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Publication numberUS2773312 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 11, 1956
Filing dateApr 1, 1953
Priority dateApr 1, 1953
Publication numberUS 2773312 A, US 2773312A, US-A-2773312, US2773312 A, US2773312A
InventorsPeck Henry E
Original AssigneePeck Henry E
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Apparatus for drying fabrics
US 2773312 A
Abstract  available in
Images(5)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Dec. 11, 1956 H. E. PECK ,773,3

APPARATUS FOR DRYING FABRICS Filed April 1, 1955 5 Sheets-$heet l INVENTIUR- HENRY E PECK ATTORNEY Dec. 11, 1956 H. E. PECK APPARATUS FOR DRYING FABRICS 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed April 1, 1955 K W9 w i a .N-\ w Arc J W .mw M5 N1, H wv Y B L m vw E R R N on k mw vw, L g A mv kw ow R R n 9v mm av a. Pmw f mv w om mm m? i ATTORNEY Dec. 11, 1956 H. E. PECK APPARATUS FOR DRYING FABRICS 5.Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed April 1, 1953 INVENTOR. HENRYE PECK 5 $heets-$heet 4 m km hm 1N VEN TOR. HENRY 5 PE A 7' TORNEY mm mm Dec. 11, 1956 Filed April 1, 1953 Dec. 11, 1956 H. E. PECK APPARATUS FOR DRYING FABRICS 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed April 1, 1953 INVENTOR. HENRY 1;". PECK ATTORNEY United States Patent APPARATUS FOR DRYING FABRICS Henry Peck, Fairport, N. Y. Application April 1, 1953, Serial Ne. 346,192 14 Claims; (CI. 34-46 The present invention relates to a method and to up paratus for drying fabrics, and more particularly to a method and apparatus for drying syntheticfabrics, such as rayon, nylon, Orlon, etc. after they have been dyed.

The conventional method of drying fabrics after dyeing is to pass a current of heated air over the fabric. This method in itself is inefiicient and slow. It has been found, however, thatu'nless care is exercised in maintaining the temperature of the drying air below a predetermined upper limit, which in some cases is in the neighborhood of 250 E, the color, elasticity and strength of the fabric are affected. This further slows up the process. The conventional process, moreover, requires a drying chamber that is many, many feet long. Furthermore, with the conventional process it is diflicult to prevent shrinkage of the material, or to control that shrinkage. Still further a great deal of heat is wasted in the heated air which has to be exhausted fromthe drying chamber to carry away the moisture absorbed from the fabric being dried.

In the conventional dyeing and drying methods, furthermore, the fabric is received in open Width and has to be doubled and putupon a dyeing reell' Then the doubled fabric is sewn into an endless piece, and this endless piece is traveled for a time which may be as long as four hours through a dye tub to saturate it with-the desired dye color. When it istaken off'the dyeing'reel it has to be cut apart at the ends and has to be opened'up either manually or by machine, before being secured to the tenter frame so that it may be fed to the drier; and between the dye tuband the drier, it has to be transported to a centrifuge to extract the excess moisture. Furthermore, with many types of dyes, such as vat dyes, the dye is applied to scoured fabric by applyingpressu're by some means such as padding, or by passing the fabric through an oil or molt'en'metal bath.

Conventional methods of treating and drying fabrics after dyeing require, therefore, a longtime, and'equipment which is not only expensive but which takesup a lot of space.

One object of the present invention is to provide a method and apparatus for drying a fabric, and particularly a dyed fabric,'which will'be much faster than the conventional drying process and apparatus.

Another object of the inventionis' to provide'a method and apparatus for drying fabrics,'and particularly dyed fabrics, where the drying equipment isextr'emely coinpact and will take up-but little space. l

Another object of the invention is to provide a method and apparatus for drying'dyed fabrics which will set the dye in the fabric simultaneously with the dryingof the fabric, and which will eliminate for many dyes the equipment heretofore required for setting the dye into the'fabric, particularly in synthetic fibe'rsth'at are diflicult to dye such as Orlon and Dacron. p

Another object of the invention is topr'ovide a method for heat-treatingnylon and similar fabrics'whre the material must be brought up to high enough temperature,

2 without burning, to set the molecular structure, thereby to stabilize the fabric dimensionally and prevent future shrinkage. V p I 2 A further object of the invention is to provide a method and apparatus for treating fabrics, such as ace.- t ate rayon, which require treatment in a steam atmosphere to stabilize them dimensionally to prevent future shrinkage.

