US 2781278 A
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B. HARMON METHOD OF PRINTING CARBON TRANS INK IN A SPACED DESIGN ON PA? 2 Sheets-Sheet .1
Feb. 12, 1957 Flled Aug 13 1952 INVENTOR BERNARD HARMON av Z /f ATT Sheets-Sheet 2 RANSFER PAPER Feb. 12, 1957 B. HARMON METHOD OF PRINTING CARBON T INK IN A SPACED DESIGN ON Filed Aug. 13, 1952 FIG. 7.
INVENTOR BERNARD HARMON BY ATTOR EY.
United States Patent METHOD OF PRINTING CARBON TRANSFER INK IN A SPACED DESIGN ON PAPER :This invention relates to a rotary wax spot carbon coating machine and method, and the present application is a continuation in part of my copending patent application Serial Number 165,946 filed June 3, 1950, and now abandoned.
There appears to be only two methods in current use of applying copying ink commonly termed carbon to limited, spaced or interrupted areas on paper, such as commercial and busines forms. One method requires the machining of heavy plates, cylinders or half-cylinders of lead. Relief areas are provided on the lead plates or cylinders corresponding in shape, proportions and relative locations to the paper areas which are to be coated. The carbon is then applied to these relief areas which are then brought into contact with the paper in the presence of heat and under pressure. This process costly and time consuming. Furthermore the heavy lead plates or cylinders may be used for only one job and they must be discarded. As a practical matter, each lead plate or cylinder goes through three stages or phases each time it is used: machining the plate or cylinder to the requirements of a single job constitute the first stage, using it in connection with that very job and no other job constitutes the second state, and melting it down constitutes the third and final state. The lead may then once again be formed into a plate or cylinder, which may then be machined, used and again discarded.
The second method calls for the use of metal blocks which are fastened to a fiat bed. The machine is analogous to flat bed printing machines and it functions in much the same way. The machine applies a carbon coating to single sheets of paper which are fed around a roller to the flat bed, whil the flat bed engages in reciprocating movement toward and away from the roller. Similarly, the first method also relates to single sheets of paper and this in itself, setting aside all other considerations, is greatly disadvantageous.
The method which is herein described and claimed constitutes a very substantial advantage over the methods now in use and above described, in two respects: In the first place, it makes use of greatly simplified carbon coating apparatus. In the second place, it applies carbon to continuous, as distinguished from single, sheets of paper. In other words, the present method constitutes a continuous carbon coating process whereas the current methods constitute intermittent processes.
The present method makes no use of heavy lead plates or cylinders or the like. Nor does it require the machining and melting down of any of the component parts of the equipment used and it does not involve the use of fiat bed apparatus. Instead, the present method calls for the use of the following elements in the following manner: There are two major components, to wit, a printing roller and one or more rubber blocks or strips or other shapes or the like secured to said printing roller. The rubber blocks or s t-rips or other shapes may be cut from a rubber sheet. They may then be vulcanized to the printing roller or secured thereto by means of an ad- 2,781,278 Patented Feb. 12, 1957 hesive or by any other conventional means or method, which may be lined or calibrated to facilitate centering or otherwise positioning the rubber blocks or strips or other shapes thereon. Copying ink of the character under discussion is then applied to the rubber blocks or strips or other shapes mounted on the roller, and said coated rubber blocks, strips or other shapes are then brought into contact with the paper under suflieient pressure to transfer the ink from said rubber blocks, strips or shapes to said paper.
A modified form of this method involves the use of a metal sheet, somewhat similar to the metal sheets employed in photo offset printing. The rubber block or block are vulcanized thereon or are mounted thereon by any conventional means and method and the metal sheet is then mounted on the printing roller in much the same manner as photo offset sheets are mounted on printing rollers. Carbon copying ink may then be applied to the rubber block or blocks (or rubber strips or other shapes, as the case may be) and said rubber blocks are then pressed against the paper to transfer the carbon copying ink thereto.
At the conclusion of a given printing job, the metal sheet which was used in that job may be destroyed or otherwise disposed of without any substantial financial loss either to the printer or to his customer. The metal sheet is relatively inexpensive, a is the rubber. The time and labor which cutting and mounting the rubber involve arerelatively negligible. The total expense does not even remotely approach th expense which is involved in the lead plate method above described. If desired, the rubber blocks may be stripped from the metal sheet and said metal sheet may then be re-used. This, of course, i the procedure which must be followed where the rubber blocks are fastened directly to the printing roller; They are easy to mount on the roller, and they are easily removed therefrom, and the roller may accordingly be used and re-used for a virtually infinite num 'ber of carbon coating jobs.
