US 2775240 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
De- 25, 1956 E. J. MoRRlsEY, JR.. ET AL 2,775,240
GAS VALVE Filed Feb. 9, 1955 6 sed. www. C ,rfb e nohm AEMD/m o may@ Jdw mlm. da. W
United States Patent O GAS VALVE Edwardl. Morrisey, Jr., `audllowardA. Richards, Waukegan Township, Lake County, Ill., assignors to Abbott boratories, North Chicago, Ill., a corporation of Application February 9, 1953, Serial No. 335,746 1 12 Claims. (Cl: 1285-214) The present invention relates generally to a gas valve for use inA control in the passage of gas into a fluid container andmore particularly to an improvedair check valve for use in venoclysis equipment;
Generally venoclysis equipment consists of a iuid container holding a substantially greater amount than an ordinary hypodermic syringe, an outlet for the container attached to a length of flexible tubing having a hypodermic cannula on the end thereof, and an air inlet for the container. The devices of the prior art for controlling the inflow1 of air and other uids into the venoclysis containers have been various and sundry. Included in the prio'rart devices are internal'air bleeds such as a stand-pipe projecting into the container andprojecting above the level of lluid therein when in an inverted position, ball check valve secured tothe container closure, and bulky external liquidair filters. e
The air valves or air.` bleeds of the` prior art are relatively expensive or cumbersome and.` are not suitable for use disposable venoclysis equipment.`
It is an object of the present invention, therefore, to provide an improved air valve which can be manufactured very economically.
It is another object ofthe present invention to provide an air valve whichis extremely simple in construction.
It is still another object of the invention to provide an air valve which employs no moving lparts and thereby eliminatesthe danger of mechanical failures. l
It is still another object of the invention to provide an improved closure for venoclysis containers.
Other objects of the invention will be evident from the detailed description and claims to follow.
Referring to the drawing: e
Figure l is,` a fragmentaryvertical sectional view of a closure `cap on avenoclysis bottleshowingone embodiment ofthe improved air valveof the present invention and a drip tube connected therewith. e
Figure 2 is a bottom plan View of theclosure cap shown in Figure l` with the drip tube removed.`
Figure 3 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view of a modified closure cap and air valve.
Figure 4 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view of a still further modified form of closure cap and air valve.
Figure 5 is avertical sectionalview of an air valve suitable for use with venoclysis `containers having penetrable closures without a passage extending therethrough.
Referring specifically to the drawing the improved apparatus herein illustrated is shown employed in connection with a glass or other suitable `bottle represented by numeral 11, being suspended in inverted position so that its neck 12 projects downwardly. The neck 12 is provided with suitable external screw threads 13. A cap 14 preferably formed of hard rubber or plastic material or other, suitable material is provided with internal screw threads so as to` fit the external threads on the neck of thebottle.- j
The end wall` 15 of the cap 14 is provided with a central 12,775,240 Patented Dec. 25, `1956 opening 16 and a relatively soft rubber member 17 associated with the rigidcap member 14. The resilient rubber member 17 comprises a main disk portion 18 of such.
size that a preferable portion of the disk is adapted to overlap a portion of the cap end 15 so that suchpreferable i portion is` disposed between the lip 19 ofthe bottle and the end wall 15 of the rigid cap member. The disk 18v therefore serves as a gasket to assure a fluid tight seal between the cap 14 and the bottle 11. The resilient member 17 t is anchored to the cap by being provided with. a,
bottle 11. `Since in some instances the liquid which lis` administered from the bottle 11 must be passed through a strainer before it enters the tubing on its way to the injectingneedle, a strainer may be secured to the. inwardly projecting member 21 and extends inwardly into the uid within the container. And, as shown in Figure 1, it is often desirable to have a means for determining the rate of out-flow of fluid from the bottle 11` and this is facilitated by having a` sight glass or drip tube secured to.
the outwardly projecting member 23 of the closure. The resiliency of the projecting member 2.3 permits an air tight seal betweenthe'drip tube 40 andthe projection 23 of the closure member. secured to` the lower end of the drip tube 40 and a ilow control device 42 isV positioned transversely of the tube between the drip tube 40 and the hypodermic needle adapter 43; If desired the drip tube can be provided with a strainer element.
i Alongside the downwardly projectingportion 22 there isv also provided another but smaller downwardly extending-,projection 25which is generally cylindrical in form and isprovided with an opening 27 therethrough. A iitting26xis removably secured to the smaller projection 25 and consists of a` means for controlling the entrance of air or other liuids into the bottle 11.
