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Publication numberUS2774997 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 25, 1956
Filing dateAug 2, 1951
Priority dateAug 2, 1951
Publication numberUS 2774997 A, US 2774997A, US-A-2774997, US2774997 A, US2774997A
InventorsZitomer Abe
Original AssigneeAlumatic Corp Of America
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Sash and sash frames
US 2774997 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Dec. 25, 1956 A. 2x1-OMER SASH AND SASH FRAMES INVENTOR. 6755 Z /TaME/E .yilllll 3 SheetsfSheet 1 Filed Aug. 2,

Dec. 25, 1956 A. zn'oMER SASH AND SASH FRAMES 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed Aug. 2, 1951 INVENTOR. H65 .2 rome-E ATToRmlYS Fla. I3

nited States Patent SASH AND SASH FRAMES Abe Zitomer, Milwaukee, Wis., assignor to Alumatic Corporation of America, Milwaukee, Wis., a corporation of Wisconsin Application August 2, 1951, Serial No. 239,866

8 Claims. (Cl. 20-12) My invention relates to improvements in sash and sash frames.

More particularly stated my invention relates to an insertable frame for existing wooden window framesy whereby to provide storm and screen sash mounting for readily removable storm and screen sash. Furthermore, my invention relates to novel assemblable screen and storm sash for use with my improved frame.

Further details of novel features of my invention include the provision of sash and frame component elements especially suited to the combination of my sash and frame whereby the elements may be made as extruded metal shapes adapted to be cut and led as to length and joint conliguration with the simpler forms of metal working tools; provision of novel features of spring biased sash frame ways; and provision of novel means for locking a removable metal frame structure to a window frame.

'Ihe above features of my invention are particularly emphasized by provision of my extruded metal shapes so combined and related that my improved sash frame and sash elements may be milled to size at the factory and readily assembled at the job by relatively unskilled workmen who receive the frame and sash components in packaged, knocked-down form.

In the drawings:

Fig. 1 is a view in perspective of the external portions of a conventional wood window frame with my improved storm and screen sash inserted therein against the usual storm window stop. i

Fig. 2 is an enlarged vertical section on line 2-2 of Fig. 1.

Fig. 3 is an enlarged section on line 3-3 of Fig. 1.

Fig. 4 is a perspective of my improved frame as it appears in fabricated condition in readiness for insertion into position for use.

Fig. 5 is an exterior elevation, somewhat consolidated:

as shown, and showing the exterior construction of ra screen sash made in accord with my invention.

Fig. 6 is a view similar to Fig. 5 but showing the interior face of a glazed sash made in accord with my in` vention, a portion of the guide way of my sash frame beingy shown in vertical section at the right to illustrate the manner in which my sash may be positively held in a particular position of adjustment with respect to my guide way Fig. 7 is an elevation of a corner of one of my storm window sash and a fragment of a guide way in conjunction with which the sash is slidably guided, portions of the sash frame and guide way being broken away to show a side pin for the sash and the manner in which it engages the guide way.

Fig. 8 is an elevation of a corner of my storm window sash and my spring pin latch, a portion of the spring pin latch mechanism being broken away to show the combination thereof and the manner in which the latch mechanism is attached to my sash.

Fig. 9 is a section on line 9- 9 of Fig. 8 showing .fur-K 2,774,997 Patented Dec. 25, 1956 ICC ther details of the manner in which I secure my spring pin latch to my sash frame.

Fig.. 10 is an exploded view in perspective of the separated respective milled shapes of my storm window frame whereby a corner joint is made.

Fig. 11 is a side elevation of parts shown in Fig. l0 after the webbed tongue has been placed in position and swedgedto hold the parts in assembly.

Fig. 12 is an exploded view in perspective of my sash elements used to form a mitered corner especially designed for screen sash purposes.

Fig. 13 is a fragmentary view of a corner of a complete screen sash, a fragment of the guide way for such a screen being shown in exterior elevation.

Fig. 14 is a section on line 14-14 of Fig. 13.

Fig. 15 is an exploded view in perspective of the corner forming portions of an alternative form of screen sash elements.

Fig. 16 is an exploded view of the corner forming p01'- tions ofsash elements shaped for inter-engagement whereby to form a glazed sash.

Like parts are designated by the same reference characters throughout the several views.

