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Publication numberUS2771745 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 27, 1956
Filing dateAug 25, 1952
Priority dateAug 25, 1952
Publication numberUS 2771745 A, US 2771745A, US-A-2771745, US2771745 A, US2771745A
InventorsBramble Lloyd F
Original AssigneeGulf States Asphalt Company In
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Asphalt lining
US 2771745 A
Abstract  available in
Images(2)
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

L. F. BRAMBLE ASPHALT LINING Nov. 27, 1956 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Aug. 25, 1952 'L/Oyd f. Bramb/e INVENTOR. fi

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Nov. 27, 1956 F. BRAMBLE ASPHALT LINING 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Aug. 25, 1952 INVENTOR BY 4% Z. W

ATTORNE5 United States Patent ASPHALT LINING Lloyd F. Bramble, South Houston, Tex., assignor to Gulf States Asphalt Company, Inc., Houston, Tex., a corporation of Texas Application August 25, 1952, Serial No. 306,159

4 Claims. (Cl. 61-7) This invention relates to new and useful improvements in the asphalt lining of ditches, canals, reservoirs and the like, and particularly irrigation ditches.

For many years, ditches, canals and reservoirs have been lined with concrete in order to render them waterproof to thereby enable liquids such as water to be confined against drainage into the earth therebelow. It has long been recognized that concrete and macadamized linings are unsatisfactory because of the cracks which develop after relatively short periods of use. These cracks may be filled in with an asphalt mastic in order to avoid loss of the liquid or to prevent contamination thereof by seepage, but the treatment is entirely temporary, lasting a maximum of two to three years. Additionally, concrete is often too expensive for practical use, particularly in long irrigation ditches.

Efforts have been made in the past to develop asphalt linings to substitute for the concrete linings for ditches, canals, reservoirs, and the like, but while various types of asphalt linings have been tried, none have proven successful for above-surface application. One of the main problems in providing asphalt linings for irrigation ditches has been to provide a product which will withstand the weight of cattle and the sharp edges of their hoofs as irrigation ditches usually run through areas in which cattle are grazing and unless the entire length of the ditch is fenced, the cattle inevitably get in them. Not only must the linings be able to withstand the effects of cattle without tearing, puncturing or otherwise being damaged, but such linings must also remain substantially non-shrinking and non-cracking over a large temperature range. Additionally, the linings must be sufficiently pliable to be laid in relatively large sheets to reduce the danger of separation between adjacent sheets due to normal expansion and contraction thereof, as well as to reduce the cost of the initial laying of the lining in the ditch.

All of the prior art attempts to develop a satisfactory asphalt lining for irrigation ditches have met with practical failure. For example, applicant has in mind one patent in which the patentees disclose an asphalt lining which has a hard prepared mastic formed on a burlap or webbed material impregnated with a relatively soft asphalt. The mastic is so brittle and hard that it would normally crack. In fact, the mastic is almost exactly the same as the usual macadamiged road pavement. The relatively soft asphalt in the webbed material is, in theory, supposed to overcome the deficiencies of the hard and brittle mastic, but as a practical matter, the cracks which are formed are immediately filled with dust or silt, so that even though the soft asphalt, through pressure or some other unlikely possibility, was forced into the cracks, the dust or silt would prevent its adherence to the mastic, and it would lose its effectiveness as a sealer.

Also, due to the hard and brittle nature of the lining disclosed in this patent, it must be used in small squares or pieces, and must be bent or curved by applying a'force also been disclosed in the prior art how, in an attempt to solve the for ditches, many years has been applied hot, to form a membrane for waterproofing and erosion resistant purposes. The asphalt is applied hot in a very thin layer (about to fig inch in thickness) to a sulphite paper backing. The paper backing serves only to hold the asphalt together for problem of employing asphalt linings rolling prior to use in a ditch, and, in fact, the asphalt is too soft for handling in any manner without the paper backing. Although such a lining is readilycurved to the.

