The gun and the sighting device are then mounted on this stable platform, each through a two axes individual tates atent ice;
2 suspension making it possible to train and to elevate the gun and the sighting device.
The vertical datum plane may be established by direct rotation of the stabilized platform, under control of the stabilizing device through a servo-motor. Another solution would consist in establishing a vertical datum plane by imparting to the gun and the sighting device rotations about their respective training axes equal to the algebraic sum of, on the one hand, the rotation necessary for establishing the vertical datum plane and, on the other hand, that necessary for aiming.
It will be readily understood that this second class requires only one stabilizing device producing only one set of rotations (those necessary for stabilizing the platform) but it still requires as a whole three independent suspensions.
According to my invention, the unstable support 9 (for instance a part of a ship) carries, pivoted thereto about any axis yy which is vertical when said support 9 is in normal position, a first mount element 8. On the mount element 8 is pivoted, through trunnions 7, 7 having an axis x-x at right angles to yy and horizontal when axis yy is vertical, a second mount element 6. The gun 2 is pivoted to mount element 6 through trunnions 5 having an axis zz at right angles to axes y-y and x-x and horizontal when axis yy is vertical.
Mount element 8 can be rotated with respect to support 9 by means of a servomotor 12. Mount element 6 can be rotated with respect to mount element 8 by means of servo-motor 13. Gun 2 can be rotated with respect to mount element 6 by means of a servo-motor 14.
The sighting device A (for instance a telescope) is carried by a base 15 rigid with gun 2. The position of sighting device A with respect to its base 15 is adjustable, owing to the provision of two pivot axes m-m and n-n at right angles to each other in the connection between said base 15 and said sighting device A.
In order to aim the gun, servo-motors 12 and 14 are operated through a control device 4 including a control member, for instance a kind of joystick 16 actuated by the gunner. V
A stabilizing device eliminates the effect of the movements of support 9 on the position of the gun. In other words, this stabilizing device keeps guns 2 in fixed position (provided of course that no aiming displace ments are imparted thereto) despite movements of support 9.
The stabilizing device B includes for instance a gyroscope 10 carried by mount element 8 through gimbal bearings. This gyroscope 10, which rotates about a vertical axis, controls, through its relative displacements with respect to said element 8, the operation of servornotors 13 and 14so as to impart to gun 2 with respect to element 8 and about axes x--x and zz rotations equal in amplitude but opposed in direction to the simultaneous rotations of element 8, aboutaxes parallel to x-x. and Z-:, with respect to a fixed system of coordinates.
Of course, if it is desired to compensate also for rotation movements of support 9 about a vertical axis, it sufiices to provide a second gyroscope carried by said support 9 and rotating about a horizontal axis to operate automatically servo-motor 12.
Thus, the gun is stabilized. But also, according to my invention, the stabilizing action of device B is also applied to the base of sighting device A Without requiring any supplementary mechanism.
The stabilizing method according to my invention requires only a three axes suspension for the gun structure, a two axes suspension interposed between the gun and the line of sight and a stabilizing device supplying only one series of stabilizing rotations.
Thus, stabilization of the gun and its sighting device are achieved according tomy invention either with a simpler suspension system or with a stabilizing device itself simpler than it was necessary up to the present time.
As a matter of fact, according to my invention, the gun itself is used as a's'table platform on which the sighting device is mounted. .As this platform is. not'horizontal but inclined at the angle necessary for elevation aiming, the sighting device is arranged in such manner as to form the aim-oif angles notwith respect to the hori-' zontal and to a predetermined azimuth but with respect to the instantaneous direction of the line of fire.
According to an embodiment of my invention (Fig. 2), a cabin 1 carries a plurality of guns 2 and a seat 3 for the gunner. i A control device 4 of the joystick type is provided forelevating and trainingd Elevating takes place about trunnions 5 which are supported by frame 6.
This frameirotates about a second pair of trunnions 7 supported bythe pivoting base 8-itself supported by a pedestal 9 to which it is connected through a ball bearing placement of the gun structure, when the gunner is following a moving target, causes the gyroscope axis to assume an oblique position with respect to the line of fire, a position of'equilibrium being achieved by a mechanism limiting the displacement of the gyroscope under control of a calculating apparatus. Precession of the gyroscope'axis inclines the line of sight, by displacement of least onegun pivotally mounted on said frame about a second normally horizontal: elevating axis at right angles to said first normally horizontal axis, servo-motors mov ing said base frame and gun about their said respective axes, a gyroscopic stabilizer controlling said servo-motors to effect rotation about at least two of said axes stabilizing said gun relatively to at least a horizontal plane datum, manually operated aiming control device controlling said servo-motors to train saidbase and elevatesaid gun, of the provision of sighting means mounted bodily with and pivoted relatively to said gun'about a pair of sight training and elevating axes mutually at right angles.
2. In a stabilized gun mounting comprising a base rotatable about a normally vertical training axis, a frame trunnion-mounted on said base about afirst normally horizontal axis at right angles to said training axis, a
cabin trunnion-mounted in said frame'about a; second normally horizontal elevating axis at right angles to said first normally horizontal axis, a seat for a gunner in said cabin, at least one gun mounted fast with said cabin,
servomotors moving said base, frame and cabin about their said respective axes, a gyroscopic stabilizer controlling said servo-motors toiefiect rotation about at least two of said axes stabilizing said cabin relatively to at least a horizontal plane datum, manually-operable aim-- ing control device in said cabin controllingsaid servomotors to train said base andmove said cabinabout said I elevating axis, the provision of sighting means mounted insaid cabin and pivotedrelatively to said. cabin about a pair of sight training and elevating axes mutuallyat right angles.
the optical system, with respect to the position in'which it is parallel to the line of fire. The sighting device is arranged in such manner that. the lateral and vertical deflections of the line of sight withrespect to the line of fire are those required for ensuring an efiicient aiming.
Advantageously, in a gun mounting according to my invention, the gunners seat 3 is rigidly connected with the gun so that this seat together with the gunner are always in the same relative position with respect to the sighting means whatever be the training or elevating angles.
In a general manner, while I have, in the above description, disclosed what I deem to be practical and eflicient embodiments of my invention, it should be well understood that I do not wish to be limited thereto as there might be changes made in the arrangement, disposition and form of the parts without departing from the principle of the present invention as comprehended within the scope of the accompanying claims.
What I claim is:
1. In a stabilized gun mounting comprising a base rotatable about a normally vertical training axis, a frame pivotally mounted on said base about a first normally horizontal axis at right angles to said training axis, at
. lizing means andby said aiming means to turn said gun 3. In a mobile plane-stabilized gun mounting comprising a gun mounted to turn about three mutually perpendicular axes, one of said axes being a training axis which is vertical when the mounting is level'and the other two of said axes then being horizontal, stabilizing means, aiming means, and servo-motors controlled by said stabiabout said axes, the combination of sighting means mounted on and stabilized with said gun and movable relatively to said gun for both vertical and lateral deflection of the line of sight with respect to the line of fire, said aiming means controlling said servo-motors to aim said gun in accordance with aim-oil. angles formed between the instantaneous direction of the line of fire and the line of sight which is stabilized with said gun.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,733,531 Dugan Oct. 29, 1929 1,937,336 Ford et a1. Nov. 28, 1933 2,388,010 Pohl Oct. 30, 1945 2,450,541 Chase et a1. Oct. 5, 1948 2,566,855 Rose Sept. 4, 1951 2,601,807 Wasem July 1, 1952 FOREIGN PATENTS 692,690 France Aug. 5, 1930 595,828 Great Britain Dec. 18, 1947