US 2771659 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
A. L. BALL Nov. 27, 1956 PROCESS OF FORMING A DURABLE OPEN MESH FABRIC 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed July 2, 1953 was) INVENTOR.
ler? 15.36171 Ill Nov. 27, 1956 A. BALL 2,771,659
PROCESS OF FORMING A DURABLE OPEN MESH FABRIC Filed July 2, 1953 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR- 1667? .Z BQZZ United States Patent O PROCESS OF FORNHNG A DURABLE OPEN MESH FABRIC Albert L. Ball, Worcester, Mass., assignor to Bay State Abrasive Products Company, Westboro, Mass, a corporation of Massachusetts Application July 2, 1953, Serial No. 365,641
12. Claims. (Cl. 28-73) This application relates to the manufacture of fabrics and is particularly concerned with the manufacture of open mesh fabrics in which both the warp yarns and the filling yarns are comparatively widely spaced.
Open mesh fabrics are desired and used for many purposes. A serious disadvantage of such fabrics, however, is their lack of durability which results from the slipping or shifting of the yarns of the fabric. Such slipping is particularly troublesome where smooth or slippery synthetic fiber yarns are employed. Indeed, to obtain an open mesh fabric which is at all durable it has hitherto been necessary to use the leno or gauze weave, in which a double warp twisted around the filling yarns is employed, instead of the simpler and less expensive plain or twill weaves.
Broadly, the object of the present invention is to provide an open mesh fabric which is strong and durable.
More specifically, it is an object of the invention to provide an open mesh fabric, the yarns of which are nonslipping and in which irregularities are not caused by displacement of the yarns.
Another object of the invention is to provide a strong, durable, open mesh fabric in which the warp and filling yarns are fastened together at their points of interlacing or crossing by an adhesive.
It is a further object of the invention to provide a method of producing a non-slipping, open mesh fabric of the type described which is simple and convenient and which does not require the use of expensive special apparatus or extensive treatment of the fabric after it is removed from the loom.
Other objects and advantages of the present invention will be apparent from the following description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which:
Figure 1 is a fragmentary side elevation of a conventionalized loom carrying means, shown partly in section, for carrying out the present invention;
Figure 2 is a fragmentary top plan view of the loom shown in Figure 1 with portions of the yarns and fabric omitted to better show the mechanical details;
Figure 3 is a fragmentary enlarged view of an open mesh fabric which has been produced in accordance with the present invention;
Figure 4 is a section on line 44 of the fabric shown in Figure 3; and
Figures 5 and 6 are fragmentary enlarged views of other types of open mesh fabrics adapted for treatment in accordance with the present invention.
By the novel process of the present invention the warp and filling yarns of an open mesh fabric are attached or joined at their points of interlacing or crossing by an adhesive material while the fabric is still on the loom and while the warp is still under the normal tension of the loom. Thus the yarns are not given an oppor- 2,771,659 Patented Nov. 27, 1956 cal properties of adhesives which may be used in carrying out the process of the invention, the characteristics of the fabric may be greatly varied to produce novel and useful effects and to render the fabric more suitable for certain purposes.
One form which apparatus to carry out the present novel process may take is illustrated diagrammatically in Figures 1 and 2 of the drawings. In these figures there is shown, and designated generally by the reference character 11, the front portion of a loom upon which such apparatus is mounted. The loom 11 includes a pair of side frames each of which comprises a front pedestal 13 and two longitudinal girders or struts 15 and 17. On a portion of the loom 11 the warp 19 and finished fabric 23 are shown in place. According to one method of operation of a loom the odd yarns 20 of the warp 19 and the even yarns 21 thereof pass, respectively, through separate heddles (not shown) and are alternately raised and lowered by the heddles to form the shed as shown in Figure l. The shuttle (not shown) is projected back and forth across the loom 11 through the shed, the positions of the warp yarns between each passage thereof being changed by the heddles, and lays down the filling yarn 22 from a bobbin carried by the shuttle. Thus each successive pick or filling yarn in the fabric passes under and over, respectively, the warp yarns that the next preceding pick passed over and under. The result is a plain weave fabric or cloth 23.