contour of the ditch surface or the like without the careful workmanship required by other linings of the prior art, itis readily torn or split by cattle hoofs,'etc., and is extremely soft so that it will actually flow at maximum sun temperatures. To avoid this, the aforesaid disclosure teaches that the lining shall be buried under a heavy layer of soil. since, except for a relatively small amount of the dirt which may adhere to the asphalt, the dirt is constantly shifting, being washed away by the water flowing in the ditch or being dislodged by the cattle. Also, in practice, should it develop during the step of applying the hot asphalt, that drops of rain waterfall upon the lining, blisters will form and pin holes willfollow, thus giving rise to a somewhat pervious lining. I

It is therefore an object of this invention to provide an asphalt lining for irrigation ditches and the like wherein the lining is substantially non-shrinking, non-curling, non-cracking, is readily curved without cra'cking even in large strips or sheets, and is capable of withstanding the weight and cutting action of cattle hoofs without puncturing or tearing.

An important object of this invention is toprovide a composite monolithic asphalt dimensional non-shrinking lining, and a method of lining a ditch or reservoir with the same, wherein the lining includes an enduring tough, cohesive pliable plastic asphalt composition which is molded, extruded or pressed between outer layers of reinforcing material, which lining is substantially non-shrinking, noncurling, non-cracking, and has a high resistance to impact or knifing action such as caused by the hoofs of cattle or other stock, and provides a lining that may, if need be, be applied upon a damp surface without giving rise to any blisters, since the lining is preformed.

Another object of this invention is to provide an asphalt lining having an asphalt composition layer which has mixed therewith filler and fiber material including fibers of materials such as shredded, ground or pulverized roofing felt or asbestos, mineral fillers such as slate flour, limestone, or talc, and organic products, such as sawdust, rice hulls, peanut hulls or cork, said filler material constituting about 20% to 60% of the mastic layer; a filler material preferably not exceeding 35% having produced a most acceptable product.

A further object of this invention is to provide a comwebbing material, and said intermediate layers are coated with a substantially thin outermost Weathering asphalt waterproof coating layer to fill the interstices of the a very soft asphalt of the type employed for This, however, is totally unsatisfactory.

ing sheet is non-cracking and is resistant to impacts such as are caused by cattle or other stock walking thereon. However, in order to assure that the asphalt lining A is non-shrinking and non-curling, an additional outer layer 16 of asphalt waterproof coating should be applied to the intermediate layer 11 which is to be exposed to the weather conditions. This additional asphalt waterproof coating is applied as a liquid or semi-solid and may be applied in a hot liquid state at the time of manufacture of the sheet A. This outer coating also fills the interstices of the intermediate reinforcing material and thereby prevents the shrinkage of such material. It will be appreciated that if the intermediate reinforcing layers 11 shrink, while the composite mastic layer does not shrink, there would result a curling of the entire lining A. The additional asphalt waterproof coating has substantially the same physical characteristics as the asphalt used in forming the asphalt composition layer 10, although this may be varied somewhat to suit individual or climatic conditions. Into this coating, applied at the time of manufacture, finely divided substances such as mica and rice hulls, may be pressed for the purpose of sun-ray protection, and preventing sticking during shipment.

In the use of the asphalt lining A of this invention, particularly as shown in Figure 4, the lining is formed into sheets of a suitable length and width for the usual irrigation ditch, or for use as desired in canals, reservoirs and the like. In Figures 2 and 5 of the drawings the sheets A are shown after having been laid in an open ditch 12. It is preferable prior to the laying of the sheets of the asphalt lining A that the ditch be sprayed or otherwise treated with a weed killing material so that weeds will not grow beneath the lining and rupture same. As can be seen, the sheets of lining A are laid with their adjacent edges either abutting or overlapping, Figures 6 and 7, and then an asphalt adhesive material, preferably of asphalt mastic with solvent and having fibers and fillers therewith, is applied to the joints 14 or 15 to seal them. After the joints have been sealed with the adhesive material, the ditch is completely lined and waterproofed and can be used as such.

It has been found that while the asphalt lining A is at least one-quarter of an inch in thicknes, the lining will sustain an animal hoof weight of 500 pounds per hoof without puncturing at 100 degrees Fahrenheit. The lining may vary in thickness from one-fourth of an inch to one inch and still be sufiiciently pliable to be shaped to the contour of a ditch or the like.

