US 2763888 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Sept# 25, 1956 E. BILLETER 2,763,888
DOOR-CLOSING MECHANISM Filed Feb. 20, 1951 4 sheets-sheet 1 Sept. 25, 1956. E. BxLLETER 2,763,888
DOOR-CLOSING MECHANIsn/xv Filed Feb. 20, 1951- 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 A l v u Sept' P5,` 1956 E. BILLETER 2,763,888
DOOR-CLOSING MECHANISM Filed Feb. 20, 195.1 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 SePt- 25, 1956 E. BILLETER 2,763,888
DOOR-CLOSING MECHANISM Filed Feb. 20, 1951 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 United States Patent O 2,7 63,888 noon-CLOSING MECHANISM Ernst Billeter, Kusnacht, Switzerland Application February 2t), 1951 Serial No. 211,874
4 Claims. (ci. 16-59) v Doors shut by means of conventional closers are substantially accelerated immediately prior to being shut, in order to better overcome the resistance of the lock latch bolt and to shut the door entirely by shooting out the latch. Such final acceleration of the door, however, has the great disadvantage of giving rise to substantial noise.
My present invention is characterised by means which act on the latch of the door lock and are acted on by a door closer thro-ugh transmission means. The arrangement is such that before the door has been entirely shut, the former means are in their inoperative position and are moved to their operative position only when the door has been shut, thus affording a quiet door closing operation.
Five forms of inventionrare schematically shown on the accompanying drawings in which:
Figs. l and2 show a first form in longitudinal section through a door closer and a door lock respectively, the door being entirely shut,
Fig. 3 is a longitudinal section through the door lock, the latch having been withdrawn,
Figs. 4 and 5 show a second form in sections similar .to Figs. l and 2, l
Fig. 6 is a section similar to Fig. 3, but through the second form,
Fig. 7 shows a third form in plan view, Fig. 8 is a longitudinal section through the door loc seen in direction of the arrow K in Fig. 7, but in a much larger scale, the latch having been Withdrawn,
Fig. 9 shows a detail of Fig. 8, t
Fig. 10 is a fourth form and shows an end view of the door closer secured to the door,
Fig. l1 is a plan view of a fifth form,
Fig. l2 is a longitudinal section through the door lock of Fig. ll in a much larger scale and seen in direction of the arrow K in Fig. l1, the latch bolt having been shot out, and
Fig. 13 is a detail of Fig. l2.
In the first form (Figs. 1 3), the door-closing mechanism comprises a checking cylinder 1 of which the two end faces are closed by the wall 1b and the screw cover 2 respectively. The spring housing or barrel 1a is disposed adjacent to cylinder 1 at right angles to the longitudinal Vaxis thereof, and is tightly `closed by means of a collar `bush towards the front ichamber 1c of cylinder 1, whilst the barrel endface is closed by a cover 3. A crank axle 4 is rotatably mounted in the collar bearing 5. A packing (not shown) is provided between axle 4 and collar bearing 5. A spring catch 6 having 1a gear rim 6a is rotatably mounted on bush 5. The closing spring 7 is disposed in barrel 1a, one end of the spring lis anchored in the catch 6 and the other end in the wall of barrel 1a. On the end of crank axle 4 projecting above the bush 5v is affixed the arm 8 to which is affixed a pin 8a. On the latter is pivoted a pawl 8b which engages the gear rim 6a. The arm 8 is pivoted to a link (not shown) which in turn is pivoted to the door frame. The crank-axle end projecting into the front chamber 1c of 'ice the checking cylinder 1 is formed with a crank arm 4a with a crank pin 4b on which the connecting rod 9 is pivoted. The other end of the latter is pivoted on a wrist pin 13 to the checking piston 12. The latter comprises a ball valve'l() consisting of a ball 11, the front valve port 10a and the rear valve port 10b. In order to prevent the lball 11 from rolling out through the rear valve port 14117, the latter is partly barred by the wrist pin 13. The rear chamber 1d is connected to the front chamber 1c through acontrol port 1e through which the ilow of fluid, as required, may be increased or decreased by a throttle element 14 having a stem 14a. The rear chamber 1d is connected to the front chamber 1c through a further rear chamber port15a, the connecting duct 15, the valve port 15b and the front chamber port 15C. In Fig. l, the valve port 15b is closed by the valve plate 16a of the valve 16. The valve plate 16a is integral with the valve stem 16b which at its other end is slidable in the tightfltting plug 17. A valve spring 16e is coiledY around the valve stem 16h between plug 17 and valve plate 16a and urges the latter against the valve port 15b to close same.