The preferred forms of this invention above described are illustrated in the accompanying drawing in which:
Fig. l is a perspective, somewhat diagrammatic view of a rotary Wax spot carbon coating machine made in accordance with the first form of thi invention.
Fig. 2 is an enlarged sectional view through the printing roller of said machine.
Fig. 3 is a front view of said printing roller partly broken away and in section to show its hollow structure and the bearings which support it.
Fig. 4 is an enlarged sectional side view of the printing roller, the pressure roller, and the inking roller, showing the relationship among the three rollers, and also showing how printing rollers of diiferent sizes may be employed in connection with the same pressure and inking rollers.
Fig. 5 is an enlarged section through one of the bearing supports.
Fig. 6 an enlarged, fragmentary section through a printing roller on which a metal sheet is mounted in accordance with the second form of this invention above mentioned.
Fig. 7 is a plan view of the metal sheet, showing a rubber printing block secured thereto.
Fig. 8 is a view similar to that of Fig. 6, showing another type of metal sheet which may be mounted on the printing roller and showing another method of mounting the same there on.
Fig. 9 is an enlarged, fragmentary front view of the machine herein described and claimed.
The rotary wax spot carbon coating machine 10 shown in Fig. l is mounted on a frame (not shown) and it is driven in conventional manner by an electric motor galso not shown). The paper 11 is fed in a continuous length from a roll 12 in the directions indicated by the arrows shown in Fig. 1. After the paper leaves roll 12, it passes around tensioning rollers 13 and 14 respectively. These tensioning rollers may, if desired, be heated to pro-heat the paper before the actual printing operation takes place. The paper then passes around pressure roller 15, and between said pressure roller and printing roller 16 Where the printing or carbon coating operation takes place. Printing roller 16 may be heated, as will more fully hereafter appear, and pressure roller 15 may also be heated to maintain adequate heat in the paper at the moment of transferal of the carbon copying ink from the printing roller to the paper.
The coated paper now passes around cooling rollers 17 and 18 respectively to solidify and set the carbon coating. The paper then passes around a tensioning roller 19 which may also constitute a cooling roller to insure complete solidification and setting of the carbon coating on the paper. The coated paper may now be sent through a printing machine (not shown) before it is rolled, but this is purely optional. In any event, the paper is finally rolled up into a receiving roll 20. It may then be slit to predetermined lengths by conventional slitting means (not shown).
The cooling rollers may comprise hollow cylinders through which cold water is fed by conventional means. High printing speeds may require the use of a refrigerant in place of the water. The heated rollers may comprise hollow cylinders through which live steam is caused to flow under regulated pressures. If desired, however. electric heating elements may be employed in place of the steam to heat the heated rollers. This, of course, may all be accomplished by conventional means and in conventional manner.
Situated adiacent the printing roller 16 is a rubber or rubber covered inking roller 21 which is rotatably mounted in a pan 22 containing carbon copying ink 23. Below the ink pan is a heating element 'or burner 24 which keeps the ink in a fluid state but this is not required when a cold wax carbon ink is employed. The heating element which is shown in the drawing is a gas heater but an electric heating element may be employed for the same purpose if it be so desired.
The ink may be conventional in composition and it may be similar to the carbon ink used in the making of carbon paper. It comprises a mixture of a pigment and a medium. Among the conventional pigments are carbon black, Prussian blue and organic red. The medium is a blend of waxes and oils. For best results, high-melting true waxes, such as carnauba, should be used. This type of ink is solid and dry in room temperature and a relatively high degree of heat is required to maintain it in la sufilciently fluid state to coat the paper in accordance with the method herein described and claimed. Depending upon its composition, the ink may require a temperature of 300 or 400 of heat to maintain its fluidity.
Roller 16 and what is mounted on said roller constitute the heart of this invention. It is a hollow roller and is frequently referred to as the printing or impression cylinder. It is mounted on two tubular shafts 30 and 31 respectively, the latter serving as the inlet port and the former as the outlet port for live steam. The arrows in Fig. 3 indicate the direction of flow of the steam. The hollow shafts 3i) and 31 are rotatably mounted, respectively. on bearings 32 and 33, and said bearings are respectively supported by pillow blocks 34 and 35. Pillow 'blocks 34 and 35 are, in turn, mounted on blocks or brackets 36 having a sloping pillow block supporting face 37. A longitudinal slot 38 is formed in sloping face 37 and said slot is enlarged at 39. Fig. shows how pillow block 34 is supported by the sloping face 37 of block or bracket 36. Bolts 49 having square nuts 41 removably fasten the pillow blocks to the sloping faces of supporting blocks 36. These bolts project through slot 38 in the sloping faces of [4 said supporting blocks 36 and nuts 41 are disposed in the enlarged portion 39 of said slot 38.
