|Publication number||US2786468 A|
|Publication date||Mar 26, 1957|
|Filing date||Jun 29, 1955|
|Priority date||Jun 29, 1955|
|Publication number||US 2786468 A, US 2786468A, US-A-2786468, US2786468 A, US2786468A|
|Inventors||Singer Marcus, John J Fitzgerald|
|Original Assignee||Singer Marcus, John J Fitzgerald|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (4), Referenced by (21), Classifications (6)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
March 26, 1957 M. SINGER ETAL I 2,786,468
MOTOR DRIVEN INJECTION APPARATUS Filed June 29, 1955 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 WM I F/G. 2. I INVENTOR.
JOHN J. FITZGERALD MARCUS SINGER BY mm ATTORNEY March 26, 1957 M. SINGER ETAL 2,786,468
v MOTOR DRIVEN INJECTION APPARATUS Filed June 29, 1955 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR. JOHN J. Fl Z ERALD MARCUS GER ATTORN EY United States Patent" MOTOR DRIVEN INJECTION APPARATUS Marcus Singer, Ithaca, aIIdNJOY hII J. Fitzgerald, Tompkins,
Application June 29, 1955, Serial No. 518,748
Claims. (Cl. 128-218) The present invention relates to motor driven fluidmetering apparatus, and in particular to a device for s1- multaneous perfusion and extraction of precise amounts of fluids over predetermined periods. To advantage, the invention finds application in the continuous infusion and extraction of microvolumes of solutions directly into and from organs and tissues.
Numerous devices are known for the injection of fluid solutions over relatively extended periods of time and at fairly well regulated rates. Characteristically, such devices comprise one or more hypodermic syringes of the type including a syringe barrel or cylinder containing the fluid solution to be injected and a plunger or piston operable in the barrel or cylinder for injecting the fluid through a needle into the object or person.
Broadly, it is an object of the present invention to provide an improved fluid-metering apparatus of the aforesaid character. Specifically, itis within the contemplation of the present invention to provide a syringe-type apparatus for continuous infusion and extraction of fluid solutions at microvolume levels which facilitates the maintainence of a constant volume within an object, systern or person under observation or treatment.
It is a further object of the present invention to provide automatic perfusion and extraction means which permits controlled feed and delivery of microvolumes of fluid to a system over extended periods of time, substantially automatically and without regulation or supervision.
In accordance with an illustrative embodiment demonstrating features of the present invention, there is provided apparatus which includes a stationary support having a pair of spaced apart standards upon which are mounted plunger-operated hypodermic syringes each of standard construction. The syringesare mountedto extend in opposite directions with their plungers accessible in the space intermediate, the standards. An actuating system is disposed between the standards and connected to the respectivesyringes and means are provided to displace the actuating member away from one of the stand ards and toward the other of the standards. By this action, the one or-moresyringes on one of the standards have their plungers depressed to achieve infusion of the liquid solution at a rate determined by the feed rate ofthe actuating. member; and the plungers of the syringes on the other standard are pulled outwardly, providing vacuum in the associated syringes which eifectuates fluid withdrawal at a rate determined by the feed rate of the actuating member.
The above brief description, as well as further objects, features advantages and applications of the present apparatus will be best appreciated by reference to the followingdetailed description of a presently preferred embodiment, when taken in conjunction withthe, accompanying drawings, wherein:
Fig. 1 is a plan view of a combined infusion and ex-- traction apparatus embodying features of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is a front elevational view of the apparatus illustrated in Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is an end elevational view of the apparatus illustrated in Fig. 1 taken along the line 33 of Fig. 1 and looking in the direction of the arrows;
Fig. 4 is a sectional view taken substantially along the line 4-4 of Fig. l and looking in the direction of the arrows;
Fig. 5 is an end elevational view of the apparatus shown in Fig. 1 taken along the line 55 and looking in the direction of the arrows;
Fig. 6 is an enlarged fragmentary detail taken substantially along the line 66 of Fig, 1 and. looking in the direction of the arrows;
Fig. 7 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional view taken substantially along the line 7-7 of Fig. 1 and looking in the direction of the arrows; and
Fig. 8 is a fragmentary sectional view on an enlarged scale taken substantially along the line 8-8 of Fig. 2 and looking in the direction of the arrows.