A further object of the invention is to provide ainethod and apparatus for drying fabrics which areimpregnated with'res'ins,as for waterproofing, for instance, which will dry the fabric and simultaneously cure the resins. Heretof-ore the curing of'resins for waterproofing has had to be done in an ordinary drying chamber at 300 F. and requires fifteen minutes or more.

Another object of the invention is to provide a method and apparatus for drying fabrics Which will uniformly drythe fabrics. 7

Another object of the invention is to provide drying apparatus of the character described which is equipped with safety devices which will prevent burning of the fabric that is inthe drying chamber in event the tenterfranie drive mechanism stops for any reason.

Still another object of the invention is to provide drying' apparatus of the character described which is so constructed that the drying unit may be maintained in stand-by condition, ready tooperate again immediately on restarting of the drier after stoppage of the tenter frame drive. 7

Other objects of the invention will be apparent hereinafter from the specification and from the recital of the appended clairrls. I

The present invention rests uponthe discovery that if a synthetic material, which i to be dried, is mounted upon a tenter frame and passed through a sealed chamber which is filled with super-heated steam, and the steam is drawn through the fabric, the fabric can be dried and/orheat-treated very rapidly. The super-heated steam provides a drying atmosphere and excludes atmospheric oxygen. It is used at slightly above atmospheric pressure. Thpres'sure is enough toforce the steam through the fabric. The velocity of the steam passing through the minute interstices of the fabric is very great. This gives the rapid drying and/or heat-treatment. M

The' apparatus of the present invention drives the steam through the fabric while the, fabric is moving. This heat-treating steam is confined so that the drier can do in'a few feet what has previously required a great many feet. It is possible to use a high temperature because the steam is confined andfills the chamber and keeps out the atmosphere, and the oxygen which the atmosphere contains. There is nothing, therefore, to support combustion. There is no danger, therefore, of burning the fabric. As a result a temperaturemuch higher than'could ordinarily be tolerated, can be used so that the drying canbe effected in a few seconds instead of the" many minutes heretofore required. Furthermore,the*drying, isaccomplished Without any change in colorof the material and without loss of elasticity, or decrease in strength, and while preventing any undesirable future shrinkage.

Moreover, in the case of vat dyes particularly the colors can be set in thefabric simultaneously with th e drying. The steam goes through the fabric instead of just over the surface of the fabric, achieving more intimate contact with ev e ry fiber and every filament of the fabric. The steam swells the fibers, and opens them up so that they take .in. the dye. Instead of having to run fabrics such as .Orlon and Dacron around andaround in a dye tub for hours to absorb the dye, such fabrics can now be fed continuously through a dye padder where they pick up the dye; and the dye can be set therein simultaneously with the drying of the fabric.

The whole dyeing process may be effected in minutes, therefore, instead of hours. Instead of using dyeing, drying and setting machines at least seventy feet long, it is possible with the present invention to effect drying in a box only three feet long and with complete dyeing and setting equipment of only fifteen to twenty feet long.

Instead of taking the fabric to a dye house and dyeing it,

and then taking it to another machine to dry it, it is possible with the present invention to effect dyeing and drying in a continuous operation, the fabric being passed in a continuous process from a dye padder onto the drying chamber.

Fabrics, such as nylon and acetate rayon, should be dimensionally stabilized, when dried, to avoid subsequent shrinkage. For stabilization of rayon type fabrics, a hydrolysis effect is required as well as a temperature effect. With the method and apparatus of the present invention, the steam swells the fibers and its temperature welds them together. For treating rayon type fabrics this achieves the desired stabilization. In the case of nylon and similar fabrics the super-heated steam is used at 350 to 450 P. which simultaneously heat treats and dries the fabric. I

Likewise, with the present invention it is possible to cure a fabric which is impregnated with a resin which dries the fabric. Fabrics which are impregnated with resins can be cured in a few seconds and with superheated steam having a temperature of 400 to 600 F.

In the drawings:

Fig. 1 is an end elevation of a drying chamber built according to one embodiment of the present invention;

7 Fig. 2 is a section through this chamber taken at right angles to the view of Fig. 1 and on the line 22 of Fig. 3 looking in the direction of the arrows;

Fig. 3 is a section through the chamber taken in a plane parallel to the plane of Fig. 1;

Fig. 4 is a plan view of the chamber, with parts broken away to show particularly the various perforated plates which serve to distribute the steam uniformly :as it passes through the fabric;

Fig. 5 is a section on an enlarged scale on the line 5-5 of Fig. 1 looking in the direction of the arrows, and showing particularly the means for sealing the entry port of the chamber against the outside atmosphere;