The fabric 23 passes over the transversely disposed breast beam 25 and around the guide roll 27 and is drawn taut by the take-up roller 29 which, if desired, may be covered with abrasive paper or be otherwise provided with a roughened surface for positively gripping the fabric and putting tension on the warp. From the take-up roller 29 the fabric passes around the guide roll 31 and is wound upon the cloth beam or roller 33. The take-up roller 29 and cloth roller 33 are driven by mechanism (not shown) arranged to advance the woven cloth 23 and attached warp 19 evenly and continuously through the loom 11 during the weaving process.
Extending upwardly on each side of the loom 11 is a sword 37. At their lower ends the swords are mounted on a transverse rocker shaft 39 and are caused to oscillate thereon by a pivotally connected crank 41 which is usually operatively connected to the picker mechanism (not shown). At'their upper ends the swords carry the transversely extending sley 43 and the reed 45.
The reed 45 comprises an array of parallel wires 47 extending between the sley 43 and the bar 49 which is parallel with and above the sley and is carried thereby. The warp yarns 20 and 21 are maintained parallel and separated by passing through the openings in the reed between the wires 47. The reed, moving with the oscillating sword 37, is given a forward and backward motion in the loom. In its rearward position it leaves room in the shed for the shuttle to pass through the shed in front of the reed and lay down a filling yarn 22. After each passage of the shuttle the reed 45 moves to its forward position and battens the pick or filling yarn 22 just laid down, moving it into place in the fell 24 of the fabric 23. When a closely woven cloth or fabric, that is one having a high cloth count or thread count, is being woven the action of the reed in battening the filling yarns is to give a firm, compact construction to the fabric. Where, however, as in the present invention, the fabric is an open weave one, the reed serves merely to straighten out and evenly space the picks as they are laid in place by the shuttle and thus secure uniformity of weave.
It will be understood that the warp yarns 20 and 21 are continuous and extend from the warp beam (not shown) at the rear of the loom 11 through the heddles (not shown) and the reed 45 into the fabric 23 and that they are under tension throughout the weaving process. The warp beam is normally equipped with a device for imparting resistance to rotation thereof and, as previously described, the fabric 23 after passing over the breast beam 25 is gripped by the take-up roller 29 and is thus held firmly. The mechanism (not shown) for causing operation of the take-up roller and the cloth beam or roller 33 is positively driven by the loom apparatus to provide an even movement of the warp 19 through the loom as the cloth is woven, thereby permitting the Weaving of an open mesh fabric with uniform mesh openings. Of course, the take-up mechanism for the cloth or fabric is accompanied by a suitable let-off mechanism for the warp beam.
The process of the present invention may be used with open mesh fabrics of various types of weave and of various fibers Thus, even though open mesh fabrics formed with a gauze or leno weave are somewhat durable, they may be rendered much more resistant to yarn slippage by treatment according to the present novel process. On the other hand, open mesh fabrics having a plain weave or a twill weave are lacking in durability since the yarns are easily displaced, even in some cases by ordinary handling. particularly when yarns of continuous, relatively smooth fibers such as glass fibers and synthetic organic fibers are employed. Such fabrics are, however, given greatly increased durability and strength and are made useful by treatment according to the present process. Open mesh fabrics having a satin or sateen weave are of only slight usefulness since the long floats character istic of such weaves make such fabrics extremely sleazy. Treatment of such fabrics according to the process of the present invention will considerably increase their durability though they will still be comparatively flimsy.
The present novel process is, as indicated above, particularly useful with yarns of relatively smooth, continuous filament fibers such as rayon, nylon, other synthetic organic fibers, and glass fibers since open mesh fabrics of such yarns are especially subject to slipping and displacement of the yarns with consequent distortion. Yarns comprising only a single filament as well as multi-filament yarns may be used although it will be recognized that the latter tend to be more flexible than the former. The process may also be usefully employed, moreover, with both organic and inorganic yarns of other types such for example, as spun yarns of cotton, linen, rayon, wool, glass and asbestos. Yarns of various sizes may of course be used.
The apparatus required for carrying out the novel process of the present invention is shown diagrammatically in Figures 1 and 2 mounted on the upper longitudinal girder of the loom 11 between the reed 45 and the breast beam 25. It comprises, in order from left to right as viewed in Figure l, adhesive applying apparatus including a tank 53, a gas jet or nozzle 57, and drying or setting means 63 for the adhesive.