Referring now specifically to the drawings, and in particular to Figs. 1 to 5 inclusive, there is shown motor driven injection and extraction apparatus according to the present invention, generally designated by the numeral 10, which includes a support 12 having a base or pedestal 1'4 and a pair of standards or uprights 16, 18. The flat top faces 16a, 18a of the standards are disposed in a common horizontal plane and are formed with transversely-extending seating depressions or slots 20, 22. In the illustrative form, the top face 16a is provided with four spaced apart seated depressions, while the top face 18a of the standard 13 is formed with a pair of seating depressions 22, the pair 22 being disposed in substantial alignment with the outermost pair of seating depressions 20 on the standard 16.
The sections of the respective seating depressions 20, 22 are all the same, and as seen in Fig. 6 each includes opposed upright walls 22a, 22b and a V-shaped base or floor 22c. An appropriate liner 24, as of soft rubber, is provided coextensive with the walls of the seating. depressions 20, 22.to provide a cushioned mount for the respective syringes, each of which have been generally designated by the reference numeral 26. As is well understood, the syringes 26 include a main cylindrical=body or barrel 28 adapted to contain fluid, a reciprocating plunger 30 movable through a predetermined linear thrust within the barrel or cylinder 28, and a needle 32 in communication with the barrel or cylinder 28. When the plunger 30 is thrust forwardly, pressure is created within the cylinder 28 causing fluid to be discharged through the needle 32; and when the plunger 39 is drawn backward, a vacuum is created within the barrel 28 causing the extraction of fluidfrom the body or tissue into which the needle 32 is inserted.
The respective syringes 26 are fixed in place through provision of pivoted clamping or locking members 34, 36 associated with the seating. depressions 20, 22. The clamp or locking members 34, 36 are all of the same structure and accordingly only one will be described in detail in conjunction with the showing of Fig. 6. Specifically, locking member 36, which is seen to straddle the seating depression 22 and to rest against the adjacent upper face 18a of the standard 18, is mounted on a first pivot bolt 38 tapped into the standard 18 at one side of the seating depression 22, and is lockable in position by a keeper bolt 40 likewise tapped into the standard 18. The clamping plate 36 is formed with a bore 36a for the extension therethrough of the threaded shank of the pivot bolt 38'and is formed vwitha lateral slot 36b which accommodates the shank of the keeper bolt when the member 36 is pivoted into the engaged full line position (illustrated at the upper end of the standard 18 in Fig. 1). Upon tightening down on'one orboth of the bolts38, 40, the associated syringe may be accurately seated and locked in placev inits depression 22.
By the described arrangement of the seating depressions 20,22 and associated clamping members 34, 36,- it is possible to mount a first set of the syringes, generally designated by the notation S1, with their respective plungers extending inwardly from the standard 16 and in substantial parallelism, and asecond set of syringes, generally designated by the notation S2, with their plungers extending inwardly from the standard 18 and in substantial parallelism. As seen in Fig. 1, the end adjacent pair of syringes S2 on the standard 18 have their plungers in substantial end to end alignment with the end adjacent pair of syringes S1 on the standard 16.
Traversing the uprights or standards 16, 18 is a lead screw 42 which, as seen in Fig. 2, includes an intermediate threaded section 42a and end adjacent bearing sections 42b, 420. The bearing sections 42b, 42c extend through appropriate sleeve bearings or brushings 44 provided in the standard 16, 18 and mount the lead screw for turning movement about its own axis. Operatively connected to the end of the lead screw 42 adjacent the bearing section 42b is a knob 46 for manual turning of the lead screw 42.