Fig, 6 is a section on the line 66 of Fig. 1, also on an enlarged scale, and looking in the direction of the ,arrows, and further showing the sealing means at the entry end of the chamber;

Fig. 7 is a section similar to Fig. 5 but showing the sealing means at the exit end of the drying chamber;

Fig. 8 is an enlarged view looking at the entry end of the drying chamber and showing particularly fragmentarily the sealing means therefor;

Fig. 9 is a fragmentary section in the plane of Fig. 3 but on a much enlarged scale;

Fig. 10 is a view on a reduced scale showing the drying unit including the drying chamber, the heat exchanger, and the furnace for heating the steam;

Fig. 11 is a fragmentary section on an enlarged scale showing details of the control devices for maintaining the temperature of the steam and preventing burning of the fabric should for any reason the motor, which drives the tenter frame, stop; and

Fig. 12 is a diagrammatic view illustrating how the present apparatus may be used in conjunction with the dyeing and drying of vat dyed fabrics as part of a continuous process.

Referring now to the drawings by numerals of reference, 20 denotes the drying chamber. This chamber is generally rectangular in shape. It has a front wall 21, a rear wall 22, a top or roof 23, a bottom or floor 24, and side walls 25 and 26 (Figs, 2 and 3). It is supported by uprights 28.

The fabric F, which is to be dried, is conveyed through the drying chamber on a conventional tenter frame conveyor, which is shown only fragmentarily in the drawings. The tenter frame conveyor comprises two parallel endless chains 30 whose links are provided with tenter pins or hooks 31 (Fig. 3). The fabric is fastened to the hooks of the tenter frame so that it may be stretched to the desired degree by the tenter frame. The upper reach of the tenter frame passes through the drying chamber, entering through an opening 35 (Figs. 5 and 6) in the front wall of the chamber, and passing out through an opening 36 (Fig. 7) in the rear wall thereof. The return reach of the tenter frame extends beneath the drying chamber under the bottom 24 thereof (Fig. 2). The chains of the tenter frame are adapted to travel in channels in rails 37. The two rails for the upper reaches of the chains are secured in blocks 38 that are fastened to two slides 40 (Fig. 3). The two slides 40 are mounted in the opposite side walls 25 and 26 of the drying chamber to slide in openings 41 in these side walls so as to be moved toward or away from one another. They extend from front to rear of the chamber and may be adjusted relative to one another so that the tenter chains will be at the correct distance apart in accordance with the width of the fabric which is to be dried.

Steam is admitted to the chamber 20 through a pipe 45 (Fig. 3) which is mounted in the side wall 25 of the chamber adjacent the bottom thereof. The temperature of the steam will be 475 F. for the ordinary case, but may be varied. of course, to suit the fabric which is to be dried.

Mounted in an inclined position in the chamber 20 opposite the inlet of the steam pipe 45 is a perforated plate 46 (Figs. 3 and 9). This plate is inclined downwardly from the mouth or delivery end of pipe 45 to the opposite side Wall 26 of the chamber. It may be provided, for instance, with holes /8 inch diameter and covering fifteen percent of its total surface. Mounted in the chamber beneath the slides 40 in horizontal position are two parallel plates 47 and 48. These plates are also perforated, but the holes in these plates are staggered relative to one another. Furthermore, the number of holes in one plate is different from that in the other. The plate 47, for instance, may have holes inch in diameter and may be perforated over only seven percent of its surface whereas the plate 48 may have holes inch in diameter and be perforated over fifteen percent of its surface.

Mounted above the slides 40 and above the tenter frame and the fabric F, which is carried thereby, are a plurality of stainless steel tubes 49. There are six such tubes in the example shown in the drawings. These are to hold the fabric down so that it will not bulge out too much above the horizontal plane due to pressure of the rising steam.

Mounted in the chamber above the pipes 49 is another perforated plate 50. Secured in the top wall 23 of the chamber is the outlet pipe 55 for the steam. The steam may enter the chamber from the inlet pipe 45 at a temperature of approximately 475 F. and leave it at a temperature of approximately 300 F.

The temperature in the chamber is so high that the fabric would be burned were not oxygen excluded. It becomes necessary, therefore, to seal very carefully the places where the tenter frame enters and leaves the chamber so as to minimize entry of atmospheric air at these points. Sealing is effected by'the use of flexible tubes which are inflated with air and which constitute, therefore, pneumatically inflated seals. These tubes may be made of natural rubber or of an artificial rubber such as neoprene, or of other flexible plastic materials such as silicone, or the like; and wherever the term rubber is used herein or in the claims it is intended to cover all of these materials. There are two of these tubes 60 and 61 mounted at opposite sides of the entry port 35,

emis as shown in Figs. 5 and 6, and two of these tubes 62 and 63 mounted at either side of the exit port36 of the chamber as shown in Fig. 7. The tubes are filled with air at very low pressure, say two pounds. They are able, therefore, to flatten out to accommodate the rails 37 as clearly shown in Fig. 6.