The adhesive tank or vat 53 extends crosswise of the loom ll. Rotatably supported in the tank 53 is a horizontal, adhesive-applying roller 55. The adhesive 56 in the tank is maintained at such a level as to permit the roller to pick up adhesive as it rotates and carry the adhesive to the fabric 23. The latter frictionally engage: the upper surface of the roller 55 and in its movement through the loom causes the roller to revolve. The yarns of the fabric are thus coated with adhesive they pass over the roller.
The gas jet or nozzle 57 comprises a body or tube that ext-ends transversely of the loom and has projecting upwardly therefrom an extension 59 in which there is provided an elongated orifice 60 through which gas admitted to the body through the flexible connection 61 may be expelled. The orifice 60 extends the full width of the fabric 23 and is preferably provided with suitable and convenient means (not shown) for adjusting its width.
The stream of gas issuing at high velocity from the orifice 60 serves to break films of adhesive that blind, i. e. extend across and close, themesh openings of the fabric, thus opening the meshes and preventing the fabric from appearing faulty or irregular. When using thick, viscous adhesives a higher gas velocity will be required to break the adhesive films than when thin or less viscous adhesives are used. With constant inlet pressure to the jet 57 the velocity of the gas stream issuing from the orifice 60 as well as its thickness depends upon the adjustment of the orifice width. It has been found that when the gas pressure in the hose or pipe 61 is about 20 p. s. i. an orifice width of from about 0.010 in. to about 0.030 in. produces satisfactory results. The velocity of the gas stream should not be greater than required to unblind the mesh openings since a stream with excessive velocity may displace or render irregular the film of adhesive on the yarns. Preferably, the gas employed in the nozzle or jet 57 is air although where circumstances require it steam or other gase may be used.
After any mesh openings of the fabric 23 that are closed by adhesive films are unblinded by the gas stream from the nozzle 57, the adhesive is dried or set by conversion to the solid state on the yarns of the fabric. This, in many cases, may be conveniently done by the application of heat. In the drawings the reference character 63 has been applied to a radiantheater which is supported on the girders 15 by legs 65. The radiant heater 63 may be of any of the well known types, the heat being emitted by a series or battery of infra-red lamps or other heating elements 66 and directed upon the coated fabric by a reflector 67. If required, a similar heater may be mounted on the loom 11 under the fabric 23 so that heat is applied to both sides of the fabric. It will be obvious that if needed or found desirable other devices may be used for setting or assisting in the setting of the adhesive applied to the fabric. Such devices may be used in conjunction with heating means or in place thereof. Examples of such devices are blowers, which may pass heated air over or through the fabric, and sprays, which may apply a precipitant or a hardening or conditioning agent to the surface of the adhesive.
In the following example there is described the manufacture of an open-mesh fabric according to the present invention.
Example I A loom set up to produce a 24 x 24 mesh fabric using 300 denier rayon warp and filling yarns, is provided with apparatus of the type described above. The adhesive tank is supplied with a. latex solution or dispersion formed by mixing about 3000 .cc. of water with about 30,000 cc. of white neoprene latex such as the grade sold by the designation Z-l6 which contains a zinc oxide filler and is made by General Latex and Chemical Co. The latex solution should be sufliciently thin to permit it to thoroughly coat the yarn of the fabric even though it is applied by a roller to only one side of the fabric. At the same time it should be thick enough not to drip off or-run so as to make the coating on the yarns uneven. A solution having a viscosity of about centipoises at 25 C. has been found quite suitable for use and results in an increase in fabric weight after drying of the adhesive coating of about 0.0035 lbs./'ft. After passing over the adhesive applying roll and receiving a coating of latex the fabric on the loom passes over the orifice of the air nozzle. The high velocity stream of air emerging therefrom unblinds any mesh openings which may have been closed by a film of latex. There is also, of course, some drying of the latex solution by the action of the air, depending upon the volume and temperature thereof and this drying may be increased by using heated air. The latex coated fabric then passes under an infra-red heater, the heat from which drives off the water of the latex dis persion and causes the neoprene to set to a continuous film around the yarns. The resulting fabric with neoprene coated yarns is wound up on the cloth roller of the loom from which it is periodically removed.