It will be seen that this arrangement allows for adjustable positioning of the pillow blocks on supporting blocks 36. Slot 38 serves as a track for bolts 40 and enlarged portion 39 of said slot serves as a channel for nuts 41. The nuts may be moved longitudinally Otf slot 38 but they are not free to move angulanly about the longitudinal axis of their respective bolts 40. Thus. the' bolts may be loosened or tightened by simply engaging'their head portions with a wrench and turning one way or the other.
The need for providing means for adjustably positioning the printing roller will become apparent from the fact that the apparatus may require printing rollers of different dimensions. Figs. 1 and 4'show, in dotted lines, a smaller printing roller 16a. It is immaterial what the diameter of the printing roller happens to be: in all cases, it must be so positioned relative to pressure roller 15 and inking roller 21, that its printing surface will engage said inking roller and the paper on the pressure roller when the apparatus is in operation. When the printing roller is of relatively large diameter, it must be positioned relatively high upon the sloping faces of supporting blocks 36. When the printing roller is of relatively small diameter, it should be positioned rather low upon the sloping faces of said supporting blocks 36. The longitudinal axis of the printing roller is always equidistant from the longitudinal axes of the pressure and inking rollers, and hence the printing surface of the printing roller may always be brought into contact with the paper on the pressure roller, and with the inking surface of the inking roller, irrespective of the diameter of the printing roller. This is true, however, only where the diameters of the pressure and inking rollers are identical. Where they are different, it is important always to keep the longitudinal axis of the printing roller equidistant from the surfaces of the pressure and inking rollers.
Rubber blocks, strips or other shapes 44 constitute the transfer agents for transferring the fluid ink from the inking roller to the paper. The shape, size, and location of the rubber blocks determine the shape, size and location of the inked areas on the paper. More specifically, the rubber blocks are mounted on printing roller 16 and they are brought into contact with the paper by reason of the simultaneous rotation of the heated roller, and the pressure roller, and all of the other rollers shown in Fig. 1 of the drawing. The rubber blocks may be secured to the printing roller by means of a suitable cement 'or adhesive or by any other suitable means or method, but preferably by vulcanizing the rubber to the metal or completing the curing of the rubber on the metal. The printing roller may be lined or calibrated to facilitate accurate positioning of the rubber blocks thereon.
The printing operation takes place between the printing roller and the pressure roller as both rollers rotate in opposite directions with the paper between them. The rotary speeds of the two rollers and of the inking roller are such that their respective surface speeds are identical, the surface of the printing roller to which reference is here made, being actually the surface of the rubber blocks mounted thereon. The speed at which the paper moves between the printing and pressure rollers corresponds to the respective surface speeds of said rollers.
The shape of the rubber blocks, as shown in the drawing is but illustrative of the many shapes which may be employed for the purposes of this invention. But Whatever the shape and size of the blocks happen to be, they may be cut out of sheet material which is substantially uniform in thickness throughout. These blocks have been described as being made of rubber. Rubber, however, is but one of many materials which may be used in connection with this invention. Sheet metal and sheet plastics having a relatively high melting point are illustrative of some of the materials other than rubber which may be used in this invention, but metal is not to be preferred since it is not resilient and resilience is an important factor in this invention. It has been found, however, that silicone rubber possesses highly satisfactory properties which strongly qualify it for the purpose of this invention. it is resistant to heat, oils, waxes and the like. it is a polymer that remains elastic at elevated temperatures as high as 500 F. Silicone rubber is put out by the Dow Corning Corp., under the trade-mark Silastic and the same kind of rubber is also manufactured by the General Electric Company.
in the operation of this invention, silicone rubber sheets are cut to appropriate size and shape. For the purposes of the claims, the silicone rubber cut-outs will be referred to as silicone rubber blocks, and cut-outs generally, of whatever material they may be made, will be referred to as blocks. Once the silicone rubber blocks are cut out of the silicone rubber sheets, they may be attached directly to the printing roller 16. All that need be done to practice the invention is to rotate said printing roller 16 to bring its rubber blocks into contact with inking roller 21 and then into contact with the paper which moves between said printing roller 16 and pressure roller 15.