ln the endwall 1b a pipe 18 is tightly inserted, of which the other end is tightly inserted in the lock case 19 (Fig. 2) and opens into the pressure chamber 19a. The latter is tightly closed by a plug 21 on one side and at the other end by a resilient corrugated Vtube 23 which through a plug 22 having a port 22a is clamped against its seat in lock case 19. The other end of tube 23 carries a pin 24 which in the partition 19h is guided longitudinally and the free end of which contacts the lever 25. The latter is pivoted on a pin 26 to the lock case 19, and its other end contacts a follower stud 27 aixed to the latch bolt 281). The latter forms the extension of the latch 28 which, as well as its bolt, is guided longitudinally in the lock case 19, a spring 29 being coiled about the latch bolt 28h intermediate these two points of bearing to exert a force on the latch in direction of the arrow A. In the position shown, the latch 23 projects through the aper- 28a in which is engaged a follower 30 rigidly secured to the handle spindle 31 which is rotatably mounted in the lock case 19. The spindle 31 is rotatable together with the door handle 32 which is rigidly secured thereto. The follower 30 of handle 32 in the non-operative position shown, is urged against the stop 47 through the action of a spring 48 and thus held horizontal, in a direction opposite to the arrow D.
The door closer shown in Fig. land the lock case shown in Fig. 2 are rigidly secured to the door, whilst the striking plate 20 is affixed to the door frame. The entire hollow space in the door closer 1, the tube 18, and the corrugated tube 23 are filled with a liquid, e. g. oil. 'lhe closing spring 7 is so designed that the liquid pressure arising in the corrugated tube 23, when closing the door, is sufficient to expand the tube 23 in direction of the arrow C against the action of the latch spring 29 on the lever 25whereby the latch 28 is moved in direction of the arrowV B. The liquid pressure produced solely by the closing spring 7 on the valve plate 16a, is not sucient to push the latter away from the valve port 15b, To accomplish such latter action, a force additional to that of spring 7 has to be exerted, e. g. in that the person passing through the door closes the latter.
Fig. 3 is similar to Fig. 2, but the latch 28 is retracted from the striking plate 20, i. e. the latch 28 is disengaged. The form of invention shown in Figs. 4 6 differs from Vthat shown in Figs. 1-3 in that the corrugated tube 23 is not disposed in the lock case, but is incorporated in the door closer. The longitudinal expansion of the tube 23, resulting from the liquid pressure acting on its inside, is
3 transmitted to the latch 28 through a lever l3'4 pivoted vat 35 and through a rigging 33.
The third form of invention shown in Fig. 7 differs from those shown in Figs. l-3 and 4-6 in that the force for actuating the latch 28 is produced mechanicallyv and not hydraulically. Fig. 7 shows a top planvview of a door closer 36, which may comprise a structure such as'shown in Figures 1 and 4, pivoted on a pin 3611 to a door 40, in-a `position when the door is automatically closed by the closer, in the very moment when the door 40 has been entirely closed on its hinges 4S in the jamb Sii, but has not been latched yet. In this position, the door closer 36 through one endface abuts against the stop 39, and :the follower 36a secured to the other endface, is engaged in the slot of one leg of a bell-crank V41, whilst in the slot of the other leg is engaged a follower pin 43a of a rod 43. The bell crank 41 is pivoted on a pin 42a to a bracket 42 which is axed to the door. A helical-spring 37 is disposed between door 40 and door closer 36 and acts on the latter in direction of the arrow H.V The vother end of rod 43 has a second follower pin 43a'aixed thereto, which is'engaged in the slot of an arm 44 aiiixe'd to the transmission axle 45 and is rotatable therewith. The axle 45 at its other end is rotatably mounted in the lock case 19 (Fig. 8) and has an arm 46 afxed thereto. In Fig. 7 thelatch 28 is retracted into the lock case 19, as shown by the full lines, and is shown in its shot position I (dash lines) in the striking plate 20. The latch 28 is movable through the two door handlesA 32 in known manner.