As shown in Figs. l, Z and 3, a conventional wood window frame 20 includes a sill 21, frame facing 22 at the left and 23 at the right as viewed exteriorly, and a facing cap 24. These facings 22, 23 and 24 are secured to the rails and stiles of the window frame, the top rail 25 being shown in Fig. 2 and the stiles being shown in Fig. 3 at 26 and 27. Top rail 25 and the stiles 26 and 27 are oifset from the faces to provide a shoulder against which a storm window may it according to conventional practice. I fit my new frame for my combination storm and screen sash into the same position heretofore used for conventional storm windows as will be apparent from the following description.

The frame which provides guide ways for my sash and screen elements is made up of one of the several types of extruded material shapes which will be described below.

Figs. 4, 10 and l1 show most clearly the H conliguration of my frame. The H configuration has two legs 31 and 32 with a web 33 extending between them. It will be noted that the web is considerably closer to one end of the legs than to the other and that I thereby provide a deep channel and a shallow channel for the purposes as described below. To form a right angle joint at the corner of my frame 30, l cut away the longer leg portions along the lines at 34 and 35 and I pierce the web at 36 to provide an opening for a tongue 37 which is a part of the web 33 of a cross member 38.

31 and 32 as shown in Fig. l0. Merely by extending the' tongue 37 through the pierced opening 36 as shown in Fig. l1, I can draw the cross member 38 into the notch formed by the removal of the portions along the legs 34 and 35. Then by bending down at 40 the extended portion of the tongue 37, I bind the two parts of my frame together in a complete serviceable joint. The joint thus far described is the type of joint for making the frame 30 shown in Fig. 4. A joint at the corner of the frame as shown at the top in Fig. 4 is made in the same way except that the legs are notched as at y41l and the tongue 37 may be swedged or bent to the position shown in Fig. 4 to tie the parts together.

A frame 30 intended to seat against the stiles 26 and 27 of frame 20 is of a size somewhat small for the wood frame opening provided by the frame 20, for reasons which will be apparent from the following description of the manner in which frame 30 is locked in position. An ordinary open channel 45 (Figs. 1 and 3) is shaped to ,have its legs 46 and 47 tted within the shallow channel I form the tongue 37 by cutting away a part of the web and a part of the legs of a side member 48 of frame 30, and this channel 45 is secured to face 22 by means of screws 49 (see Fig.- 3f). A smaller channel 50 having its legs 5l and 52 receivable in the deep channel of side member 53 of frame 30 ispositioned to abut facing 23 of window frame 20;"and'the webv 33 of the side member 53 is provided atfspaced tats/'withA tubular nuts 55 through which screyvs 56^ may beadjust-v ably brought to'bear against'channel mernb r 'stl'tofforce' it outwardly against the edgeroffacingZllfY l"Tl'us' when my frame 30 is to be included in window frame A20 channel 47 is secured in position against facing'rZZ, the'fiame 30 is then placed in positionasfshown; in Fig.'3 gandthe channel 50 is forced `outwardly'y by screws 561 1'1nt i l a lateral telescopic adjustment of Ytlie'lclr` spect to the side membersSan not be removed unless thesc're For clamping engagement'to thetop and bottom) ofthe window frame 20an ex t i i o'rly .v applieduchannehmembet sa has;is'legsjembracingfhgsid e capnfjmy frame 30. A'scr'ew Aand nut'a'rrangement similarjtogthat already described is used `toforce this cap upwardly tively of my frame are identical in crossA sectionandfare made vof an extruded metal shape', thecontguration of which is shown most clearly in Fig. 3,` andrtherehis ya channel shaped parting stop 67'centrally ofl thecross section; The legs fof the channel"shapeuextez'ncl'outwardlyy therefromin either directionand develop in to identical reverse vcurves 68 and 69',`eachfof which Acomprises a rib` which I use as zi/guidey wayffor ya sash member. OutwardlyA and then inwardlycurved extensions A70Jand71 from these guidewaysprovide a pair ofopposedchannels fo'r purposes 'described below.H