The tubes 60 and 61 are supported at one end by steel tubes 65, and at their opposite ends by steel tubes 66, as shown in Fig. 8. Air under a pressure of approximately two pounds is supplied to the tubes 65 through a supply line 67 which is connected to the tubes 65. The air may be exhausted from the tubes 65' through the tubes 66. Valves 68 are mounted in the tubes 66 to adjust the inflation pressure of the tubes 60' and 61. A similar arrangement is provided at the opposite end of the" drying chamber for supporting and supplying the tubes 62 and 63.

Each of the several tubes 60, 61, 62, 63 is held in place by a U sha'ped bracket 69. These brackets are fastened to the front and rear walls, respectively, of the chamber. Riveted to these brackets are sheets of Teflon or similar material which has a smooth, wax like surface and which is perfectly stable up to temperatures of 650 F. The sheets 70 and 71 of Teflon are so disposed at the entering end of the chamber, as shown in Figs. 5 and 6, that they follow the fabric and the railsinto the chamber and etfect sealing at top and bottom of the fabric and the rails, as clearly shown. Similarly sheets of Teflon or the like are secured to the rear wall of the chamber at the outside thereof so astolie between the tubes 62 and 63 and the rear wall of the chamber, and to follow the'fabric'as'it moves out of the chamber, sealing against opposite sides thereof, assh'own in Fig. 6; The Teflon sheets are omitted from'Fig; 8 for greater clarity in illustration of the sealingtubes.

To prevent burning the fabric, air is constantly supplied to the tubes 49 to cool the same; This air may be'supplied from a manifold 80 (Fig. 1) which is connected to each of the tubes by a pipe 81'.

The steam iscontinuouslycirculated through the heat chamber, the exhaust pipe 55 being connected on the suction'side ofa'conventionalblower 85 (Fig; l)which may ire-driven by-amotor 86 through abelt" and pulley connection indicated generaliy at 87. The blower delivers the steam which is exhausted fromthe chamber 20, through pipe Shtoa heat exchanger 9iwhich may b'e-of conventional construction. In" the heat exchanger the temperature of the steam is again raised to the desired point; Prom theheat exchanger the super-heated steam at 475 F. or whatever temperature'is' desiied, is delivered tothe pipe 45: The heat exchanger may be heated by a boiler 92' whichmay be heated by oil, coal or any suitablefuell The stack 9'3 is connectedto the Boiler-furnace and is provided with a damper 94. A stack 95 is connected with the'pipe Siitomaihtain the pressure in the system a little above atmospheric pressure. A damper 9'6 op erated by a motor 97 controls the exhaust from the pipe SS-to the stack 95.

Additionalsteam may oe'suppliedto the pipe 55fron1 a steam line '0(Fig: 11) to replenish any condensate. Steam lineltill may be connected directly to the boiler. This steam line is controlled by a manually operable valvelllli Mounteduo project into the pipe 53 are a plurality of spray nozzles lhfiwhich are connected by pipes-1i36 with a water supply line 107. Thespray lines are controlled by valves lfih operated" by solenoids 169? The spray nozzles are intended to inject water into the line 55 when there is no fabric in the drier. The valves108" are in tended to operateso thatthey close the lines 106 as soon as. moisture driven olffrom the fabric hymen-na process drops the heat 'of the"stearn; and oper'rtl'nese 'lin'es again'if manner; that is, the renter frame; steps.

Auxiliary spray noz'zlesbe mounted in the supply pipe 45. These are controlled by valves 118 operated by solenoids 119 and supplied from a water line 117. These are used only where one fabric is sewed to another, and an instantaneous response is necessary.

The pipes 45 and 55 are conn'ec'tible together by a shunt pipe 129 which is ordinarily closed off from the pipe 45. There is a damper 121 slidable in the pipe 45 and a similar damper 122 slidable in the shunt pipe 120. These dampers are operated by pistons 123 and 124, respectively, which operate in air cylinders 125 and 126, respectively. An electrically operated four-way valve 13-0 controls the supply of air to opposite ends of the two cylinders 125 and 126, opposite'ends of cylinder 125 being connected to this valve by lines 131 and 132 and opposite ends of cylinder 12 6 being connected to this valve by lines 133 and134. Normally the pistons 323 and 12d are in the positions shown in Fig. 11 with the damper 121 Withdrawn from the pipe 45 so that that pipe may supply steam into the drier chamber and with the damper 122 fully into the shunt line 120 shutting oil? the shunt pipe from pipe 45. The four-way valve is operated by a solenoid 135'.

