US 2770239 A
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rnocuss or TREATING ToBAcco Jose Romero Prats and Francisco Romero Prats II, Pasay City, Republic of the Philippines No Drawing. Application February 4, 1952,
Serial No. 269,892
2 Claims. (Cl. 131-142 This invention relates to a process of treating tobacco for regulating the color, flavor and aroma of such tobacco. The quality, flavor and aroma of tobaccos vary greatly with the place of production of such tobacco. The cigarettes produced using American Virginia tobaccos are definitely preferred as to quality, flavor and aroma to cigarettes produced from tobaccos in other localities. For example, Philippine native tobacco as compared with American Virginia tobacco produce cigarettes of a dark color, more bitter taste, and stronger aroma. The same is true of tobaccos produced in many other localities, and even with respect to American tobacco leaves there is a decided difference as to color, aroma and flavor of cigarettes produced therefrom.
The main object of the present invention is to provide a process of treating tobacco by which the quality, color, flavor and aroma of the tobacco may be regulated.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a process for treating tobacco, such as Philippine native tobacco which naturally possesses a dark brown color, bitter taste and strong aroma, so that such tobacco may produce cigarettes of a light color, pleasant taste and mild aroma.
We have found that the flavor and aroma at least of tobacco is primarily determined by the materials that may be extracted therefrom that are present in the native tobacco leaf. Tobacco having different aromas and flavor may be obtained from tobacco by extraction processes carried out at different temperatures. By such a process there may be obtained tobacco leaf substantially deprived of its aroma and flavor and at the same time a number of extracts of tobacco differing in flavor. The neutral tobacco leaf (from which the aroma and flavor has been extracted) may then be bleached to render the same colorless. It is then possible by using suitable extracts of tobacco tars or juices to produce a tobacco having substantially rany desired color from a clear yellow to a dark brown with almost any desired aroma and flavor. t
A very important aspect of our invention is the frac= tional extraction of tobacco. While this extraction may be carried cut in various stages we find it preferable to so conduct the extraction as to produce four fractions; the first fraction will be found to have a sweeter aroma and a milder flavor than the secondfraction; the third fraction has amore bitter flavor and stronger aroma than the second fraction; and the last fraction a still more bitter flavor and stronger aroma. When the extraction is carried out to produce less than four or more than four fractions the results will be similar. By this process the tobacco is deprived of its natural flavor and aroma and it is possible to saturate the odorless and fiavorless tobacco, which we herein refer to as neutral tobacco,
with any desired tobacco tar fractional.extract or cxtracts ofany combination of different extracts to achieve any desired aroma and flavor. In such a process it may,
be desirable to, utilize tobacco tar fractional extracts obtained from a different source of tobacco than the tobacco which is to be saturated. Thus Philippine native tobacco which has been neutralized by the process of the present invention may be saturated with extracts of tobacco from American Virginia tobacco. Furthermore, it is thereby possible to produce from Philippine native tobacco, tobacco which, when made into cigarettes, has an aroma and flavor comparing favorably with the cigarettes produced from American Virginia tobacco. Furthermore, in accordance with the process of the present invention any desired color may be imparted.
Another advantage of the present invention is the resulting tobacco product that tobacco contains less percentage-of nicotine content than any cured tobacco. This is so because nicotine being a volatile alkaloid is easily evaporated during the different heating stages the tobacco goes through in the process of our present invention.
Another advantage of the process of the present inven tion is that cigarettes made according to our process will keep a long period of time without molding, there being v0 reasons, the eventual boiling of the tobacco and the action. of the bleaching agent during the process.
Another advantage of our process is the fact that native cigarettes can be produced with a milder flavor and sweeter aroma by neutralizing the native tobacco by extracting in four fractions the native tobacco. The last two fractions are not utilized, only the first two fractions extracted from the native tobacco and the first two fractions extracted from Philippine native tobacco dust are used to saturate the neutral native tobacco. A native cigarette prepared in this manner has a much finer aroma and flavor.