One of `these "guide ways is receiv ed inl the shallow channel 'of 'the side 'member 53'at the right side of the1 window as shown in Figs. l and 3. It is held thereby the washer-like head`72 of,tubiilar. nut 55 (SeeFig. 2)-- andris', therefde,v rigidly held againstA web 33 of ,Side` member 53.V`

vG u ide way v65 is receivable in the deep channel of side,

memberSjbtis resiliently mounted ltherein upon coil springs' 75 f which aremlo'cated at spaced pointsdn this' channel. Springs `65 `are'conically coiled and arewsoy dis-- posed j and secllrfe'df in thev channel that the smaller coil, thereof is 'rivetedby rivet 74to web .and vth e lar'gest coil isfreceivable infthe opposel'channels formed byex;

tensions70 and'71. f It will be understoodthat theguide way: 65 is slidably engaged with .the several,springs 75 before the framev 30;` is'ftlnally. securedt togetherat` its corners'.` Spring 75 hasI suchcharacteristicsthat the guide way'65'in all vnatural `positions of thel springs is retained againstl'fsidef sway `b`yf the legs ofthe side memben 48.

Thus as seen in Fi'gs. 1', 2 and`3 the frame 30 is madei uplof the H- shaped extruded form,`is locked in position in the 'wooden windowk frame'20, is provided with guide'v ways and 66 in the deepfand shallow channels of the sidemembers 48 and 53, and the 'frame installation is complete in readiness for the reception of the screen` and stormv sash' plus a filler piece 80.

Itwould, of course, be possible in someuses ofl my invention to supply a length of the extruded form identical with the guide ways 65 and 66 intlieshallowchannel and against web 33 of bottom rail 62, but in most wood Window frames 20 the height of an inside finish sill might interfere withthe removal ofmy sash .from my guide ways 65and66. therefore. provide filler lpiece80frev ceivable lbetvreven' the guide ways.65,and. 66; at,the.lowerl ends thereof. This filler piece is a special extruded formhaving a cross section most clearly shown in Fig..2.\

lt has the general conguration of a channel and as used in the assembly with my frame 30, the channel lies on its side with the open channel facing inwardly of the frame. As so disposed, the upper leg Sl of the channel is provided with a rib 82 which is in\the sa rne plane as the parting stop 67 of guide way 65. In addition, l provide ribs 83 and 84 which lie respectively in the same vertical plane with-.the 4reversed curves and 69.used as guide ways for Vthe respcive, sash `members. The VAloweri legrlof the channel forming the filler piece 80fdevelops.at86;and 87 into .legreceiving groovesto` receive the top margins of theilegs 31 and 32 of the lower rail 62 of 'my frame 30. rThis ller piece-Styshapedeat.;itsfends to tit against the guide ways 65 and 66 is insertable in my frame 30 by pressing one end of it against the guide way 65 so as to compress the springs 75 andthe other end of the filler piece may be swung down into the shallow channelof the side member 53 in a lowering motion of the ller piece which will seatithe grooves at'86 and 87 upon the legs of the lower rail. The 'iller piecebeing in position,` my frame 30 is in readiness for reception of sash made in accord with my linventionas will now bedescribed.

It will be obvious from the above ydescription and an examination of my. drawings that the/total thickness of my frame 30 is comparable to thethickness of an ordinary wood storm sash` receivable against the stiles 26 and 27 in" a woodframe 20.v Within the dimension of thisr total thickness, l have provided, as above described, guide ways for a pair of stormsashf90fand 91,.each adaptedto'.

move along its rown portionof guide way 65T66 ateitherV sideof thepartngstOp 67finsliding motion in the same way thatdouble hung wood window sash as convention.

allyimade will slide'up and down past each other. l

Eachof the storml sash 90l an 'd l91 is made up of two different extruded forms. Threesides of each ofthe sash is made up ofan extruded form 92 having a cross section shown most clearly inFig. l6-and thefourth side of each storm sash is madeup of. the extruded form 93;4 shown most clearly in Fig. 2. vThe only/difference between these forms is the provision in the form 93 of. a hook channel member 94 so shaped, as shown in Fig. 2, vas to hook with theycomplementary hook channel of the extruded form;

.member forming part ofthesash `movingpn anadjacentguide way. The extruded form 92 is somewhat Hfshaped.

but thevwebi95 thereof has a heavy section., Long legs 96 and 97 of this H con'guration provide a deep channel 98 f orthereception of glass orother glazingmaterial99. 'The 4shorter legs 100 and lprovide achannel 1,0210 receive rib 68er, 69 of a guide way 65,0r` 66.