Fig. 8, being a longitudinal section through the entire lock case and striking plate 20 as seen in direction of the arrow K in Fig. 7, shows a follower 49 aixed to the latch bolt 28b and having a stud 49a. Between the latch 28 and a partition 19e a spring 29 is coiled about the latch bolt 28h and acts on the latch 28 in direction of the arrow A to urge the latch into the striking plate 20.
In Fig. 9, the arm 46 is shown in one of its terminal positions in which it abuts against the pin 49a. When the arm 46 is turned in direction of the arrow L, the latch 28, 28b ismoved in the direction of the arrow A (Fig. 8) by theaction of the latch spring 29 and spindle spring '48, the latch being shot through the aperture 20a into the striking plate 20. The resultant of the force of spring 37 (Fig. 7) and that of the spring 29, in the direction of arrow H (Fig. 7), is smaller than the force produced by the closing spring in door closer 36 in opposition to the direction lof arrow H. The door closer in the position shown in Fig. 7, therefore, swings on pin 36b inthe -direction4 of arrow I against stop 38, the latch at thesame f may swing through an arc limited by the two stops 51d and 51e. In `the door plate 51b a swing arm 52 is rigidly secured to the transmission axle53. The arm 52 is rotated when the plate 51a is moved. Theseswiveling movements of the door closer 36 are transmitted onto the latch'28 Vof the latching means shown in Fig. 8,
whereby the latter may be positioned as shown 'inFigf 8. Y
Such transmission is effected by similar linkage means as shown in Figs. 7 and 8, the transmission axle 53l actuating bell crank lever 41, rod 43, lever 44 and axle`45. V"The spring 37 (Fig. 10) is inserted between the closer`v 36 and the door 40, and acts on the door and door closer just as in Fig. 7.
In Fig. l1 is shown a iifth example which differs from. those shown in Figs. 1 and 4 in that the latch 28 is'actuated by mechanical means, and not by hydraulicV means. Fig. 1l shows a plan view of a door closer 54, which may comprise Y"a structure'such as shown in Figures l an'd '4, aflixed to a door 40, and a shot latch bolt 28, i. e. the door 40 is shut on its hinges 48 in the door jamb 50. A bell crank 58 is pivoted to a bracket 59 which is axed to the door 40. One leg of the bell crank contacts the follower pin 43a which is affixed to the rod 43, and the other leg contacts the follower pin 56b of a second bell crank lever 56 which is rigidly secured to the crank axle 4. The lever S6 at its other end forms an abutment 56a which in the `'position shown in Fig. 11 abuts against an arm 57 which is pivoted on the crank axle 4. Intermediate the fixed bell crank V56 and the freely swinging arm 57 is inserted a spring 37 which, in the position shown in Fig. 11, is compressed in direction of the arrow I by the action of the door-closer spring, until the stop 56a abuts against the arm 57.
The other end of the transmission rod 43 has a further follower pin 43a which is engaged in a slot of the arm 44 which vis rigidly tixed on the transmission axle 45. The latter fatits other end is rotatably mounted inthe lock case 19, as shown in Fig. 12, and has an arm 46 axed thereto.
The spring 37 is capable to overcome, when the door is open, the turning resistance of the door acting on the arm 57 and slightly advances the latter with respect to the xed bell crank 56 in the closing direction of the door.
Fig. 12 shows a vertical section, as seen in the direction of the arrow K in Fig. l1, through the lock case 19 and the striking plate 20 in a larger scale. This construction diifersfrom that shown in Fig. 8 in that the latch 28 is engaged in the striking plate 20 on the door frame 50 and, thus, 'm its operative position locks the striking plate and lock case together. The latch bolt spring 29 does not act to move the latch 28 into the striking plate, but out of the same in direction of the arrow O. The latch 28 is moved in direction of the arrow A into the locked position' AShown in Fig. 12, by virtue of the greater force of the closing spring in the door closer 54, in opposition to the action of spring 37 in Fig. 1l and in opposition to the action of the latch boltspring 29 which acts in direction of the arrow O, The latch 28 is moved in direction of the arrow A in Fig. 12 by the action of'the follower vpin 56b` of the tixedbell crank'56 onto the bell crank 58, and from the latter via the rigging 43, 45 and through the arm 46 moving in the direction of the arrow L, Fig. 13, Vviathe 'stud 60a onto the spring plate 60. The force 'of the'auxiliary spring T62 is chosen such that the force of latch spring 29 fails to move the latch 28, 28a in direction of the arrow O and in opposition to the force of theauxiliary'spring 62. When the bell crank 58 in Fig. 11 swivels in direction of the arrow P, the arm 46 by virtue of the force of latch spring 29 onto the arm 46, moves in direction of thearrow M in Fig. 13. The longitudinal movevment'of latch`28 in'direction of the arrow O isl so chosen that the vlatch isretracted from its striking plate 20l and into the lock casing 19.
