US 2782780 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Feb. 26, 1957 H. 1 BOURNER 2,782,780
FUEL BURNING RADIA'NT AND AIE HEATER Filed sept. 17, 1955 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 y MMM W [G 3 INVENTOR blt/37d @urner ATTORNEYS Feb. 26, 1957 H. L. BouRNl-:R 2,782,780
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INVENTOR 16 Howard ourner ATTORNEYS Feb. 26, 1957 -H. BOURNER 2,782,780
FUEL BURNING RADIANT AND AIR HEATER Filed Sept. 17, 1955 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTOR Howfd aufn er ATTORNEY AFUEL' BURNINGLRADIANT `AND 'AIR HEATER Howard L.`Burner, NashvillefTenn., assignor to Temen, Inc., Nashville, Tenn., a corporation of Tennessee Application'iSeptember 17,11953,'Serial No. 380,753
3 Claims. A(Cl. 126-89) This invention* pertains to heaters and` particularly to space heaters.
A primary object of this invention is to provide an irnproved heater which will directly radiate heat and will also heat air which by convection currents will distribute heated air throughout the room or space in which the heater is placed.
A further object of the invention is to provide a heater as in the preceding'object and wherein means areprovided for maintaining the outer surfaces of 'the unit cool enough so that no damage will be caused by articles or persons coming in contact with the surfaces of the unit.
A further object of the invention is to provide animproved method of maintaining the surfaces of the heater passageways extending from the bottom front of the heater'to the top front thereof, the passageways being progressively removed from the source of .heat so that the final passageway carries air which removes substantially all of the heat which would otherwise reach the outer surfaces and heat them.
It is a further object of the invention, in keeping with the foregoing object, to so position the passageway which moves thegreater amount of air -as to have its intake opening spaced considerably above the iloor on which the heater stands, with the passageway moving a lesser amount of air nearer the door, so that the more rapidly moving air, which will be inclined to pick up more dust from the door, will be'removed from the Hoor so as to avoid this disadvantage.
i It is a further object of the inventionv to provide a space heater having air intake at Ithe bottom front of the unit primarily through a screen panel, and an air outlet at rthe top front of the unit through a second screen panel, a space .fordirect radiationfrom ceramic radiants being providedbetween the upper and lower screenpanels.
Further objects andthe entire scope of the invention will be in part expressed and in part obvious from the following detailed description.
The invention maybe best understood with reference to the accompanying drawingsvwherein:
Figure lfshows a front elevationalview of an assembled heater-according to the invention.
-Figure 2-.shows a right-hand side view of the heater of Figure-1.
`Figureshowsa top view of .-the heater of Figure l.
Figure4 .shows a top sectional view taken'substantially along the. line VY4 4 ofFigure l.
Figure shows aside'se'ctional viewtaken substantially along the line 5-'5 of Figure l, and
Figure ..6shows a front .eleva-tional view of a heater unit whichcomprises `a part of the complete assembly shown infFigures- 1-5.
The complete space heater consists basically of a casing or cabinet in which is removably supported a heater unit. .The `casing includes a topwall andside walls .12 and 14,the latter extending downwardly to `terminate at the door 16 on which the complete heater will rest.
`No bottom,frontor rear walls are provided, but the lowermost ends of the side walls 12 and 14 are joinedtogether at the rear by angle ironsupport i7. An inturned edge 1S extends completelyalong the front edges of top wall 10 and side walls. 12` and 1li. Additionally, a continuous inturned edge 20 extends along the rear edges of top wall lil and `side walls12 and 14.
At the front of lthe casing there is provided a lower screen frame 22 and anupper screen frame 24. Both may be identical -in construction, and the details of frame 24 will be described. Frame 24 consists primarily of a rectangularly'formed edgemember 26 which is generally U-shaped in cross-section, as may be most readily observed in Figures A4 and 5. vA screen member 28, which may be conveniently bowed outwardly as desired to give a pleasing curvature, is fixed along the outer edge of the rectangular frame member 26. `The rear edge of the member 26 is designated 30 and at the side edges is intended to mate with'the inturned edges 18 of side walls 12 and 14. Apertures are provided through which bolts or rivets may be passed, or the members may be spotwelded together, to maintain the frame 24 in position on the upper front of the casing, all as will be readily observed from the several gures.