In describing our invention we shall first mention the steps necessary to be taken and our reasons for same. in the beginning the cured native tobacco (already cut for cigarette manufacture) is placed in an open container with enough water :at room temperature to soak the tobacco completely. After thirty or forty minutes the tobacco is strained and the tobacco extract placed in a separate container. The result is the first fraction of native tobacco extract. Then. the native tobacco is again soaked in water and heated for thirty or forty minutes at a temperature of 60 C. After this lapse of time the native tobacco is strained :and the second fraction of the tobacco extract is placed in a sepa rate container. The native tobacco is again soaked in clean water and heated for thirty or fortyminutes at C. and then strained and the third fraction of the tobacco extract is placed in a separate container, and for the last time the tobacco is again soaked in water and heated for thirty or forty minutes at 1C., after which time the tobacco is tobacco extra-ct is also placed in a separate container.
The neutral tobacco now devoid of most of its extractable i? tobacco is definitely good but separatingtobacco' tar extract into different fractions is better, now and altogether useful. The first fraction has a mild aromaand sweet flavor; the second fraction has no longer as mild an aroma and as sweet a flavor as the first fraction; the
third fraction has almost a bitter flavor and almost a strong aroma; while the fourth fraction has a strong aroma and a bitter flavor. It is obvious that with these different fractions an unlimited number of combinations can be made ,by imparting in any neutralized tobacco or cured tobacco any desired flavor and aroma. The tobacco extract maybe fractioned into more thanfour partsj'if we taking,
strained and the fourth fraction of stems and dust for treating cured used in plantations 'asan insecticide.
,3: make reference here of only four fractions it is because in four fractions the difference -in-aroma and flavor existing between these fractions are more noticeable. The tobacco extract may also be fractioned into two parts but the'variety of combinations possible would also be'more limited 1 i :After drying the neutralized native tobacco and if the idea is to'convert this native tobacco into'American Virginia cigarettes, the next step is the bleaching process. There are several bleaching agents known. Oxalic acid (C2H2O4) and lemon salts may be used with good results but-they affect the'od'orand flavor of the tobacco and are toxic. Iavel'water'may also be used but it also affects theflavor-and aroma of the tobacco. There is also a bleaching process 'by'ferrnentatiori which is excellent but its-useis uot-practical when extraction by fractions of thetobacco tar is contemplated.
In our invention'hydrogen'peroxide (H202) is the bleaching agentused. It'can be applied to delicate materials withoupfearyof destroying or damagingthem, it readily liberates nascent oxygen, an agent that kills bacteria and improves hygienic conditions, and destroys organisms causing tissue decomposition. This is one reason why ou'r'converted finished cigarettes will keep months without molding. Hydrogen peroxide may have been used forbleaching tobacco before but part of our invention consists in our new method of bleaching the neutral native tobacco with hydrogen peroxide.
Another advantage of our present invention consists in soaking the dry neutral native tobacco in an aqueous solution" of lOIvolumes hydrogen peroxide containing about 3% or pure hydrogen with 13 milligrams of acet alenide per fl'uid' ounce. After thoroughly soaking the native tobacco in the hydrogen peroxide it is strained and theliquid"recovered for further use if necessary, then, withoutloss of't'i-rne, placed to dry in a rotation dryer at 100CI'until completely'dry. In our method we find it very important to dry the tobacco as soon as possible after? applying the bleaching agent without overheating onburningthe material in order to hasten the oxidation. Thishaste'ning of oxidation occurs when water is evaporate'd rapidly and the strength and activity of the compound is atits'peak; In this manner a small quantity of hydrogenperoxide is required to'bleach the tobacco with 7 excellent resultsi 'Wefshal'l repeat that the recovered liquid from thefirst straining of the tobacco may be used again 'andag'ain aslong' as'no time is lost, for as known, light'g alkaliesan'dsalts have a tendency to hasten decompositionof-the substance."
After 'thefbleached neutral native tobacco is dried and cooled; it is ready 'for thesaturation process. In converting Philippirietobacco 'to Virginia tobacco it is an important partof'our invention to utilize the pure tobacco extract from'-American Virginia tobacco leaves, stems, waste anddust. In theUnited States dust tobacco from Virginia tobacco-is recovered by cigarette manufacturers ands'old to manufacteurers of nicotine insecticides widely,
H Virginia tobacco and=nat1ve"Ph1l1ppine nativetobacco dusts can be extracted :and possess thesame aroma and flavor that their We extract Virginia tobac respe'ctive cured leaves have. co dust with our method of fractional extraction which we use -in neutralizing the Philippine native'tobacc'o. Our reason for-doing =tlieextraction by fractions is that the first,--.second3 third and fourth fractions have their respective temperature of extraction and their respective cha'racteristics-:Will'only be preserved if each fractional extraction is not-heated'beyond its'lirnits.