In Figure 3 there is shown another method of laying the lining, wherein the ditch or canal being lined is of a considerably wider distance than the width of the usual irrigation ditch such :as illustrated in Figure 2. The only difference between the method of lining shown in Figure 3 and that shown in Figure 2 is that two sheets or strips are utilized for covering the full width of the ditch and such sheets are joined at the center and the joint is filled with asphalt sealing material as the joints 14 in Figure 2. Such join-t at the center of the strips in Figure 3 is designated by the numeral 15, and the ditch is designated by the numeral 12'. In any event the sheets may be laid transversely or longitudinally of the length of the ditch. The sheets may also be overlapped from two to three inches as shown in Figure 7 or may be butted one edge against the other as shown in Figure 6. When butted, it may be desirable to place a protective asphalt strip several inches wide underneath or above the joint and the adhesive then applied to the joint.

Although the asphalt composition layer 10 has been described above as having only the two intermediate reinforcing layers 11, and the outer layers '16, it could also have a stiffener layer (not shown) centrally embedded within the composition layer 10, parallel to, but spaced from both of the intermediate layers 11. This stiffener would develop additional strength, toughness, flexibility,

8 and rigidity which are particularly desirable in the finished product.

Additionally, it should be pointed out that the lining of this invention is not limited to use in irrigation ditches, canals, reservoirs, and the like, but may have various other uses. For example, this lining in addition to its high cohesive strength, and resistance to impact and shock, is especialy resistant to erosion, so that the lining as manufactured is well suited for the protection of dykes and earth retaining walls, and similar uses. In such uses, the wind-wave action is very erosive and prior to this invention, no asphaltic lining has been developed which is sulficiently resistant to such erosion to replace the usual concrete retaining walls. The lining could be anchored in position on the dykes or earth walls by having the upper portion of the lining curved substantially horizontally, with dirt or other fill applied thereover for weigh-t.

It can thus be seen that an asphaltic lining has been provided which has all of the desirable properties necessary for a satisfactory lining for :an irrigation ditch or the like, and the particular construction of the asphalt lining eliminates the disadvantages of the prior art. It is believed evident from the foregoing description that the asphaltic lining of this invention is substantially monolithic and is non-cracking even after long periods of use in a ditch with exposure to all weather conditions, and additionally the asphaltic lining is sutfi-ciently pliable and plastic to readily conform to the ditch without the necessity for using special rollers or other forming members to curve the lining. Furthermore, the lining of this invention is of sufficient strength to withstand the impacts or cutting action of cattle hooves without the necessity for an additional surface coating of rocks, gravel or dirt. The asphaltic lining of this invention may be readily laid by unskilled labor without special equipment.

The foregoing disclosure and description of the invention is illustrative and explanatory thereof and various changes in the size, shape and materials, as Well as in the details of the illustrated construction may be made, within the scope of the appended claims, without departing from the spirit of the invention.

What is claimed is:

1. An asphaltic composite lining for use in lining ditches and the like, comprising a central non-cracking flexible asphaltic composition layer, an upper intermediate layer of reinforcing material impregnated with asphalt and bonded to the upper side of said central composition layer, an upper coating layer of essentially pure asphalt adjacent to said upper intermediate layer and bonded thereto to render said upper intermediate layer non-curling and non-shrinking under weathering conditions, a lower intermediate layer of reinforcing material impregnated with asphalt and bonded to the lower side of said central composition layer, and a lower coating layer of essentially pure asphalt adjacent to said lower intermediate layer and bonded thereto to render said lower intermediate layer non-curling and non-shrinking under weathering conditions, said central asphaltic composition layer consisting essentially of pure asphalt and fillers mixed therewith wherein the asphalt in said central layer is present in an amount of from about 40% to about and the fillers are present in an amount from about 60% to about 20% and wherein substantially all of the fillers is a mixture of fibrous material and pulverized or finely ground mineral fillers, said fibrous material and said mineral filler each being present in said central layer in amounts sufficient to provide the final composite lining which shows no deflection from a horizontal position when subjected to F. for two hours and which also shows no fiow when placed on a 45 angle and is subjected to 200 F. for one hour, and which does not crack or shatter when subjected to the impact of a one pound steel ball dropped from a distance of three feet at 0 F., said asphalt in said asphaltic composition layer and in said substantially pure asphalt coating layers having a melting point (ball and ring) in the range of aboutjl Ft-toabout 220 F., and-apenetration at77" F.-of from about-55 to about 10, whereby said-asphaltic-lining-is substantially uniformly non-curling, non-cracking, and pliable undersustained weathering and over a temperaturerange from about freezing to about-200 F.