To make up a complete sash 90 or 91, I cut lengthsof the extruded. f orm92 fonthreesidespf. thesash and. a

length from `theMex/truded form 93;tocornp1ete thefourth' face104and the vtenon 1072 is hookedat. 10810 engage; behind locking hook 106..y To engagethe tenori 107,and.

hook 10 8,fthe liook 108 is placedin positionbehindthe locking hook 106 and the tenon 107 is swung into position` against buttress 104. In the swinging action in which these parts are moved, vthe cam surfac'elllll and 10,3`

engage one another toforce the `projections 10.6. and10, 8.- into lan interlocking position from which they cannotbe Withdrawn, when a pane of glass or other glazingmaterial is positioned in thedeep channel 98.`

When three of `the sides of thesash have been provided with the joint shown in Fig. 16, the fourth sideV of the sash may be closed to complete a sash frame by applying extruded form 93 as shown lin Fig. 6, where it will be seen that this form 93 has its hook channel 94. The joint at 110 is a simple half-lap joint held by a screw 111, but when the joints at 110 are complete with the glazing 99 in position, the hook joints at 106-108 are positively held in locked relationship. Handles at 115-116 facilitate the manipulation of the storm sash as indicated below.

In addition -to the twostorm sash 90 and 91, I provide a screen sash 120 made up as shown in Fig. 5 through the use of extruded form 121 and a type of joint therefor as shown in Fig. 15. Here each side of the frame for sash 120 is identical with each other side if the screen is square and in any event the joints at all four corners are identically formed (see Fig.

The extruded form 121 is generally rectangular but is channeled at 122 for engagement with these guide ways, and channeled at 123 for receptionl of screening 124 and a locking wire 125. A

Corner joint as shown in Fig. 15 is substantially a dovetail joint as applied` to the particular extruded form 121. A dove-tail channel 126 is shaped to receive a complementary dove-tail male portion 127 and these are received together in a lateral motion as is well known in this art. Stepped surfaces at 128 and 129 are so shaped that channel 123 is continuous but follows a right angled path at the joint.

When the screen frame 120 has been made up as at Fig. 5 a screen wire 124 cut to a size receivable over the channels 123 along the four sides of the frame is locked to the frame by the high pressure insertion of lockingwire 124 into the groove so as to press the margins of the screen and the wire into channel 123.

The dimensions of the completed sash 90, 91 and 120 are of a width slightly greater than the space between the fixed guide Way 66 and the spring biased guide way 65 when the springs 75 behind guide way 65 are in repose. Thus the sash may be inserted between the guide ways as shown in Fig. 3 by pressing one margin of the sash against the resiliently mounted guide way 65 suiciently to partially collapse springs 75 by then swinging the sash into position for alignment against a rib of the tixed guide way 66 against which the sash will then be held for guided sliding action. I have found that springs 75 may easily be selected to provide suflicient friction between sash of a particular weight and the guide ways so that the sash will remain in any position to which it is manually adjusted.

If it is desired that a particular sash shall remain in uppermost position in the guide ways or in some other selected position of adjustment, I affix a spring operated latch pin 130 adjacent one corner of the inside face of the sash as shown most clearly in Figs. 6, 8 and 9. This latch pin Iis mounted in a latch pin housing 131 which has a tubular guide way 132 for the latch pin itself, and a hooked bracket 133 to extend over the lip of one of the long legs 96 (see Fig. 9). Two anchor strips, such as the one shown at 134, extend into notches 135 and 136 and screws 137 hold them securely anchored to the sash latch. Within the tubular guide way 132 the latch pin 130 is freely reciprocable but is biased to the position shown in Fig. 8 by a spring 140. To provide for manual withdrawal of the latch pin 130, I provide a latch pin handle 141 mounted directly to the pin and provided with a slot at 142 for free movement of the pin within limits prescribed by the lengths of the slot. Apertures 143 at spaced points along guide way 65 provide alternative points at which the latch pin 130 may engage the guide way as shown in Fig. 6 to lock the sash in a particular position of adjustment.

It will thus be seen that the latch pin housing 131 may be formed of one piece of sheet metal such as stainless steel, and that only two screws are necessary to assemble the latch pin in its housing upon a sash in accord witli my invention.