A conventional temperature controller is used to operate the solenoids 199 which control the valves 108 of the upper sprays, and, if desired, the solenoids 119 which control the lower sprays. This controller includes a temperature sensing element 141 rno'unted to extend into the pipe 4-5 and connected with the controller by a has 14.2. Electrical lines1 43 and 144connect the controller with the several solenoids;

When there is no fabric in the machine the sprays 105 create an artificial load so that the'steami-s cooled off the same as if fabric were being dried. Thisenables the heating equipment'to be kept continuously in readiness for operation. The sprays 105*als'o operate to lower the temperature of the steam in case of stoppage of the drierwhile fabric is in the drier, thus preventing damage to the fabric. The temperature isreduced by the sprays to about275 P. so that the fabric will not beburned.

By providing dampers 121 and 12 2'it' is not necessary to shut off the" boiler-furnace 92in case of stoppage of the tenter frame. If the boiler-furnace had'to be shut off then, when the drier was restarted, would be necessary to reheat the Wholesys'teni. By' opening the damper 122 and closing the damper 121, however, the steam from the heat exchanger is recirculated back to the heat-exchanger through shunt line 120; and by'simultaneouslyopening the sprays 105, the normal operation of the steam system is simulated so that the Whole system is ready to go as soon as the deviceis started up again. The solenoids 1d? and 135 may be wired so that when themotor 145 (Fig. 10), which drives the tc'nter frame, stops, they will be actuated toshift the dampe'r'121 to closed position and open the damper 1.22, and to open the spray lines 166. Except for this recirculation system it would, be necessary to throw the steam away. Since the steam has about twelve hundred t. u.- per pound this would be very uneconomical. In the apparatus of the present invention when atenter frame stops, the steam is shut off from the heating chamber but is continuously recirculated, being reheated each timef'it'p'asses through the heat exchanger to maintain the desired temperature of 475 F. ready to start again.

An air compressor 145 may be providedto'supply air to the cylinders 125and l26and to the tubes 60,61, 62, and 63 which act as seals. I p

One feature of the invention is the fact that the stea m passes through the fabric and it is not blown at it. This insures rapid drying. Moreover, it helps set the dye in the fabric and to set the fabricitself.

Byusing pneumatictubes as sealing jme dium, assurancelis had that the sealing wiIlbe elfective'regardless of the"dista'nce between the opposite: gtiiderailsf of the tenter frame. The sealing'tubes 60," 61,62 and63"flatten 7 out to accommodate the rails regardless of the position of the adjustable slides 40. The sealing of the ends of the chambers insure that the steam will travel upwardly through the fabric. When the tenter frame rails are adjusted tubes 60, 61, 62 and 63 are deflated and then the frame rails are adjusted, and the tubes are inflated again.

The steam travels from the heat exchanger at a velocity of approximately three thousand feet per minute. The apparatus drives the heat treating atmosphere through the fabric while the fabric is moving and the heat treat ing atmosphere must go through the fabric. The fabric travels from twenty to one hundred yards a minute and a temperature is used which would destroy the fabric if oxygen were allowed access to the fabric.

The inclined plate 46 and the perforated plates 4-7 and 48 break up and distribute the steam evenly over the fabric. The upper plate has the larger holes out of registry with the lower holes. The perforated plate 50 (Figs. 3 and 9) further assists in getting uniform drying of the fabric as it passes through the drying chamber. Except for such a plate the exhaust fan might draw too much steam from one point through the pipe 55.

The slides 40 are formed of insulating material and so are the walls of the box. These insulating boards cover the holes in the upper plate as the tenter frame is adjusted inwardly.

For fabrics which are dyed with vat dyes, the drier may form part of a continuous high-speed range Where the cloth is treated with fully open width. The cloth may be fed from the knitting machine into a scourer 150 (Fig. 12) where the oils may be removed, then into an extractor 151 where the cleaning materials will be removed from the fabric, then into a conventional dye pad 152 where the fabric is dipped and pressed, being impregnated with the dye which is pressed into the fabric, then into a chemical pad 153 in which the fabric is dipped and where chemicals are pressed into the fabric to develop the dye color, then into a neutralizer and rinse unit 154, then into another extractor 155 where the excess chemicals and moisture are removed, and then into the drier of the present invention.