The-steps'n'ecessary to extract Virginia dust tobacco follows the same pattern "used in extracting Philippine native 'tobaccoyit is done'by fractions, the only'difference being in whether the extraction is from tobacco dust or fromtobacco leaves-for in'the fractional extraction of tobacco dust a fin'e'sieve of afine mesh is required.
Otherwise the-heating temperatures are the same, and also each fractional extractgis placedin' a'separate container.
The first, second, third and fourth fractions of the tobacco extract from the Virginia tobacco dust are placed in one container and thoroughly mixed. Then the neutral and bleached native tobacco is placed in the container and soaked completely in the Virginia tobacco extract for two hours in order to allow the Virginia tobacco extract to saturate the native tobacco completely, after which time the saturated native tobacco. is placed in a rotating dryer at a temperature of 60 C. until dry. Care should be taken that the volume of tobaccoextracgdoes not exceedtoo much the volume ofnative tobacco to be saturated so that after the twohours of saturation the native tobacco will have absorbed most "of the Virginia tobacco extract so that in transferring the saturated native tobacco to the rotating dryervery little, if any, tobacco extract will be left in the container. The saturated and converted native tobacco must not be strained when transferred to the rotating dryer.
Adding a small amount of glycerineto the Virginia tobac'co'extract after intermixing the four fractional extracts and before soaking in it the native tobacco, will improve the quality of the finished product, will-prevent the saturated na'tive"tobacco from becoming crisp and brittle when dry, and will also improve the taste of thecigarette as well'a's causing it to burn more steadily when lighted.
By' adding averysmall amount of 'coloring matter of a yellow-orange color to the Virginia tobacco extract, there will be imparted to the -finished product a golden brown color so natural andcommonin all American Virginia cigarettes. Also the addition of small quantities native cigarettes. Neutral Philippine native tobacco when saturated with four fractions consisting of two first frac tions and'two'second fractions of tobacco extract from leaves, stems, waste or dust from Philippine native tobacco will very much improve the quality, flavor and aroma of our native cigarettes because the third and fourthfractional extracts from the neutralized native tobacco have been excluded and the two last fractional ex'tracts have I a bitter flavor and a stronger aroma.
In the following examples we shall illustrate some of the compositions that can be made according to our present invention as the'p'ossible combinations are so many that it wonldbe impossible to mention them all.-
I Example A Philippine native tobacco converted to American Vir-v ginia type-cigarettes. In this example the nativetobacco is processed in order to acquire color, flavor, and aroma of the average Virginia tobacco cigarettes. The following.
is a list of the necessary ingredients:
Philippine native (cured) tobacco (already cut) lbs 1 Tobacco dust from Virginia tobacc0 lbs'... 1 Hydrogen peroxide (H202), 10 vols (with 13 milligrams acetaliride per fluid ounce) oz 8 Glycerine'(discretional) spo onfuls 3 Pure vanina'extmet' (discretional) 'do 3 l Coloring imatter "(yellow-orange) (discretional) Philippine native cured tobacco (already cut for cigarette manufacturefis placedin an open container with enough water to soak the tobacco completely, atroom temperature ,"and after thirty or forty minutes the tobacco is strained well to obtainsubstantially all of the extractives from said tobacco. The. tobacco is then placed again in the" open container with cleanwater andiheated for thirty. i
minutes at 60?" C. temperature, after which time. the
tobacco is again strained and with clean water returnedtol the oplen conta ner and heatedfor'thi'rty or forty vr'niruites at 'C. temperature Oncea'nore the tobacco is again strained and with clean water returned to the container and heated for thirty or forty minutes at 100 C. For the last time the tobacco is strained and placed in a rotating drier at 100 C. until dry. During this operation of new tralizing the native tobacco the native tobacco extracted at four different temperatures and intervals, if recovered and placed in each respective container, could be utilized for other examples and purposes. In this particular example We will not use the fractional extractionsfrom the Philippine native tobacco. Instead we will use the fractional extracts from Virginia tobacco dust.