2. -An-asphaltic composite lining for usein lining ditches and the like, comprising a central non-crackingflexible asphaltic composition layer, an upper intennediate layer of reinforcing material impregnated with asphalt and bonded to the upper sideof said-central composition layer an upper coating layer of essentially pure asphalt adjacent to said upper intermediate layer and bonded thereto to render'said upper intermediate layer non-curling and non-shrinking under weathering conditions, a lower intermediate -layer of reinforcing material impregnated withasphaltand bonded to the lower side of said central composition'layer, and a lower coating layer of essentially pure asphalt adjacent to said lower intermediate layer and bonded-thereto to render said lower intermediate layer non-curling and non-shrinking under Weathering conditions, said central asphaltic composition layer consisting essentially of pure asphalt and fillers mixed therewith wherein said layer contains about 70% of said pure asphalt, about 20% mineral fillers, and about 10% fibrous material whereby said fibrous material and said mineral filler are present in said central layer in amounts sufficient to provide the final composite lining which showsno deflection from a horizontal position when subjected-to 150 F. for two hours, and which also shows no flow when placed on a angle and is subjected to 200 F. for one hour, and which does not crack or shatter when'subje'cted to the impact of a one pound steel ball dropped from a distance of three feet at 0 'R, said asphalt in said asphaltic composition layer and in said substantially pure asphalt coating layers having a melting point (ball and ring) in the range of about 140 F. to about 220 F., and a penetration at 77 F. of from about to about '10, wherebysaid asphaltic lining is substantially uniformly non-curling, noncracking, and pliable under sustained weathering and over a temperature range from about freezing to about 200 F.

3. An asphaltic composite monolithic lining for use in lining ditches and the like, comprising an asphaltic noncracking-compos'ition layer, an intermediate layer of reinforcing material selected from the group consisting of felt, kraft paper, metal wire, glass fabric and glass gauze on each sideof said asphaltic composition layer bonding to said intermediate layers, said intermediate layers being coated on their respective outer surfaces with a thin substantially pure asphalt Waterproofing and weatherproofing coating to form a composite monolithic sheet which is non-curling under weathering conditions, said asphaltic composition layer consisting essentially of asphalt in the amount of about to'about and fibrous filler, mineral filler and organic binder materials in the total amount of about 35% to about 20%, said fibrous filler, mineral filler and organic binder materials each being present in amounts sufficient to provide the final composite lining which shows no deflection from a horizontal position when subjected to 150 F. for two hours, and whichalso shows no flow when placed on a 45 angle and is subjected to 200 F. for one hour, and which does not crack or shatter when subjected to the impactof a one pound steel ball dropped from a distance of three feet at-0 F., and wherein the fibrous materials are ground, shredded or pulverized fibers selected from the group consisting of felt or asbestos, and the mineral filler materials are sensed.

sawdust, whereby said asphaltic lining is substantially non-curling, non-cracking, and suificiently pliable and plastic under sustained weathering and over a temperature range from about freezing-to about- 200 F., said asphalt in said asphaltic composition layer'and in said substantially pure asphalt waterproofing-coating having'a melting point (ball and ring) in the range of about 220 F, and a penetration at 77 F. of from about-55 to about 10, whereby the entire lining is uniformly pliable and non-cracking.