With the apparatus of the present invention, the fabric is brought to the temperature of the inside of the heating chamber almost instantaneously.- The very core of the fibers are brought quickly and safely to the high temperature.

In the present invention I have a small compact drier with a vastly greater thermal efficiency than any drier heretofore used. With the present invention it is possible to heat, set and dry simultaneously. There is uniform distribution of the heat over a large area because the steam has to go through the fabric. Where the steam is simply blown over the top of the fabric or beneath it by nozzles the heat application cannot be uniform.

Nylon holds its position under heat, but materials like acetate rayon relax under heat, that is why the stop tubes 49 must be used. These tubes must be cooled because if the fabric is touched by hot metal it will deluster.

While the invention has been described in connection with a specific embodiment thereof, it is capable of further modifications, and this application is intended to cover any variations, uses, or adaptations of the invention following, in general, the principles of the invention and including such departures from the present disclosure as come within known or customary practice in the art to which the invention pertains and as may be applied to the essential features hereinbefore set forth and as fall within the scope of the invention or the limits of the appended claims.

Having thus described my invention, what I claim is:

1. Apparatus for treating a fabric comprising a heating chamber having an entry port at one end and an exit port at its opposite end, a tenter frame for holding the fabric along its opposite lateral edges to maintain a fixed width and for conveying the fabric through said chamber from the entry port to the exit port, means for supplying super-heated steam to said chamber under greater than atmospheric pressure at one side of said fabric and for sucking the steam from said chamber from the opposite side of said fabric as the fabric travels through said chamber, whereby to cause the steam to pass through the interstices of the fabric as the fabric travels through the chamber, and flexible sealing means positioned along both edges of both the entry and the exit ports to engage both sides of the fabric in direct contact therewith and both sides of the tenter frame directly as the tenter frame and the fabric travel through said ports, to exclude air from said chamber, said sealing means being yieldable to conform to the shape of the fabric and of the tenter frame thereby to provide tight seals around both the fabric and the tenter frame.

2. Apparatus for treating a fabric comprising a heating chamber having an entry port at one end and an exit port at its opposite end, a tenter frame for conveying fabric through said chamber from the entry port through the exit port, means for supplying super-heated steam to said chamber under greater than atmospheric pressure at one side of said fabric and for sucking the steam from said chamber from the opposite side of said fabric as the fabric travels through said chamber, whereby to cause the steam to pass through the interstices of the fabric as the fabric travels through the chamber, means disposed between said supply means and the fabric for distributing the steam uniformly along the length and width of the fabric as the fabric travels through the chamber, and non-metallic, resilient members positioned at opposite sides of each port and extending for the full widths of the ports to directly engage the tenter frame and the fabric for sealing the entry and exit ports about said tenter frame and the fabric to exclude air from said chamber, said resilient members being yieldable to conform to the shape of the fabric and the tenter frame and thereby provide tight seals around both the fabric and the tenter frame.

3. Apparatus for drying a fabric comprising a heating chamber having an entry port at one end and an exit port at its opposite end, a tenter frame conveyor for conveying fabric through said chamber in said entry port and out said exit port, non-metallic, resilient members positioned at opposite sides of each port and extending for the full length of the ports to directly engage the conveyor and the fabric for sealing the entry and exit ports about said conveyor and the fabric to exclude air from said chamber, said resilient members being yieldable in directions perpendicular to their lengths to conform to the shape of the fabric and the tenter frame conveyor and thereby provide tight seals around both the fabric and the conveyor, and means for supplying superheated steam to said chamber under greater than atmospheric pressure.

4. Apparatus for drying a fabric comprising a heating chamber having an entry port at one end and an exit port at its opposite end, a tenter frame conveyor for conveying fabric through said chamber in said entry port and out said exit port, means for sealing the entry and exit ports about said conveyor and the fabric to exclude air from said chamber, means for supplying superheated steam at greater than atmospheric pressure to said chamber at one side of the fabric, and means for exhausting steam from the chamber from the other side of the fabric, whereby the steam is forced through the fabric as the fabric passes through said chamber, the sealing means for each port comprising two flexible rubber tubes positioned, respectively, along the upper and lower edges of the port to directly engage the fabric and the tenter frame and filled with air under a low enough pressure to yield to conform to the shape and position of the tenter frame while closely engaging the fabric, thereby sealing the port.