` The side wall 12 ofthe casing is provided with an access door`32` forpermitting manipulation of the burner controls, as will be fully described hereinbelow.
It may be notedthat 'the lowerscreen frame 22 by virtue of beingfastened to the lower portions of the -inturned edges 18 ofside walls 12 and 14 will serve to Iprovide a lateral supportv for the lower front of the casing.
Thus, at this point it will be clear that a simple and yet ruggedcasing isprovided. This is a unit of manufacture, into whichthe heater unit per se may be inserted from the rear.
Referring now particularly to Figures 4 6 the heater unit is characterized by side panels 40 and 42,a rear lpanel 44 and a top panel 46. Extending between the side panels'40 and 42' is an inner air deecting panel 48 and an outer air deflecting panel 50. The inner air de wardly in a horizontal direction at the bottom ofthe unit, then curves upwardly and near the top of the unit turns again outwardly inahorizontal direction.
A second air passage V54 is defined between outer surface of outer deecting panel 50 and the inner surface of rear panelvte. This passage will permit air to enter -theibottom of the casing below the screen frame 22 and then pass between' the heater unit side panels 40 and 42 upwardly and then out either an opening 56 between i thetopedge 44' of` the rearlpanel and theV rear extremity l46of thetoppanel', or forwardlyout an opening 58 ybetween vthe terminal S0 of the air deector panel Si) and theforward vedge 46 of the top panel 46.
'To maintain heat :exchange with moving air laterally of the` heater unit, side convection panels 60 and 62 are provided. These .panels are similar in all respects and,
referring tov panel 60, there isprovided top inturned edge 64, rear inturned edge 66 (Fig. 4) .and a front inturned vedge 68 which extends fromthelower edge 66' of the `panel 60 up approximately two-thirds of the panel 60 `lnfthe. region .of4 paneltltl between thelevel of. edge 68 and the top inturned edgeV 64 a wing 70"exten'ds forwardly 3 (Figs. 4 and 5) to provide air-directing means extendin into-the area of screen frame 24.
From the foregoing it will be apparent that air passages 72 and 74 are provided for the movement of air upwardly for heat exchange purposes along the side panels 40 and 42 and thence outwardly through the screen frame 24. In this way the side walls 12 and 14 of the casing are maintained in cool condition. It will be further observed that space exists outwardly of convection panels 6&3 and 62 and casing walls 12 and 14 for additional movement of air for maintaining the walls 12 and 14 in cool condition.
A hearth shelf Btl is provided extending between the heater unit side panels 40 and 42, this panel extending from a forwardly and downwardly turned edge 80' at the forward edges of side panels 40 and 42 to an inner formed rib 82. Extending downwardly and forwardly from rib 82 is a burner shield 84, the latter also extending the cornplete distance between side panels 40 and 42. The rib 82 lies approximately one-half the distance between the front edges of panels 4t) and 42 and the inner air deflecting panel 48, all as may be most readily observed in Figure 5. It will be further noted in Figures and 6 that the hearth shelf 80 is positioned at the level of the top of screen frame 22.
At substantially the level of hearth shelf 80, but spaced inwardly therefrom and near the inner air deecting panel 4S, is a support rail 86 extending between the side panels 46 and 42. Rail 86 is characterized by a trough section 83 for supporting the rear legs on ceramic radiants the main portions of which rest on the top of rib 82, all as shown in Figure 5. It will be understood that a plurality of conventional radiants will be provided, for extending completely across the space between side panels 40 and 42.
Resting on hearth shelf 80 is a hearth radiation reiiector 94, preferably at least coated with a material which may be highly polished to reflect heat from the ceramic radiants 90. Additionally, side radiation reectors 96 and 9S having polished surfaces may .be provided for reflecting heat outwardly. Reliectors 96 and 98 may be seated in clips 106 fixed to the heater unit side panels 40 and 42 as shown in Figures 5 and 6. The forward edges of reflectors 96 and 98 may be sprung behind the inturned edges 18 of the casing side panels 12 and 14, as shown in Figure 4.