The `fitting 26 is comprised generally of cylindricaly sidewalls of stainless steel, aluminum, plastic, glass, or the like and at its inner end is flared slightly outwardly as at 28 to facilitate securing the fitting 26 to the smaller projection 25 of the closure member. The outer end of the titting 26 is iiared slightly inwardly to provide a restricted opening 29 which serves as an air passage and provide a retaining means for liberous material as will be `more specifically described hereinafter. Within the interior of` the `fitting 26 is disposeda wad of water repellent fiberous material 30, `such as glass wool or iiber glass which has been treated with a silicone composition, which serves to prevent the flow of liquid outwardly therethrough but permits the passage of air or other gases therethrough.
ln some instances itis desirable to eliminate the driptube 4d and the fitting `26 withA the projection 25 of the resilient member 17, as shown in Figure 3 of the drawing. The passage 27 of resilient member 17 is provided with an enlarged portion which forms a small container-like pocket 31 on the inner surface of the resilient member t7. water repellent brous material 3i) which serves as a` means for controlling the passage of air into the bottle 1'1..
It is also desirable `in some instances, as illustrated` in Figure 4 of the drawing, to provide a small plastic or- A length offlexible tubing, 41 is in the pocket 31 is inserted a compact mass of metallic container 32 for holding a compact mass of fibrous water repellent material 30, such as glass fibers which have been treated with a silicone composition. The container 32 is readily inserted intothe resilient member 17 and is held securely therein. rlfhe further embodiment of the present invention showing a modified form of air valve in Figure comprises a cylindrical main tube 33 having a constricted portion 34 intermediate the ends thereof and outwardly flaring side walls 35 extending rearwardly therefrom. A tubular member 36 having a bore 37 therethrough is inserted into the end of the cylindrical member 33 opposite the flared walls and the end of which abuts the restricted area 34 of the cylindrical body 33. A closure piercing cannula 38 is secured to the member 36 and extends outwardly therefrom. In the body of the main cylindrical member opposite the needle containing a section 35, a compact mass of water repellent berous material, such as fiber glass having the surface thereoftreated with a silicone composition, is placed between the flared walls 35 of. the cylindrical tube 33 and serves to prevent the out-flow of liquids from the bottle 11 but permits the entry of air.
In the preferred embodiment of the invention, the water repellent fiberous material employed is glass fiber which hasl been treated with a silicone composition to render the fibers strongly water repellent. The glass fibers cornmonly designated as fiber glass were used and are com prised of very fine filaments of glass having an individual fiber diameter of between about .00010 and .00014 inch. The fiber glass as employed are in the form of bundles of fibers, said bundles having `a diameter from one quarter to one half inch and having a weight of from 1 to 5 grams per yard. The fiber bundles are in the form of continuous length wound on a suitable spindle or the like.
A method of treatingthe glass fibers with silicone which has been found suitable for rendering the fibers strongly water repellent comprises dipping 6 inch lengths of the glass fiber in a 5% solution of methyldiethoxysilane dis- The glass fiber thus treated has an imperceptibly thin coating of silicone on the surface thereof which renders the fibers strongly water repellent.
Other silicone compositions can be used to treat the glass fiber, including emulsions or solvent solutions of the polyorganosiloxanes, such as polydimethylsiloxane U and the fibers thus treated are processed in the same manner as when treated with a solution of the methyldiethoxysilane, except that a curing temperature of between about 230 C. and 300 C. is employed. If desired, the fibers can also be treated with chlorosilane vapor and cured in the usual manner. It should thus be evident that any suitable silicone composition which can be conveniently handled and applied to the surface of the fibers can be employed in the present invention and therefore this Vinvention is not limited to the use of any particular composition for rendering the fibers strongly water repellent. The concentration of the silicone solutions employed may be varied widely and satisfactory results are obtained when employing solutions having between about l and silicone composition. If desired, two or more of the known silicone compositions may be combined in order to render a particular fiber strongly water repellent.