Drive is imparted to the lead screw 42 from an appropriate synchronous timing motor 48 removably yet rigidly mounted on the base 14 through provision of a right angle bracket 50 which is held in place by the screws 52 tapped into the base 14. The motor preferably is a fract onal horse power unit of standard construction, such as those sold and commercially available under the trade-mark Telechron and is designed to provide a substantially constant and low rate of turning at its output shaft 52. The motor 48is'energized from an appropriate source of line potential via the leads 54, 56 connected through a voltage stepdown transformer 58. The output shaft 52 of the motor is coupled via an appropriate releasable clutch mechan sm. to the lead screw 42. In the illu trative form of the invention, a sylphon bellows 60 is fixed to the motor shaft and is provided with a slotted forward end 60a which engages oppositely directed pins 62 fixed on the adjacent end of the lead screw 42. The use of the bellows 66 facilitates the more or less permanent attachment of the motor to the base, yet permits release of the motor shaft 52 from the lead screw 42 when the motor is to be removed from the base and replaced by a motor capable of providing a different driving rate for the lead screw.
The lead screw 42 carries a follower nut 64 which is movable toward and away from the respective standards 16, 18 at a rate predetermined by the pitch of the lead screw and/or the drive of the motor 48. The follower nut 64 carries a cross head or actuating member 66 which is disposed intermediate the standards 16, 18. The cross head 66, as seen in Figs. 1 and 2 extends generally parallel to the standards 16, 18 and is disposed in substantially the plane of the sets of syringes S1, S2. Appropriate guide'm'eans are operatively connected to the follower 64 to preclude rotative displacement of the same in relation to the lead screw 42 and to assure the'required follower action. In the illustrative form, the guide means includes a depending bracket 68 secured to the follower nut 64 which engages one side of a guide rod 70 fixed between the standards 16, 18 and a depending finger 72 on the bracket 63 which engages the opposite sides of the guide rod 70. p "Supported at spaced locations along and transverse of the cross head 66 are coupling members, generally dos-lg nated by the reference numeral 74, which operatively engagethe plungers of syringe set'Sr, and are operatively connected to the plungers of syringe set S2. -Eachof the coupling infinf bfirs ,74,.i s. of likelstructure and includes a threaded bolt 76 tapped through the actuating member or cross head 66 and adjustable along the line or lines of action of the plungers 30 of the sets S1, S2. On each of the bolts 76 is a threaded nut 78 which is engageable against the adjacent side of the cross head 66 to lock the bolts in a selected position of transverse adjustment. As seen best in Fig. 7, the leading end 76a of the bolt is engageable against the plunger of the aligned syringe of the set S1; the head end 76b of the bolt carries an appropriate spring clip 78b which is engageable about the enlarged end of the plunger of the aligned syringe of the set S2. Thus, in response to movement of the cross head 66 away from the standard 18 and toward the standard 16, the leading ends 76 of the coupling members will urge the plungers of the set S1 through a forward thrust eflective for injection of fluid, and simultaneously, the plungers of the second set S2 will be retracted to etfect fluid withdrawal.
In a typical installation, polyethylene tubing may serve as a lead from the needle of a hypodermic syringe, the tubing being connected to a glass capillary tube at the end remote from the needle. Glass capillary tubes from an infusion and extraction syringe are inserted into the tissue or organ. Employing apparatus in which the timing motor 48 produces one revolution of its shaft every four hours, and with a lead screw of one-half inch diameter and having forty threads to the inch, it was found possible to deliver and extract .0013 cubic centimeter per hour for prolonged time periods.
From the foregoing, it will be appreciated that the present apparatus finds numerous applications in both experimental and practical biology and medicine. By expedients well understood in the art, the apparatus can be arranged to feed discontinuously, to shut off after a prescribed period of infusion and extraction, and to provide a variable feed rate. Further, it will be appreciated that the device may be used successfully for the infusion of microvolumes by decoupling of the extraction needles S2, and conversely for extraction of microvolumes only by decoupling of the infusion needles S1.
Numerous modifications are intended in the foregoing disclosure and in certain instances some features of the invention will be used without a corresponding use of other features. Accordingly, the appended claims should be construed broadly as isconsistent with the disclosure.