It will be noted that the ceramic radiants 90 extend l upwardly to substantially the level of the lower edge of screen frame 24.
Apertures 110 may be provided on the outer side edges 'r of rear panel 44 for mounting panel 44 on the inturned edges of casing side walls 12 and 14. By means of self-tapping sheet metal screws extending through apertures 110 and corresponding apertures in edges 20, the entire heater unit as illustrated in Figure 6 may be maintained in position within the casing defined by top wall 10, side walls 12 and 14 and screen frames 22 and 24.
The heater unit is further provided with a combustion burner 120. This burner may be of conventional internal design and details are not thought to be necessary. However, it may be brieiy noted that an air mixing arrangement is provided at 122 and combustion occurs at the plurality of outlets 124. Necessary control valves may be provided at 126 and a pipe for attachment to a source of fuel supply is provided at 128, extending rearwardly through a suitable aperture 130 in the rear panel 44. it will be noted that the position of v the control means 126 isin proximity to the access door 32 shown in Figure 2. Thus, notwithstanding that the combustion burner is part of the heater unit as separately mounted in the casing, nevertheless the position of the door 32 provides ready access to the controls.' It will be further understoodthat any convenient automatic pilot light arrangement may be provided, although same is not shown in the drawings, for operation of the burner under control of a thermostat or the like.
The combustion burner 120 is installed in the heater unit as shown after same is assembled, by providing an aperture 132 in side wall 40 for permitting passage of the complete burner 120 therethrough. A small aperture 134 may be provided in opposite panel 42 for receiving an extension 120 of burner 120. After the burner 120 is inserted into the heater unit and fixed to side panel 40 by means of support screws 136, the upper portion of the aperture 132 may be covered by plate 138 which provides a suitable mounting structure for a pilot device and for preventing any undesired and substantial amount of air from entering the area of combustion from the side.
When required by city codes, a so-called dress guard 14? (Figs. l and 2) may be provided. This guard may he secured to the heater casing in any convenient manner, as by springing the ends of leg members 142 (Fig. 2) into suitable apertures (not shown) in the bottom of screen frame 24 and top of screen frame 22.
In operation suitable fuel will be introduced through pipe 128 and combustion will occur at the top of combustion burner 120, at the plurality of combustion apertures 124, all in conventional manner. The flame will cause the radiants to become incandescent in the customary manner. Radiation will be directed outwardly Y with the aid of the hearth reflecting surface 94 and side reflectors 96 and 98. The primary air for combustion will enter through the mixing device 122 of burner 120. However, the secondary .air for combustion will enter through screen frame 22 generally between the level of end 48 of inner air deflector 48, and the level of hearth 80. The burner shield 84 is provided to insure a generally upward flow of air about the burner combustion apertures 124.
There will be a large amount of heated air passing upwardly through and behind the ceramic radiants 90 and this air is directed outwardly generally through the lower half of screen frame 24, as will be fully apparent from Figure 5. It is an important aspect of the invention that this body of air, being heated, will move most rapidly. Moving rapidly, if the movement occurred near the floor 16 on which the heater stands, there would be a tendency to pick up considerable amounts of lint and other foreign objects, all which preferably should not be in the heated air. However, the intake for this large volume of heated air is considerably removed from the floor, being above the terminal point 48 of air deliector 48. Therefore, this objection found in known heaters is greatly reduced.
As has been indicated generallyhereinabove, the next most rapid movement of air occurs through passageway 52 defined by the inner air deflector 48 and the outer air deflector 50. However, again the inlet to passageway 52 is considerably above the iioor 16. To provide the nal heat exchange to maintain the outer surfaces of the cabinet in cool condition, air moves through the passageway 54. While the intake to this passageway is generally at the floor level, nevertheless the movement of air in this passageway is quite slow and no appreciable amount of foreign material will be picked up from the floor.