In the use of the storm and screen sash shown in Figs. 1, 2 and3, it is possible to have three sash operating in two planes; Lower sash 91 equipped with latch pin 130 may be raised and lowered as desired to open the window for ventilation through the screen 124, and it is possible to insert the screen 124 with its sash frame'120 because the upper storm sash may be forced up into the deep channel of the frame rail 61, during the inserting process involving the screen 120. After the screen is in position in the guide ways, the upper storm sash 90 may be lowered to engage a lower parting rib into parting rib groove 151 (see Fig. 2). Of course, while the screen is being inserted in the guide ways and upper sash 90 is thrust upwardly to the unusual degree required to give adequate space for the insertion of the screen the hook channel members 94 of the respective storm sash will force the storm sash SI1-somewhat upwardly. However, after the screen has been insertedl and the upper storm sash 90 has assumed its upper normal position, the hook channels will take the position shown in Fig. 2.

Under some circumstances and under the particular requirements for ventilation deemed necessary `by some users of my screen and storm sash, it is preferred that the guide ways be left clear of any screen sash so that the respective storm sash 90 and 91 may be freely moved in their respective planes. I, therefore, provide a screen sash 155 as shown in Figs. l2, 13 and 14 made up of a special extruded form 156 (see Fig. l2). This form has a deep channel 157 between legs 158 and 159 so that the deep channel opens outwardly of a frame made of this form. The opposite margin of the form provides a screen locking channel 160 useable in the same way that the channel 123 is used in conjunction with form 121. Between the screen locking channel 160 and the deep channel 157 is a box channel 161 formed by two webs 162 and 163. To form a corner joint using the form 156, I miter the respective sash elements as shown in Fig. 12, and use a locking insert 165, which is a right-angled corner piece receivable in the box channel 16. When the special mitered ends made up of form 156 are brought together with the locking insert 165 received in the respective box channels of the two parts forming the joint, it is only necessary to heavily prick punch the metal over the box channel t0 securely lock the two parts in final assembly. Of course, when the locking wire 125 and the screens 124 are additionally locked in place, a double interlock of the mitered joint is accomplished.

A spring sash made up of form 156 has within one of the deep channels 157 a set of leaf springs 166 toresist the entry of any member into the channel, I then provide sash of such lateral dimension for a screen 155 that a leg of a stile 48 or 53 may be received into the channel 157 against `the spring beside the leaf springs 166 and the screen may then take its position as indicated in Fig. 14 whereby -to leave the guide ways for storm sash unobstructed.

I claim:

1. In a device of the character described, a subframe having side members of H-shaped cross section, each such member having a transverse web and inwardly and outwardly directed anges providing inner and outer channels, the inwardly projecting flanges of one of said members being the longer and the outwardly directed flanges of the other of said members being the longer, way-strips fitted longitudinally between the inner anges of each of said members and provided with guide ribs, the strip being seated against the web of the member wherein the outwardly projecting flanges are the longest, compression spring means seated in the inner channel of the member in which the inwardly directed flanges are the longer, said spring means being in supporting relation to the guide strip in said last mentioned channel, and sash having marginal grooves in bearing engagement withthecdrresponding ribsofthe respectivenstrips).`

2. The device of claim 1l in which the strip. 'supported bythe. spring. rhas v:a rolled. edge with. an inwardly directinggange.spacedffrom' the `strip-.wherebyfto .form a channel, and .a .spring `seat memberA engaged. in. the channel. l Y i I i i i 3. Avwindow frame adapted fonfinsertionin a frame opening, said frame. comprising rlst` and outermost `side channels Ahaving portions adapted for seating contact with the window. opening,van d second Vchannels respectively. telescopically engaged. with said outermost side channels, one. of said .second channels having a xed terminal positionrespecting the outermost channel with which Ait is engaged andanotherrsecond channel having an 'adjustable-,terminal position respecting the outermost channel with which it is engaged., Said other second channelbeing provided with meansy for said adjustment comprising means fontightening said koutermost channels lagainst said .window opening whereby to securely seat l,saidframe in said openingsaid xedsecond channel- .b ing provided with a sash, guide way having a resilient mounting on which said sash. guide way is yieldable laterallyin said channel, the adjustable second channel being providedwith a sash guide way having.

a mounting xed therein.

4. A window sash guideway adapted for mounting at the vside of a window opening, said guideway comprising a strip vhaving its face toward the window opening provided with .spaced sash guide ridges and an intervening parting stop, the `edge margins of the strip cornprising facing channels atthe back of thestrip, a mounting coil spring having an end coil thereof engaged in saidy channels.