The dust from Virginia tobacco is placed in a container with enough water to soak all the dust for thirty or forty minutes at room temperature and then strained through a fine sieve and the tobacco extract placed in a separate container. This is the first fractional extraction. The dust is returned to the open container with clean water and heated for thirty or forty minutes at 60 C. temperature; after straining the tobacco extract is placed in a different container. This is the second fraction-a1 extraction. Once more the tobacco dust is soaked in clean water and for thirty or forty minutes heated at 80 C. and then strained and the Virginia tobacco placed in a separate container. This is the third fractional extraction. For the last time the tobacco dust is placed in the open container with clean water and heated for thirty or forty minutes at 100 C., and for the last time the tobacco dust is strained and the tobacco extract is placed in a separate container. This is the fourth and last extraction from the Virginia tobacco dust.
The four fractional extractions are then thoroughly mixed together in one container. A very little coloring matter (yellow-orange) is then added, together with about three spoonfuls of pure vanilla extract and about two spoonfuls of glycerine. Thorough mixing and Stirring is essential. The dry neutral and bleached native tobacco is then soaked in the tobacco extract for two hours at room temperature after which time the native converted tobacco is placed, without straining, in the rotating dryer at a temperature of 60 until dry; Afterdrying and cooling the material will be ready for the'cigarette making machine.
1 Example B In this. example we will illustrate the fractional extracts of tobacco from Philippine native tobacco leaves,
Philippine cured native tobacco (already cut) lbs 1 Philippine native tobacco dust -lbs 1 Pure vanilla extract (discretional) spoonfuls 3 Glycerine (discretional) do 2 (In this example no bleaching of the native tobacco will be done.)
The Philippine native tobacco is placed in an open container with enough water at room temperature to soak the tobacco completely. After thirty or forty minutes the native tobacco is strained and the first fraction of the native tobacco extract is placed in a separate container. The native tobacco is again placed in the open container with enough clean water to soak the native tobacco and heated for thirty or forty minutes at a temperature of 60 C. then the tobacco is strained and the second fractional extract is placed in a separate container. The native tobacco is again returned to the open container with enough Water and heated for thirty or forty minutes at a temperature of 80 C. after which time the native tobacco is again strained and the third tobacco fractional extract placed in a separate container. For the last time the native tobaccois returned to the open container and with clean water heated for thirty or forty minutes at a temperature of 100 C;, then the tobacco is strained and the fourth native tobacco fractional extract is placed in a separate container. The native tobacco is then placed in the rotating dryer at 100 C. until dry. We have already four tobacco fractional extracts of which only the first and second will be used, the third and fourth are not used. The first and second fractional extracts are not enough to saturate 1 lb. of neutral native tobacco so the next step will be to extract from 1 lb. of Philippine native tobacco dust the first and the second tobacco fractional extracts only.
The dust tobacco is placed in an open container with enough Water to soak the dust tobacco for thirty or forty minutes at room temperature, after which time it is strained through a fine sieve and the first fractional extraction is placed in a separate container. The native tobacco dust is again placed in an open container and with enough water heated for thirty or forty minutes at a temperature of 60 C. After this the native tobacco dust is strained through a fine sieve and the tobacco dust is discarded. In this example we use only the first fractional extraction and the second fractional extraction from the native tobacco dust.
The first and second fractionalextracts from the native tobacco and the first and second fractional extract from the native dust tobacco are mixed together in a clean container and pure vanilla extract and glycerin added,
then the whole mixture is thoroughly stirred. The neutral dry native tobacco is then included and soaked for two hours. Afterwards the saturated native tobacco is placed, without straining it, in the rotating drier at a temperature of 60 C. If there should be too much volume of water in the tobacco extract for the native neutral tobacco to absorb the volume may be reduced by heating the tobacco extracts at 50 C. before soaking the native tobacco. After passing through the rotating drier the native tobacco will be ready for the cigarette making machine.
Example C In this example we will illustrate how Philippine native tobacco can be converted into a Virginia Turkish blended cigarette, but without bleaching the native tobacco.