5. Apparatus for drying a fabric comprising a heating 9 chamber having an, entry port at one end and an exit port at its opposite end, a tenter frame conveyor for, conveying fabric through said chamber in said entry port and out said exit port,,opposed rails for, supportingsaid tenter frame in its passage through said' chamber, a pair of slides mounted in opposite lateral walls of said chamber to be adjustable toward and from one another in accordance with the Width of the fabric to be dried, means for sealing the entry and exit ports about the conveyor and the fabric to exclude air from. said chamber, and means for continuously supplying superheated steam to said chamber at one-side of said conveyor andfor continuously withdrawing the steam from said chamber from the opposite side of said conveyor whereby to pass the steam throughthe interstices of the fabrics as it passes through the chamber, the sealing means for each port comprising twocflexible rubber tubesv positioned, respectively, along the upper andlower edges of the port and filled with air under a low enough pressure to yield to conformto the shape andiposition: of' the tenter frame While closely engaging the fabric, thereby sealing' the port.

6; Apparatus for drying a fabric comprising a heating chamber having, an entry port at one end and an exit port at its opposite. end,.a tenteriframe conveyor for conveying fabric through-said chamber from entry port to the exit port, means for supplying superheated steam to said chamber at oneside thereof atone side of the fabric, means for evacuating steam from saidch'amber from the opposite side of the fabric, and means for distributing the steam uniformly along the length and width of the fabric as the fabric passes through the chamber comprising a perforated member extending for the length and width of said chamber and having an upper surface facing the fabric that is inclined downwardly from the steam supply side of the chamber to the opposite side thereof.

7. Apparatus for drying a fabric comprising a heating chamber having an entry port at one end and an exit port at its opposite end, a tenter frame conveyor for conveying fabric through said chamber from entry port to the exit port, means for supplying superheated steam to said chamber at one side thereof at one side of the fabric, means for evacuating steam from said chamber from the opposite side of the fabric, and means for distributing the steam uniformly along the length and Width of the fabric as the fabric passes through the chamber comprising a perforated member extending for the length and width of said chamber and having an upper surface facing the fabric that is inclined downwardly from the steam supply side of the chamber to the opposite side thereof, and a pair of parallel, spaced, perforated plates positioned in said chamber above said perforated member but below the fabric, said plates being differently perforated so that the steam has to travel a circuitous route through them to reach the fabric.

8. Apparatus for drying a fabric comprising a heating chamber having an entry port at one end and an exit port at its opposite end, a tenter frame conveyor for conveying fabric through said chamber from entry port to the exit port, means for supplying superheated steam to said chamber at one side thereof at one side of the fabric, means for evacuating steam from said chamber from the opposite side of the fabric, and means for distributing the steam uniformly along the length and Width of the fabric as the fabric passes through the chamber comprising a perforated member extending for the length and width of said chamber and having an upper surface facing the fabric that is inclined downwardly from the steam supply side of the chamber to the opposite side thereof, a pair of parallel, spaced, perforated plates positioned in said chamber above said perforated member but below the fabric, said plates being differently perforated so that the steam has to travel a circuitous route through them to reach the fabric, and a perforated plate positioned above the fabric in parallelism to said pair of spaced plates and for equalizing evacuation of the steam through the fabric.

9. Apparatus for drying a fabric, comprising ,a heating chamber having an entry port at one end. and anexitport at its opposite end, a tenter, frame conveyorfor conveying fabric through said chamber frornentry port to the exit port, means for supplying superheated steam under greater than atmospheric pressure to said, chamber at one side of the fabric only, means for evacuating steam from the chamber from the opposite side of the fabric to thereby cause the steam to pass through the interstices of, the fabric, and means positioned at said one side of the fabric for distributing the steam uniformly along the length and width of the fabric as the fabric passes through said chamber, and a plurality of spaced rods positioned in said chamber to extend transversely thereof close to said opposite side of the fabric for limiting billowing of the fabric under pressure of the steam.

10. Apparatus for drying a fabric comprisinga heating chamber having an entry port at one end and an exit port at its opposite end, a tenter frame conveyor, for conveying fabric through said chamber from entrycport to the exit port, means for supplying superheated steam under greater than atmospheric pressure to said chamber at one side of the fabric, means for evacuating steam from the chamber from the opposite side of the fabric to thereby cause the steam to pass through the interstices of the fabric, and means positioned at said one side of the fabric for distributing the steam uniformly along the length and width of the fabric as the fabric passes through, said, chamber, means for limiting billowing of the fabric under pressure of the steam, said last-named means comprising a plurality of spaced rods positioned in the chamber above the fabric in the direction of travel of the steam, and means for cooling said rods.