What we claim is:
1. In perfusion and extraction apparatus, a stationary support including a pair of spaced apart standards, means on each of said standards for supporting plunger-operated hypodermic syringes on said standards, said syringes being mountable to extend in opposite directions with their plungers extending into the space between said standards, an actuating member disposed between said standards and adapted to be connected to said syringes, means operatively connected to and mounting said actuating member for movement toward and away from the respective standards, and drive means operatively connected to the mounting means for said actuating member.
2. In a device for extraction and perfusion of microlevels of fluid from hypodermic syringes each of which includes a fluid-containing cylinder and a plunger operable in said cylinder, a base including a pair of spaced apart uprights, means for mounting one or more syringes on each of said uprights with their respective plungers extending inwardly, an actuating head interposed between said uprights, a driven lead screw and follower operatively connected to said head and mounting said head for movement at a predetermined rate away from one of said uprightsandftowardthe other of said up rights, means adapted to operatively connect the plungers of the one or more syringes on said one upright to said head whereby in responseto movement of said head away from said .one upright, the plungers. are retracted in-their cylinders, andmeans'adaptedto operatively connect the plungers of the one or more syringes on said other upright to said head whereby in response to movement of said heads toward said other upright, the plungers are advanced in their cylinders.
3. In a device for extraction and perfusion of microlevels of fluid, hypodermic syringes each of which includes a fluid-containing cylinder and a plunger operable in said cylinder, a base including a pair of spaced apart uprights, means for mounting one or more syringes on each of said uprights with their respective plungers extending inwardly, an actuating head interposed between said uprights, a driven lead screw and follower operatively connected to said head and mounting said head for movement at a predetermined rate away from one of said uprights and toward the other of said uprights, means operatively connecting the plungers of the one or more syringes on said one upright to said head whereby in response to movement of said head away from said one upright, the plungers are retracted in their cylinders, and means operatively connecting the plungers of the one or more syringes on said other upright to said head whereby in response to movement of said heads toward said other upright, the plungers are advanced in their cylinders.
4. A device for the simultaneous infusion and withdrawal of microvolumes of solutions over long periods of time comprising a base including spaced apart and parallel first and second uprights, a lead screw traversing said uprights, bearing means mounting said lead screws for rotation about its axis, a synchronous timing motor having a constant rate of revolution coupled to said lead screw, a first hypodermic syringe seated on said first upright and having its plunger disposed along a first line of action parallel to said axis, a second hypodermic syringe seated on said second upright and having its plunger disposed along a second line of action parallel to said axis and coinciding with said first line of action, a cross head disposed between said uprights, a lead screw follower engaging said lead screw and operatively connected to cross head, and a coupling member disposed along said coinciding lines of action and operatively engaging the plunger of said first syringe and operatively connected to the plunger of said second syringe.
5. A device for the simultaneous infusion and withdrawal of microvolumes of solutions over long periods of time comprising a base including spaced apart and parallel first and second uprights, a lead screw traversing said uprights, bearing means mounting said lead screw for rotation about its axis, a synchronous timing motor having a predetermined rate of revolution coupled to said lead screw, a first hypodermic syringe seated on said first upright and having its plunger disposed along a first line of action parallel to said axis, a second hypodermic syringe seated on said second upright and having its plunger disposed along a second line of action parallel to said axis and coinciding with said first line of action, a cross head disposed between said uprights, a lead screw follower engaging said lead screw and operatively connected to cross head, and a coupling member disposed along said coinciding lines of action and operatively engaging the plunger of said first syringe and operatively connected to the plunger of said second syringe, said coupling member including a threaded bolt tapped through said cross head and adjustable along said coinciding lines of action and a nut on said bolt and engageable against said cross head to lock said bolt in selected positions of adjustment.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,346,127 Janes July 13, 1920 2,101,140 Hege Dec. 7, 1937 2,457,977 Cookson Jan. 4, 1949 2,602,446 Glass et al. July 8, 1952
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|U.S. Classification||604/155, 128/DIG.100|
|Cooperative Classification||A61M5/1452, Y10S128/01|