It will be understood that multiple filament or fiber yarns in fabrics subjected to the method of the invention, in contrast to yarns comprising only a single filament, will to some extent be impregnated by the adhesive as wellas coated thereby. The extent of the impregnation of such yarns will depend largely upon the degree of twist of the yarns. Tightly twisted yarns will be less absorbent than loosely or slack twisted yarns. The latter will in most cases be completely impregnated with the adhesive. With some yarns such impregnation may be particularly desirable as the strength of the yarns will thereby be increased. In the application of adhesive to a particular fabric it will of course be necessary to use enough adhesive to leave a surface coating adequate to cement the yarns of the fabric together at their points of intersection. Consequently allowance must be made for the absorbency of the yarns employed. Heavier or lighter applications, respectively, may be obtained by increasing or decreasing the concentration of the adhesive dispersion or solution used. In general, when using neoprene latex, an application which results in an increase in fabric weight after drying or setting of from about 0.0015 to about 0.0040 lbs/ft. is sufficient for the purpose of the invention. With other adhesives differing in specific gravity from neoprene corresponding amounts would be needed.
Figures 3 and 4 are enlarged, diagrammatic views of an open mesh plain weave fabric the warp and filling yarns 71 and 72, respectively, of which are provided with a flexible coating such as is obtained by the procedure set out in the preceding example. Not only are the yarns coated with an adhesive film 74 between their points of interlacing but also, as best seen from Figure 4, the film of adhesive extends between and around the yarns at such points thereby fastening or cementing the yarns together and making the fabric much stronger and more durable than an ordinary open mesh, plain weave fabric. Figures 5 and 6 illustrate diagrammatically two of the many other types of woven fabrics with which the present in vention may be employed. In Figure 5 there is shown an even, two and two twill weave in which each filling yarn 77 interlaces two warp yarns 76. Another type of open mesh, plain weave is shown in Figure 6. Here a pair of small closely spaced warp yarns 80, which together are about equal in width to the filling yarns 81 used are picked as one, i. e. are treated as a single warp yarn. Such a fabric is in general like an ordinary plain weave but because of the smaller warp yarns is somewhat flatter or smoother. As previously mentioned, yarns of various sizes may be used in weaving and .treating fabrics according to the present invention.
Of course other adhesive materials may be used instead of neoprene latex. Among such materials which may be employed are other synthetic rubber latices such, for example, as those manufactured and sold by the B. F. Goodrich Chemical Co. under the names Hycar and Geon (these being aqueous dispersions of butadieneacrylonitrile copolymers and of polyvinyl resins, respectively), natural rubber latex, and solutions or emulsions of plastic materials such as polyvinyl butyrate resins, melamine resins, polyvinyl acetate, ethyl cellulose and the like. Solutions of casein, starch, natural gums, and glue may also be used. All of the materials mentioned are very flexible and are therefore intended for use where a flexible fabric is desired. If, however, a fabric product which is less flexible or more rigid is desired other types of adhesive may be used which when hardened or dried are less flexible. Such adhesives are, of course, well known and any suitable one, such for example as a liquid phenolic resin may be used. The adhesive coating on the yarns of an open mesh fabric, in addition to rendering the fabric more durable and less subject to damage by slippage of the yarns, makes possible other novel and beneficial effects and uses. Thus, a colored fabric may be obtained by incorporating a dye in the adhesive solution or dispersion even though some or all of the yarns or fibers of the fabric are diflicult to dye. In other cases the adhesive coating on the yarns may afterwards -be dyed more easily than the underlying yarns.
It is to be noted that the present invention is concerned, not with coated fabrics as the term is generally used to describe oil cloth and similar materials, but with an open mesh fabric or cloth in which the yarns are coated and cemented together at their intersections and in which the mesh openings remain substantially unobstructed. Thus, the cloth or fabric retains essentially the desirable characteristics of a fabric but is stronger and more durable and may, as pointed out above, have additional valuable properties.