11. Apparatus for drying a fabric comprising a heating chamber having an entry port at one end and an exit port at its opposite end, means for conveying a fabric through said chamber from entry port to exit port, a supply duct at one side of said chamber to supply superheated steam to the chamber below the fabric, an exhaust duct for evacuating steam from said chamber after it has passed through the interstices of the fabric, a fan to the suction side of Which said exhaust duct is connected, a heat exchanger connected to the supply side of said fan and in turn connected to said supply duct, and means for supplying heat to said heat exchanger to continuously maintain the desired temperature of the superheated steam supplied to said chamber, and means mounted in one of said ducts and responsive to the temperature in said one duct for automatically reducing the temperature of the steam passing through said duct when there is no fabric in said chamber to balance the temperature in the ducts.

12. Apparatus for drying a fabric comprising a heating chamber having an entry port at one end and an exit port at its opposite end, means for conveying .a fabric through said chamber from entry port to exit port, a supply duct at one side of said chamber to supply superheated steam to the chamber below the fabric, an exhaust duct for evacuating steam from said chamber after it has passed through the interstices of the fabric, a fan to the suction side of which said exhaust duct is connected, a heat exchanger connected to the supply side of said fan and in turn connected to said supply duct, and means for supplying heat to said heat exchanger to continuously maintain the desired temperature of the superheated steam supplied to said chamber, a temperature sensing member mounted in one of said ducts, a plurality of sprays mounted in one of said ducts for spraying water thereinto, and means operable by said sensing member to actuate said sprays when the temperature in the duct in which said sensing member is mounted rises above a predetermined amount.

13. Apparatus for drying a fabric comprising a heating chamber having an entry port at one end and an exit port at its opposite end, means for conveying a fabric through said chamber from entry port to exit port, a supply duct at one side of said chamber to supply superheated steam to the chamber below the fabric, an exhaust duct for evacuating steam from said chamber after it has passed through the interstices of the fabric, a fan to the suction side of which said exhaust duct is connected, a heat exchanger connected to the supply side of said fan and in turn connected to said supply duct, and means for supplying heat to said heat exchanger to continuously maintain the desired temperature of the superheated steam supplied to said chamber, a bypass duct for connecting said supply and exhaust ducts outside said chamber, a damper normally closing the by-pass duct off from said supply duct, a damper operable to close said supply duct off from said chamber, drive means for said conveying means, and means operable automatically upon stoppage of said drive means to open the first-named damper and close the second-named damper, and means operable thereupon to spray water into one of said ducts to maintain the steam in said supply duct at a desired temperature.

14. Apparatus for treating fabric comprising a dye pad, a drying chamber, and means for conveying fabric continuously through said dye pad and thence through said drying chamber, said drying chamber having an entry port at one end and an exit port at its opposite end, said conveying means comprising a tenter frame for conveying the fabric through said drying chamber in said entry port and out said exit port, non-metallic, resilient members positioned along opposite edges of each port and extending for the full widths of the ports to directly engage the tenter frame and the fabric, said resilient members being yieldable to conform to the shape of the fabric and the tenter frame and thereby provide tight seals around both the fabric and the tenter frame, and means for continuously supplying superheated steam at greater than atmospheric pressure to said drying chamber to fill said chamber with steam and to exclude air therefrom, said supplying means delivering the steam to one side of the fabric, and means for evacuating steam from said drying chamber at the opposite side of the fabric thereby forcing the superheated steam through the interstices of the fabric as the fabric travels through the drying chamber, whereby to set the dye in the fabric and to dry the fabric.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,632,760 Jones June 14, 1927 2,119,261 Andrews May 31, 1938 2,268,530 Waechter Dec. 30, 1941 2,268,988 Hess et al Jan. 6, 1942 2,348,174 Blanchard et a1 May 2, 1944 2,388,226 Hanson Oct. 30, 1945 2,471,802 Walter et al May 31, 1949 2,590,849 Dungler Apr. 1, 1952 FOREIGN PATENTS 157,425 Great Britain Apr. 10, 1922 265,026 Great Britain Feb. 3, 1927

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2899754 *Jul 12, 1956Aug 18, 1959 Drying process and apparatus
US2900986 *Sep 11, 1956Aug 25, 1959Schiff & Stern GmbhMoistening of tobacco
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Classifications
U.S. Classification34/538, 26/96, 34/75, 26/92, 34/242
International ClassificationF26B13/00, F26B13/10
Cooperative ClassificationF26B13/10, F26B13/108, F26B13/005
European ClassificationF26B13/00F, F26B13/10, F26B13/10E