The present invention employs as its preferred embodiment glass fibers; and particularly those having a diameter of between about .00010 and .00014 inch in diameter, be-
cause of their very soft texture, the ease with which they can be manipulated, and their very great surface area per unit weight. Glass fibers having a substantially larger diameter, such as glass wool fibers, have also been successfully employed in the present invention after having the surface thereof rendered water repellent by treating with the silicone compositions as described herein. Glass fibers in general are particularly'suitable for use in the present invention where a silicone treatment is employedto render the berous material water repellent because of the similarity in chemical composition of the silicones and the glass fibers. The silicon dioxide of the silicones appears to form a particularly coherent bond with the silica of the glass'fibers.
It should be understood, however, that fiberous material other than glass fibers can also be employed in the present invention. For example, cotton fibers treated with the 5% solution of methyldiethoxysilane have been used in place of the silicone treated fiber glass in an air filter with satisfactory results. Other fibers, such as silk fibers, rayon fibers, nylon fibers, and other animal, vegetable, mineral or synthetic fibers which have the surface thereof treated with' silicone or other compositions to impart thereto the desired water repellent properties, or synthetic fibers such as Vinyon, a vinylchloride-vinylacetate copolymer, or Dynel, a vinylchloride-acrylonitrile copolymer which inherently have strong water repellent properties can also be employed in the present invention.
In operation, when the glass bottle 11 shown in Figure l is filled with an intravenous aqueous solution and inverted so that the neck thereof is in a downwardly ex tending position, the aqueous solution passes downwardly through openings 24 and 27 in the resilient member 17. The flow control means 42 is adjusted to prevent the escape of liquid through the flexible tube 41. The aqueous solution which passes downwardly through passage 27 into fitting 26 comes into contact with the water repellent fiberous material 30. The surface .characteristics of the berous material 30 are such that the water contacting the individual fibers is strongly repelled. Sufficient upward pressure is created within the fiberous mass to counteract the downward pressure of the water on the fiberous mass and prevents the out-flow of aqueous solution through the fitting 26. As the aqueous solution is withdrawn from the bottle 11 through the flexible tubing 41 and the pressure within the bottle is reduced below atmospheric pressure, the air passes upwardly through the fibers 30 in fitting 26 and enters the bottle 11 until the pressure within the bottle 11 is approximately the same as the atmospheric pressure. In the foregoing manner, air is allowed to bleed into the bottle as required without permitting the fluid to escape through the fitting 26.
It will be evident that the mass of fibers 30 serves also as an air'lter so as to prevent dust particles or the like entering the interior of the bottle or contaminating the aqueous solution. It has also been found that the fiberous mass serves as a bacterial filter in the same manner as does a wad of cotton which is commonly used in the air bleeds in common use. Since the fibers of the present invention are not appreciably wetted by the liquid in contact therewith, they are immediately effective as a gas valve, do not change in volume when in use, and remain effective as a gas valve for practically an indefinitely long period.
The gas valve of the present invention as illustrated herein has been successfully employed with venoclysis solutions and other chemical solutions. For example, the herein disclosed silicone treated glass fibers have been used with excellent results as an air valve in contact with water, distilled water, aqueous isotonic sodium chloride solutions, aqueous sodium carbonate solutions (pH approximately l0), aqueous alcohol solutions; acidic solutions, such as aqueous citric acid solutions; and nonaqueous pol-ar solvent solutions, such as propylene glycol and ethylene glycol. It will thus be evident that the term i water repellent as used in the specification and claims is intended to include aqueous solutions in general as well as water per se. Moreover, it should be apparent that the invention is not confined to use with aqueous solutions but is equally applicable to non-aqueous solutions, in each instance the fibers of the mass of berous material employed having inherent liquid repellent properties or being coated with a liquid repellent composition which provides `a surface coating repellent to the particular liquid to be placed in contact therewith.
While the present invention has been shown embodied only in venocylsis equipment, the invention herein disclosed can Ialso be used as an air or gas valve in other apparatus where it is necessary or desirable to prevent the out-flow of liquid and permit the free passage of air or other gas. A compressed disk or wad of fibers of the type herein disclosed or mixtures thereof can be used as an air or gas valve wherever it is desired to have a valve through which air or gas can pass in either direction while preventing the passage of `a liquid therethrough.