4. Ah asphaltic composite monolithic lining for :usein lining ditches and the like, comprising an asphaltic non-cracking composition layer, an i'ntermediatelayer of reinforcing material selected from the .group consisting; of felt, kraft paper, metal wire, glass fabric and glass gauze on-each side of-said asphaltic composition layer materials each being present in amounts sufficient to provide the final composite lining which shows no deflection froin a horizontal position when subjected to F. for two hours, and which also shows no flow when placed on a 45 angle and is subjected to 200 F. for one hour, and which does not crack or shatter when subjected to the impact of a one pound steel ball dropped from a distance of three feet at 0 F., and wherein the fibrous materials are ground, shredded or pulverized fibers selected from the group consisting of felt or asbestos, and the mineral filler materials are selected from the group consisting of slate flour, limestone, talc,-silica, and the organic binders are selected from the group consisting of rice hulls and sawdust, whereby said asphaltic lining is substantially non-curling, non-cracking, and suffi'ciently pliable and plastic under sustained weathering and over a temperature range from about freezing to about 200 F., said asphalt in said asphaltic composition layer and in said substantially pure asphalt waterproofing coating having a melting point' (ball and ring) in the range of about 140-200 F., and apenetration at 77 F. of 'from about 55 to about 10, whereby the entire lining is uniformly pliable and non-cracking.

ReferencesCited in'the file of this patent umes 1 and 2, copyrighted 1945, pages 541,546-549, 984, 1080, and 1472.

Benson: Abstract published 656 O. G. 893, March 18, 1952.

V f new as g 5 slate fiourfiliniestone, talc, silica, and V the organic binders are selected from the group consisting of rice bulls and

Patent Citations
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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2972558 *Oct 8, 1956Feb 21, 1961Bramble Lloyd FAsphaltic seal assemblies
US3113435 *Mar 29, 1960Dec 10, 1963Stanley G YountComposite metal reinforced sheet means
US3160512 *Dec 19, 1960Dec 8, 1964Flintkote CoMaterial for lining canals and ditches
US3373074 *Jul 27, 1965Mar 12, 1968Pittsburgh Corning CorpThermal roof insulation and method of preparing an insulated built-up roof
US3424647 *Dec 20, 1963Jan 28, 1969Philip Carey Corp TheLaminated vapor barrier sheet material
US3680319 *Sep 18, 1970Aug 1, 1972Phillips Petroleum CoLiquid impounding structure
US3849229 *Jun 22, 1973Nov 19, 1974Gulf States Asphalt Co IncMethod of joining and sealing asphalt planks for a reservoir or the like
US3922417 *Oct 3, 1972Nov 25, 1975Bitumarin NvMethod for the manufacture of broad sheets of coating material and application thereof in hydraulic engineering
US4125983 *Jun 20, 1977Nov 21, 1978Jarrell Hal KMethod of lining an earthen tank
US4207017 *Jun 19, 1978Jun 10, 1980Jarrell Hal KEarthen tank and liner
US4417939 *Mar 2, 1982Nov 29, 1983Mcadams Manufacturing Co., Inc.System for producing a bitumen laminate
US4733989 *Mar 4, 1986Mar 29, 1988American Colloid CompanySelf-healing bentonite sheet material composite drainage structure
US4787780 *Nov 9, 1987Nov 29, 1988American Colloid CompanyMethod of waterproofing with a self-healing bentonite sheet material composite article
US4838732 *May 12, 1982Jun 13, 1989Clark Stephen EElastomeric sealing device
US4955759 *Aug 7, 1989Sep 11, 1990Le Roy PayneDitch lining apparatus and method and product therefrom
US5078543 *Jul 11, 1990Jan 7, 1992Terrel Ronald LStorage system for solid waste material
US5810513 *Sep 17, 1996Sep 22, 1998Hoosier Group LlcMethod and apparatus for preventing trench overflows behind trench liners
US7687104 *Sep 7, 2006Mar 30, 2010Road Seal Co., Ltd.Method of applying asphalt waterproofing membrane material for buildings and bridge decks
Classifications
U.S. Classification405/270, 428/489, 428/440, 428/491, 428/426, 442/326
International ClassificationE02B3/12
Cooperative ClassificationE02B3/126
European ClassificationE02B3/12C5