in the modified application of this invention, blocks 44 are mounted upon metal sheets 55 and said sheets are then mounted upon a printing roller 56 similar to, but not identical with, printing roller 16. These sheets may be provided with calibrated lines or other markings to facilitate positioning the blocks thereon. Said sheets may also be provided with a plurality of holes 57 at each end which are adapted to engage studs or hooks 58 and 59 respectively of roller 56. These studs or hooks may be provided on said roller in a groove 60 formed therein, longitudinally thereof. Other suitable fastening means may also be provided on the printing roller to engage the metal sheet and hold it in place thereon. If desired, suitable studs or hooks may be provided beyond the side edges of the metal sheet and said metal sheet may be provided with laterally extending ears or lugs having holes formed therein to accommodate said studs or hooks. This would render it possible to bring the two ends of the metal sheet into close abutment with each other when said sheet encircles the roller. This in turn would render it possible to encircle the roller with bands or strips of rubber having their end portions in equally close abutment with each other. The purpose or object of this arrangement would be to print endless bands or strips of carbon upon the paper.
Fig. 8 shows a modified form of rubber block supporting sheet 65 which may be fastened to printing roller 16 by means of countersunk screws 66. Sheet 65 is a perfectly rectangular sheet without any of the scallops such as sheet 55 possesses. See Fig. 7. Hence it is that the two ends of sheet 65 may be brought into abutment with 4 each other as Fig. 8 clearly shows. Hence there are no interruptions in the surface continuity of the sheet, corresponding to the interruption which groove 60 provides, as shown in Fig. 6.
The foregoing is illustrative of the broad principles of this invention. Many modifications are, of course, possible within the broad scope and spirit of the invention.
1. The method of printing carbon transfer ink in a spaced design on paper, which comprises melting a solid carbon ink to a predetermined temperature, continuously transferring said molten ink at that temperature to a transfer roller of rubbery, heat insulating material, inking a typographic printing plate of heat insulating rubbery material from said transfer roller, and, while maintaining said ink in molten transferable condition, printing the molten ink from said plate onto paper, and allowing the ink to solidify on the paper.
2. The method of printing carbon transfer ink in a spaced design on paper, which comprises mounting on a printing roller a sheet of heat insulating rubbery material corresponding in size and shape to said design to form a typographic printing plate, melting a solid carbon ink to a predetermined temperature, continuously transferring said molten ink at that temperature to a transfer roller of rubbery, heat insulating material, inking said printing plate from said transfer roller, and, while maintaining said ink in molten transferable condition, printing the molten ink from said printing plate onto paper, and allowing the ink to solidify on the paper.
3. The method of printing carbon transfer ink in a spaced design on paper, which comprises cutting a sheet of heat insulating rubbery material to the size and shape of said design, mounting the cut sheet on a printing roller to form a typographic printing plate, melting a solid carbon ink to a predetermined temperature, continuously transferring said molten ink at that temperature to a transfer roller of rubbery, heat insulating material, inking said printing plate from said transfer roller, and, while maintaining said ink in molten transferable condition, printing the molten ink from said printing plate onto paper, and allowing the ink to solidify on the paper.
4. The method of printing carbon transfer ink in a spaced design on paper, which comprises cutting a sheet of heat insulating rubbery material to the size and shape of said design, mounting the cut sheet on a supporting sheet, removably mounting said supporting sheet on a printing roller to form a typographic printing plate of said cut sheet, melting a solid carbon ink to a predetermined temperature, continuously transferring said molten ink at that temperature to a transfer roller of rubbery, heat insulating material, inking said printing plate from said transfer roller, and, while maintaining said ink in molten transferable condition, printing the molten ink from said printing plate onto paper, and allowing the ink to solidify on the paper.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 596,564 Allen Jan. 4, 1899 1,740,697 McManus Dec. 24, 1929 1,797,323 Canfield Mar. 24, 1931 1,810,089 Schmutz June 16, 1931 1,828,230 Pannier Oct. 20, 1931 1,860,957 Rutkoskie May 31, 1932 1,961,827 Rutkoskie June 5, 1934 1,977,460 Thompson Oct. 16, 1934 2,014,043 Harbison et al Sept. 10, 1935 2,086,191 Rutkoskie July 6, 1937 2,380,322 Marquardt July 10, 1945