The list ofingredients required are:
Philippine native tobacco (already cut) lbs 1 Dust from Virginia Burley tobacco ounces 12 Dust from Turkish aromatic tobacco do 4 Glycerine (discretional) spoonfuls 2 Pure vanilla extract (discretional) ndo 3 The Philippine native tobacco (already cut) is placed in an open container with enough Water and allowed to soak for thirty or forty minutes, after which time the native tobacco is strained and the first fractional extract is placed in separate containers. The operation is repeated a second time but heating this time at 60 C. for thirty or forty minutes. The second fractional extract is also placed in a separate container for future use. In the third extraction the time required is thirty or forty minutes at a temperature of C. In the fourth and last fractional extraction the time required for heating is thirty or forty minutes at a temperature of C. Then the neutral native tobacco is placed in a rotation dryer at 100 C. until dry.
The dust from Virginia Burley tobacco is placed in an open container for the fractional extraction of its tobacco. The procedure is the same as stated in our disclosure, with the first, second, third and fourth Virginia tobacco fractional extractions placed in independent containers. The dust from Turkish aromatic tobacco is then also passed through our fractional extraction process and once this is done the first, second, third and fourth Virginia tobacco mixed together in a clean container and stirred thoroughly,
ing,,dryer,.at60,? C: until comple.tely.dry.. When dried and cooled theconvertednative .tobaccowilL-beready for the, cigarettemaking machine.
Example D Inthis example wewill illustrate how third and fourth fractional tobacco extracts from the IeaVes, dusts, waste and. stemsv of,Philippine native tobacco can-,be utilized to great advantage. in manufacturing a new. blendof native cigarette-by the addition of. pure vanilla-extract and,
e ne The ingredients required are, as follows: Philippine native tobacco (already cut and partlyneutralized). whose first and second fractional tobaccoextracts have already been extracted and utilizedforiother blendsand purposes. This native tobacco has already passed through the rotating dryerandcontains only the ext-ractablematerial capable of being removed by the processe which would.
yield said third and fourth fractional extracts Third and fourth fractional extracts from. 1 lb. of Philippine native tobacco dust.
spoonfuls Pure vanilla extract (discretional); Glycerine (discretional) 2 The third and fourth-fractional tobacco extracts from Philippine native dust tobacco are mixed together in a clean container and after adding the pure vanilla extract and the glycerine, and after stirring the mixture thoroughly, the partly neutralized and dry native tobacco is' soaked'in it for two hours, after which time, without draining, the tobacco is placed in the rotary dryer to dry at 60 -C. The tobacco will then be ready for the cigarette making machine.
While in the foregoing description we have referred Further describedare .well-: adapted tocanryout the objects of the-- invention, it.is torbe. understood-that the- =invent=ion- --isof the scopeset forth'ini theappended claims...
1.: A process for. treating-tobacco comprising.,the.steps of making successive Water extracts-Lot said tobacco wherein'ia predetermined number ofisuccessiveextracts are made-at roomternperature, C., C.; and
C., respectively,.bleachingasaid remaining tobacco with hydrogenperoxide and saturating said 'bleach'ed tobacco with at least one andnotqnore than onelessthanthe a predetermined number of the above tobacco extracts'made at the lower. temperatures with reference toroom temperature.-
2. A processuas described in claim- 1 in whichethe tobacco processed isa tobaccohavinga dark color,-bitter--- taste and strong aroma, such as Philippine native tobacco.-
References Citedin the file ofthis patent- UNITEDSTATES PATENTS 21,558; Durell; Sept.2l,.1858 90,301 Posada May. 18,,l869. 136,872 Stafford et a1.. Mar. 18,1873 345,076, Robinson July 6, 1886 346,887 Bennett Aug. 10, 1886 445,438 Bingh arn. Ian. 27, 1891 1,016,844,. Moonelis Feb. 6, 1912 1,086,306 Oelenheinz Feb. 3, 19,14; 1,325,060 Toms Dec..16, 191.9 1,624,155 Amster Apr. 12, 1927 2,079,997 Fletcher Mayll, 193-7 2,170,107; Baier- Aug. 22, 1939.- 2,582,075 Severi-- n.- 8, 1952 FOREIGN PATENTS 17,037 GreatBritain 1912 26,259 'GreatBritain 1897 119,959..
OTHER'IREFERENCES 1 Skibbe: vol. 133, pages 263-264 ofiChemical-News, published 1926.
Sherwood: Absorption and Extraction, pages 238-239,
published 1937 by McGraw-Hill'Book Co., NewYork,
Great Britain Oct, 24,1918 .L