Others may readily adapt the invention for use under various conditions of service by employing one or more of the novel features disclosed or equivalents thereof. As -at present advised with respect to the apparent scope of our invention, we desire to claim the following subject matter.
l. A gas pervious liquid barrier comprising a body member having a passage therethrough adapted to he used in combination with a venoclysis fluid container, and a compact mass of fiberous material having the surface of the fibers of said mass repellent to the liquid placed in contact therewith disposed transversely of said passage intermediate the ends thereof, said mass being impervious to the liquid placed in contact therewith `and pervious to gases.
2. A gas pervious liquid barrier comprising a body member having a passage therethrough adapted to be used in combination with a venoclysis uid container, and a compact mass of fiberous material having the surface of the fibers thereof coated with a liquid repellent composition disposed transversely of said passage intermediate the ends thereof, the said mass being impervious to the liquid in contact therewith.
3. A gas pervious liquid barrier comprising a body memberhaving a passage therethrough adapted to be used in combination with a venoclysis uid container, and a compact mass of iiberous material having the surface of the fibers thereof coated with a silicone composition disposed transversely of said passage intermediate the ends thereof, the said mass being impervious `to aqueous solutions.
4. A gas pervious liquid barrier comprising a body member having a passage therethrough adapted to be used in combination with a venoclysis fluid container, and a compact mass of glass fibers having the surface of the said fibers coated with a liquid repellent composition disposed transversely of said passage intermediate the ends thereof, said mass being impervious to liquids in contact therewith.
5. A gas pervious liquid barrier comprising a body i member having a passage therethrough adapted to be used in combination with a venoclysis uid container, and
a compact mass of glass fibers having the surface thereof coated with a silicone composition disposed transversely of said passage intermediate the ends thereof, said mass being impervious to aqueous solutions in contact therewith.
6. A gas pervious liquid barrier comprising a body member having a passage therethrough adapted to be used in combination with a venoclysis fluid container, and a compact mass of cotton fibers having the surface of the said fibers coated with a liquid repellent composition disposed transversely of said passage intermediate the ends thereof, said mass being impervious to a liquid placed in contact therewith.
7. A gas pervious liquid barrier comprising a body member having a passage therethrough adapted to be used in combination with a venoclysis fluid container, and a compact mass of cotton fibers coated with a silicone composition disposed transversely of said passage intermediate the ends thereof, said mass being impervious to water in Contact therewith.
8. A gas pervious liquid barrier comprising a body member having a passage therethrough adapted to be used in combination with a venoclysis fluid container, and a compact mass of synthetic fibers having the surface of the fibers strongly repellent to a. liquid in contact therewith disposed transversely of said passage intermediate the ends thereof, said mass being impervious to liquids in contact therewith and pervious to gas.
9. A compact mass of liberous material substantially as in claim 8 wherein the fibers are comprised of a vinylchloride vinylacetate copolymer.
' 10. A compact mass of fberous material substantially asin claim 8 wherein the fibers are comprised of a vinylchloride acrylonitrile copolymer.
ll. An apparatus for intravenous administration of liquids comprising, a bottle closure suitable for detachably securing to the said bottle having an air inlet and at least one fluid outlet passages therethrough, a support means for a valve means on said air inlet closure associated with said passage which prevents the out-flow of liquids from the bottle while permitting gases to enter therethrough when the pressure within the said bottle is less than atmospheric pressure, said valve means mounted on said support means comprising a compact mass of iiberous material having the surface of the fibers of said mass repellent to the liquid placed in contact therewith, thereby rendering the said mass impervious to said liquid and pervious to gases.
l2. An air inlet and filter means for use with venocylsis apparatus comprising, a body member having a passage therethrough, a piercing cannula secured in said passage at one end of said body member and extending outwardly therefrom, and la compact mass of fiberous material disposed in the other end of said body member transversely of the said passage, said fberous material comprised of fibers having liquid repellent surface characteristics rendering the said mass impervious to the liquid placed in contact therewith and pervious to` gases.
References Cited in the fiile of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,306,222 Patnode Dec. 22, 1942 2,452,644 Fields Nov. 2, 1948 2,581,331 Ryan et al Ian. 1, 1952