The mode of operation of the door-closing mechanisms described is jas follows.
The-door closer of Fig. 1 is affixed to the ydoor in known mannen'andl its arm S is pivoted to a further arm (not shown) ywhichin'turn is-pivoted to the door jamb, The vlock casing l19-also is aixed to the door, whilst the striking platef 20 -is l affixed to the door jamb. When the door lis opened, the checking piston 12 is moved in directionjofthe arrow A, the liquid in front chamber 1c es'capingthrough the valve ports 10a, 10b and the regulating duct 1e into the rear chamber 1d. When the 'door Ais-released, the piston 12 under the action of the closing spring 7 'is moved in direction of the arrow-B, a corresponding liquidV pressure being built up in the rear chamberlld, whereby the corrugated tube 23 is expanded in direction of the arrow C and through its pin 24 turns the lever 275'. 'The latch bolt 28b thus is moved in direction of'the arrow B against the action of the springs 29, 'the-latch 28'is being moved from its operative position (Fig. 2) into 'its inoperative position (Fig. 3). Such latter position is maintained until the door has swung back into the shut position on the door frame. In such shut position, the pressure on the liquid in the corrugated tube 23 and in the rear chamber 1d is determined by the force of the latch bolt spring 29 and also that ofthe tube 23 itself. The liquid return from the rearchambe'r 1d through duct 1e into the front chamberV 1c is governed by the degree of throttling of the duct 1e. During such return of the liquid, the l-atch 28 owing to the action of latch spring 29 is simultaneously moved from the position shown in Fig. 3 to that shown in Fig. 2, in which the door is entirely shut. When the door is pulled shut forcibly, the greater liquid pressure produced thereby causes the override valve 16 to open so that the liquid may ow from the rear chamber 1d through the ports of said valve back into the front chamber 1c.
The arrangement shown in Figs. 4-6 in its hydraulic portion operates exactly in the same manner as that shown in Figs. 1 3, with the dierence that the longitudinal movement caused by the expansion of the corrugated tube inserted in the door closer, is mechanically transmitted onto the latch 28, instead of hydraulically as in the irst example shown in Figs. 1 3.
In the third example shown in Figs. 7-9, the force for actuating the latch is produced and transmitted mechanically. When the door is in the shut and latched position, the latch occupies the position I (Fig. 7) in the striking plate, whilst the door closer 36 abuts against the stop 38. When the door is opened, the door closer 36 remains in said position. When the door is let go, the arm 8 under the action of the door-closer spring is moved in direction of the arrow I and thus causes the door to be shut. Such movement at the same time is retarded through the action of the checking piston. The force of spring 37 in the position shown in Fig. 7 is so chosen that it is capable to overcome the rotary resistance of the door and the force on the follower 36a (Fig. 7) in a sense opposed to the arrow H. The spring 37 after the beginning of the closing movement of the door pushes the latter so far away from the door closer 36 until the latter abuts against the stop 39. The door closer 36 and the door 40 then occupy the relative position shown in Fig. 7, in which the latch bolt 28, 28b has been retracted into the lock casing 19. Such position is maintained during the entire closing movement until the shut position shown in Fig. 7 has been reached. In such latter position, the door closer 36 through the action of the closing spring thereof onto the arm 8 is swung in direction of the arrow J until the closer 36 again abuts against stop 38, during which movement the latch 2S has been moved out of the lock casing 19 and into the striking plate.
In the fourth example shown in Fig. l0, the movements of the door closer 36 produce the same movements of the latch bolt as in the third example.