5. A supplemental window frame structure receivable within a conventional window frame. against its conventional storm sash seat, said supplemental window structure comprising a jamb member and means xedly mounting said jamb member insaid seat, a supplemental window frame side jamb channel, telescopic means releasably connecting said jamb member and window frame side jamb channel, means. forming a sash guideway receivable in said jamb side channel, said means being laterally movable in said channel, and a laterally resilient expander in said channel, said expander comprising means to concurrently bias the sash. guideway against the sash and the jamb channel against the jamb member to resiliently maintain the parts in assembled relation.

6. A supplemental window structure adapted to be seated in the storm sash seat labout the window opening of a conventional window frame, said structure comprising a rst jamb member, means for mounting said first niernbeninsaid `seatat one sideofthe window opening, ,a r`first .framefjamb channel' having. anges telescopically. engagedwith 'saidiirst jamb member, said first; frame jamb .channel having oppositely extending flanges and .a rstsash guidewayconned therebetween, window,sash engaged y.with saidsash guideway, a second sash guideway atthe opposite side of said sash, a second frame jamb channel havinganges lconfining said .second, sash guideway, a second jamb membermounted againstthe said` seat at the opposite side ofv the window openingsaid second frame jamb channel having anges telescopically engaged ywith said jamb member, said rst frame jamb channell being provided with a resilient expander,concurrently biasing said rst frame jamb channelfintp telescopic engagement with said rst jamb member and said guideways toward said sash whereby to resiliently maintain` thepparts in assembled relationship andconeurrently frictionally oppose sash movement alongl saidguideways.

7. The device of claim 6 in which said secondframe jamb channel is provided with a web having means in lateral .thrust engagement with said second jamb, said means being laterallyadjustable whereby to accommodate said window structure to window frames having diterent dimensions.

SQThedevice of claim 7 in which said thrust means comprisesa screw, said web being provided with a tubular nut through which said screw is threaded.

References Cited in the le of this patent UNITEDSTATES PATENTS Re. 23,931` Weissman Jan. 25, 1955 696,110- l. Smith Mar. 25, 1902 1,493,750 Holbrook May 13, 1924 1,864,066. Howenstein June 21, 1932 2,013,207'- Hamm Vet al Sept. 3, 1935 2,114,617 Verhagen Apr. 19, 1938 2,262,670. Ensminger Nov. 11, 1941 2,292,273 Kaufmann Aug. 4, 1942 2,303,129 Kurtzv Nov. 24, 1942 2,303,418. Adams et al. Dec. 1, 1942l 2,307,647v Starck Jan. 5, 1943 2,421,309f Anderson May 27, 1947 2,430,772 Kammerer Nov. 11, 1947 2,433,835 Beil Jan. 6, 1948 2,519,168 Arenwald Aug. 15, 1950 2,560,752y Vass July 17, 1951- 2,563,730 Martin Aug. 7, 1951 2,612,660 Casey Oct. 7, 1952 2,631,336 Weissman Mar. 17, 1953 2,705,062 Bongiovanni Mar. 29, 1955v

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2870494 *Apr 28, 1954Jan 27, 1959Gordon W LoveRemovable window sash and a springchannel combination therefor
US2907079 *Sep 6, 1955Oct 6, 1959Herbert K LundgrenWindow construction
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US3099050 *Feb 24, 1960Jul 30, 1963Vac Inc DeWindow sash construction
US3141533 *Aug 28, 1961Jul 21, 1964Republic Steel CorpLoad bearing door frames
US3221804 *Feb 18, 1963Dec 7, 1965Benjamin RudnickFolding door structure and assembly
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US3434238 *Jul 27, 1966Mar 25, 1969Mathes Kg HeinzWindow frame of structural metal or synthetic material
US3860975 *May 22, 1973Jan 21, 1975Grossman AbrahamBathtub closure means having vertifically slidable panels and method of assembly
US4745721 *Dec 12, 1985May 24, 1988Yoshida Kogyo K. K.Method of attaching window units
U.S. Classification49/422, 49/505, 52/204.51, 160/381, 160/90, 49/452
International ClassificationE06B3/44, E06B3/96
Cooperative ClassificationE06B2003/4453, E06B2003/4492, E06B3/44, E06B3/96
European ClassificationE06B3/44, E06B3/96