Open mesh fabrics of the character just described may, in accordance with the present invention, be provided by the method set forth above. Such method involves the application to the fabric on the loom, or at least while it is still under the original loom tension, of an adhesive material which coats the fabric yarns and causes their adherence or attachment at their points of interweaving or intersection. A substantially identical product may be formed by a similar though somewhat different method. According to this modification both the warp and filling yarns employed are coated separately with a suitable heat-softenable adhesive material which may, if desired, be selected from the adhesives listed above. An open mesh fabric is woven from such coated yarns and while still under the loom tension is heated sufiiciently by any suitable heating means to cause adherence or tacking of the yarns at the points of their intersection. A similar product may also be formed by a process which resembles the alternative one above described, but does not involve the use of an adhesive coating for the yarns. Since a number of synthetic organic fibers, such for example, as saran, nylon, and Vinyon are themselves heat softenable it is possible when weaving open mesh fabrics from yarns of such fibers to suitably heat the fabric while it is still on the loom, applying moderate pressure if necessary, and thereby cause the yarns to become attached at their points of intersection before any slipping of the fabric yarns has occurred. It will be obvious that in carrying out this last-mentioned process the heating must be done carefully to avoid causing undesirable flow of the yarns or coalescence of the filaments in the yarns.
As indicated above, an outstanding feature of the present invention is the use of the original loom tension to hold the open mesh fabric firm during the coating of the yarns and the drying of the adhesive film. It is thus possible to avoid the use of costly tentering machines and the extra expense involved in their use. Moreover, since handling of the fabric before the coating is applied is not required the chances of yarn slippage and fabric spoilage during such handling and transfer to a tentering machine are reduced to a minimum.
Although in the foregoing specification there has been described certain apparatus suitable for carrying out the novel processes of the present invent-ion, it will be understood that such apparatus is merely exemplary and that the invention may be practiced with apparatus of other types. For example, if desired the adhesive may be sprayed on the yarns of the fabric by suitable apparatus instead of being applied by a roller. Since it is used with a loom, the design of any apparatus employed is subject to modification according to the loom construction. It will therefore be further understood that various details of the described processes may be changed or modified without departing from the spirit of the invention.
1. A process for making strong, durable, open mesh fabrics which comprises weaving an open mesh fabric and thereafter, prior to the occurrence of distortion of the meshes of said fabric and to such contact with said fabric as will tend to displace the filling yarns thereof, and
While the warp yarns of said fabric are under loom tension, coating the yarns of said fabric with a liquid adhesive, breaking any films of said adhesive blinding the mesh openings of said fabric, and setting said adhesive.
2. A process for making strong, durable, open mesh fabrics which comprises weaving an open mesh fabric and thereafter, prior to the occurrence of distortion of the meshes of said fabric and to such contact with said fabric as will tend to displace the filling yarns thereof, and while the warp yarns of said fabric are under loom tension, applying liquid adhesive to said fabric in such amount as to form a coating over the entire exposed surfaces of the yarns thereof and adhesively attach said yarns at their points of interlacing, breaking any films of said adhesive blinding the mesh openings of said fabric by directing upon said fabric a stream of gas, and setting said adhesive. 3. A process as set forth in claim 1 in which said liquid adhesive is applied in such amount as to adhesively attach said yarns at their points of interlacing.
, 4. A process as set forth in claim 3 in which said liquid adhesive is a synthetic rubber latex.
5. A process as set forth in claim 3 in which said liquid adhesive is heat-settable.
6. A process for making strong, durable, open mesh fabrics which comprises weaving an open mesh fabric and thereafter, prior to the occurrence of distortion of the meshes of said fabric and to such contact with said fabric as will tend to displace the filling yarns thereof, and while the Warp yarns of said fabric are under loom tension, coating the yarns of said fabric with a liquid adhesive, and then breaking any films of said adhesive blinding the mesh openings of said fabric and setting said adhesive with a stream of heated air, said adhesive being applied in such amount, as to adhesively attach said yarns at their points of interlacing.
7. A process as set fonthir claim 6 in which setting of said liquid adhesive is assisted by radiant heat.
8.. A process as set forth in claim 6 in which said liquid adhesive is a synthetic rubber latex.
9. A process as set forth in claim 1 in which said liquid adhesive is colored.
10. A process as set forth in claim 1 in which a dye is incorporated with said liquid adhesive.
11. A process as set forth in claim 1 in which, after setting of the adhesive, said fabric is dyed.
12,. A process as set forth in claim 2 in which said liquid adhesive is a synthetic rubber latex.
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