In the fifth form of invention shown in Figs, 1l-l3, the operation is as follows:
In Fig. ll, the door 40 is shown in its latched position in the door jamb 50. When the door is opened, the position of the free arm 57 relatively to the xed bell crank 56, shown in Fig. 1l, remains intact. The arm 57, to* gether with its follower 56h, moves away from that leg of bell crank S8 which contacts it, whereby the latter, through the action of latch bolt spring 29 in direction of the arrow O, has been swung in direction of the arrow P, and at the same time the latch 28 has been retracted from the striking plate into the lock casing 19. When the door is let go, the lixed bell crank 56 under the action of the closing spring of the door closer, swings in direction of the arrow I. Such movement of bell crank 56, however, is retarded. The force of spring 37 is of such magnitude that it overcomes the turning resistance acting on the free arm 57 whereby the latter through spring 37 is swung away from the stop 56a. The free arm 57 and the iixed bell crank 56, which is shown in the position 1I in Fig. 1l, occupy relatively to each other the angular position shown, which position is maintained during the Yentire closing movementr of the door, until the latter has reached its shut positionfin the door frame. In such latter position, the fixed bell crank 56 under the `action of the door-closer spring swings from the position II in Fig. ll in direction of the arrow I until the stop 56a abuts against the free arm 57. By reason of such turning movement of th fixed bell crank 56, the bell crank 58 thrrough stop 56b has been swung in direction of the arrow R, whereby the latch bolt through the transmission means is shot into the striking plate 20 against the action of the latch-bolt spring 29, whereby the door has been latched.
The forms of invention described also may be used for such elevator doors, namely in such manner that the counter-element of the said movable latch bolt is movably inserted in the door and, thus, becomes a latch which, in accordance with the present invention, is so controlled that the elevator door is moved to its shut position with its latch disengaged from said latch bolt, and the latter only in this position is pushed back by the latch through the door closing arrangement, whereby the elevator again is ready for operation. The door-closing mechanism, therefore, also is applicable to elevator doors to ensure a noiseless closing thereof.
Although the foregoing description refers to hydraulic operation of some modiiications of the mechanism, it will be appreciated that any iluid operation, such as pneumatic operation, may be employed.
In the forms of invention shown and described, door closers have been assumed which mostly are secured to the door and door jamb. The same closing operation also may be accomplished with the aid of door closers disposed on the oor or closers which engage the door only during the end-portion of its closing movement.
Aside from the types of transmission of forces and movements from the door closer onto the latch means, illustrated with the aid of the ve forms of invention described, it is feasible to transmit said forces and movements by pneumatic or cable means. Such cable means are particularly suitable for the last four forms of invention.
What I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is:
l. A door-closing mechanism comprising a door-closer unit, means for mounting said unit on a door, a door lock including a latch bolt and spring means biasing said bolt into locking position, mechanical transmission means interconnecting said door-closer unit and said latch bolt and operative to retract said bolt while the door is open, said door closer unit including a closing spring, and an auxiliary spring operatively interposed between said transmission means and said door to impart a limited closing movement to the door and supplement said closing spring, said door-closer unit being pivoted to the door to move relatively thereto under spring action.
2. A door closing mechanism comprising a door closer unit, means for mounting said unit on a door, a door lock including a latch bolt and spring means biasing said bolt into locking position, mechanical transmission means interconnecting said door closer unit and said latch bolt and operative to retract said bolt while the door is open, said door closer unit including -a closing spring, and an auxiliary spring operatively interposed between said transmission means and said door to impart a limited closing movement to the door upon reversal of the door movement from opening to closing direction, said auxiliary spring acting on said transmission means to maintain said latch bolt in retracted position during the entire closing stroke of the door, while when the door arrives in its position of closure, said closing spring acting against the auxiliary spring causes operation of said transmission means to close the latch bolt.
3. A door-closing mechanism as set out in claim l, in
' 7 which the door-closer unit is adapted to swing in a horizoxi'talpla'ne.
14,-* LAf`door-c1oing`me hanism Sas 'set outnclaim 1,1in which thedoor'c1ser unit is adaptedfto-swing ini-a Avertical plane.
Kirk Aug. 1, A1933 FOREIGN PATENTS Germany Mar. 31, 1923