Thus, from the foregoing description it is thought to be clear that by the present invention there is provided a highly efficient space heater, in which the outer surfaces of the casing or cabinet are maintained cool, and yet foreign matter is not picked up from the floor of the room in which it stands, to contaminate the heated air.
What is claimed is:
1. In a space heater, the combination comprising an outer casing having top, rear, and side walls, the lower ends of said rear and side walls being formed to be mounted on a oor, and the front of said casing being open; inner side and top panels mounted within said outer casing in spaced relation to said side and top walls, respectively, of the outer casing; an elongated combustion burner mounted between said side walls to extend transversely within the lower central portion of the casing; radiant means mounted to extend directly above said combustion burner; an elongated U-shaped outer air deection panel having a lower portion extending rearwardly beneath said burner from a region near the lower open front of the casing, and having an intermediate portion extending upwardly at the rear of said burner -in forwardly spaced relation to said rear wall, and having a top portion extending forwardly over said burner below, and in spaced relation to, said top panel, and terminating at a region near the upper open front of the casing; an elongated U-shaped inner air deflection panel disposed between said burner and said outer air deflection panel, and spaced from each, said inner air deection panel having a lower portion extending rearwardly beneath said burner from a region near the lower open front of the casing, and having an intermediate portion extending upwardly at the rear of said burner, and having a top portion extending forwardly over said burner and terminating at a region near the upper open front of the casing; said outer air deection panel and said inner air deection panel having their side edges contiguous to the inner faces of said side panels; `a horizontal hearth shelf extending laterally between said side panels and having a rear edge spaced` from said inner air deflection panel; said lower portion of said outer air deection panel being spaced above the plane of the lower extremity of said casing and forming with said side walls and the open front of said casing a lower air inlet opening; said top portion of said outer air deflection panel, said top panel, and said side panels forming with the open front of said casing an upper air outlet opening; said lower portions of said inner and outer air deecticn panels and said side panels forming with the open front of the casing an intermediate air inlet opening; said top portions of said inner and outer air deiiection panels and said side panels forming with the open front of the casing an intermediate air outlet opening; said hearth shelf, said lower portion of said inner air deflection panel, and said side panels forming with the open front of said casing an upper air inlet opening; said top portion of said inner air deflection panel and said side panels forming with the open front of the casing a lower air outlet opening; the lower portion of the inner air deection panel and said hearth shelf defining with said side panels a passage from said upper air inlet Opening for secondary combustion air passing to and past said burner and said radiant means and to said lower air outlet opening; the inner and outer air deflection panels defining with said side panels a passage from said intermediate air inlet opening for first heat exchange air passing upward and behind said burner to said intermediate air outlet opening; said outer `deflection panel and said rear walls and top panels defining with said side panels a passage from said lower air inlet opening for second heat exchange air passing upward and behind said first heat exchange air passage to said upper air outlet opening, said last mentioned passage being always separated from said secondary combustion air passage by the iirst heat exchange air passage whereby said second heat exchange air passage is always insulated by the air within the tirst heat exchange passage from the heat of said secondary combustion air passage, and will always contain air having a lower temperature, moving at a lower velocity, than either the iirst heat exchange passage air or the secondary combustion air passage air.
2. Apparatus as in claim l wherein air convection panels are mounted outwardly of, and in spaced relation to, said side panels -to dene side heat exchange air passages to receive air from said lower air inlet openings and for directing the air upwardly along the said side panels and then forwardly to the region of said lower and intermediate air outlet openings.
3. The structure defined in claim 2 in which the outer surfaces of said air convection panels and said casing side and rear walls ldefine a second side heat exchange air passage for receiving air from said air inlet openings and 4for passing air to said air outlet openings.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,456,472 Stein May 22, 1923 1,664,171 Hicks Mar. 27, 1928 2,023,136 Herbster Dec. 3, 1935 2,269,387 Weaver Jan. 6, 1942 2,476,579 Becker July 19, 1949 2,696,205 Ruhl Dec. 7, 1954 FOREIGN PATENTS 490,954 Great Britain Aug. 24, 1938 576,816 Great Britain Apr. 18, 1946