US 2789739 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April 23, 1957 E. R. ALLER 2,789,739
OUTLET VALVE FOR HOPPERS Filed Oct. 1, 1953 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR.
E. R. ALLE R 2,789,739
OUTLET VALVE FOR HOPPERS 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 IN V EN TOR.-
I. I/IIIIIIIIIIIIII, r llllllllll A ril 23, 1957 Filed Oct. 1, 1955 April 23, 1957 E. R. ALLER OUTLET VALVE FOR HOPPERS Filed Oct. 1, 1953 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 IN V EN TOR. (5J2. Qlley;
[drum UUTLET VALVE FOR HOPPERS Edmund R. Aller, Ogden Dunes, Ind, assignor to Genoral American Transportation Corporation, Chicago, EL, a corporation of New York Application @ctoher 1, 1953, Serial No. 333,554
7 Qlairns. or. 222-556) This invention relates to improvements in outlet valves for the hoppers of storage bins, railway cars, andother vehicles in which flour or other finely divided materials are stored or shipped.
The discharge of finely divided materials from the bottom of such a hopper has heretofore presented a problem because of the fact that the operation of any closure for the discharge opening has been resisted by the weight of the material in the hopper so that the opening of the device for effecting the closure has often caused substantial delay and inconvenience.
The primary object of the present invention is to provide an outlet valve which may be easily and quickly operated notwithstanding the presence of the superimposed body of flour or other material in the hopper. A further object is to provide a hopper having at its bottom a discharge opening which is controlled by a valve having material engaging parts which are relatively thin and arranged to move edgewise through the body of flour or other material in the hopper, so that the resistance to the movement of the valve is reduced to a minimum. Another object of the invention is to provide a hopper having an outlet valve comprising a relatively thin arcuate plate which is concaved downwardly and which is adapted to move edgewise through the body of material in the hopper when it is opened. Still another object of the invention is to provide a hopper having an outlet normally closed by an improved valve in combination with a sealing plate for independently closing the outlet. Other objects relate to various features of construction and arrangement which will appear more fully hereinafter.
The nature of the invention will be understood from the following specification taken with the accompanying drawings in which one embodiment of the invention is illustrated. In the drawings,
Figure 1 shows a side elevation of a railway car constructed according to the present invention;
Fig. 2 shows a horizontal section taken on the line 2--2 of Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 shows a partial vertical section taken on the line 3-3 of Fig. 1;
Fig. 4 shows an enlarged vertical section taken on the line 4-4 of Fig. 2;
Fig. 5 shows a side elevation of the latch for controlling the rotation of the valve with a vertical section through the operating shaft of the valve;
Fig. 6 shows a vertical section taken on the line 6-6 of Fig. 4; and
Fig. 7 is a plan view taken on the line 7--7 of Fig. 6.
The improved outlet valve of the present invention is particularly adapted for use in connection with a hopper from which flour, grain, cement, or other finely divided or pulverulent materials are adapted to be discharged by gravity and, although it may be employed in con junction with hoppers of various types, it has been illustrated in the accompanying drawings as being embodied in a railway car having a hopper in which the discharge of finely divided materials under the influence of the tates Patent force of gravity is assisted by the aeration of these materials at the bottom of the hopper through the use of aerating equipment such as that disclosed in the United States Letters Patents of Henry R. Schemm, No. 2,589,- 868, dated March 18, 1952.
As illustrated in the accompanying drawings, the invention is embodied in a railway car 10 comprising side sill 11, a center sill 12, and supporting truck structures which include the wheels 13 and other parts not shown. Side stakes 14 extend upwardly from the side sills 11 and have secured to the inner faces thereof the side plates 15 which constitute the side walls of the hopper 16 in which the finely divided materials are stored or shipped. This hopper is closed at its ends by end plates 17 and is closed at its top by the roof structure 18 provided with filling hatches 19 normally closed by the hatch covers 20.
The hopper 16 is provided at its bottom with two discharge troughs ll6a which extend longitudinally of the car and which are inclined downwardly from both of the end plates17 to the outlet openings 22 which are located midway between the ends of the car. Each trough 16a comprises two pairs of inclined side plates 23 and 24. The side plates 23 are secured to the vertical side plates 15 and inclined downwardly therefrom while the plates 24 have flanges 24a which are secured to each other above the center sill 12 so that each plate 24 converges downwardly with an opposed side plate 23. The two plates 23 and 24 of each trough which are inclined downwardly from one end of the car are joined at the center of the car with the corresponding plates of the same trough which are inclined downwardly from the opposite end of the car.
At their lower edges the side plates 23 and 24 of each discharge trough are welded to longitudinally extending bars 25 which have their lower edges welded to the upwardly extending flanges of angle bars 26. The bottom 27 of each trough is formed by a sheet of porous material such as canvas, woven wire, or the like which is clamped between the outwardly extending flanges 26a of the angle bars 26 and the outwardly extending flanges 28a of the channel members 28 through which air is supplied under pressure for the purpose of aerating the finely divided material at the bottom of the hopper and facilitating its flow by gravity toward the discharge outlets 22. These bottom walls 27 are inclined from the end walls 17 of the hopper to the discharge openings 22 so that the aerated material flows by gravity longitudinally of the car over these bottom walls as well as downwardly over the inclined walls 23 and 24.
At the center of the car the air channel 28 of each trough is cut away beneath the associated discharge opening 22 and this opening is bounded by an outlet frame 29 having end plates 29a and side plates 2%, the latter having top edges of arcu ate form to form valve seats for an outlet valve 30 which has a closure plate 359a conforming to the curvature of the upper edges of the side platm 29b of the frame 29. The closure plate Eda of each valve 30 is arcuate in form and is conoaved downwardly, as shown in Fig. 4, with its bottom edges lying in proximity to the upper edges of the plates 29:: and 29b of the discharge frame 29. Thus, when the valve is in its closed position, as shown in Fig. 4, it is adapted to form a substantially tight closure with its edges 3% located beyond the plates 29a and with its longitudinal edges overlapping the plates 2%. The ends of air channels 28 which are in proximity to the outlet openings 22 are closed by plates 31 which extend downwardly on the outer sides of the plates 29a and within the central rectangular opening of a plate 32 which forms a valve seat for a sealing plate 33 adapted to close the discharge opening 22 independently of the valve 30, as hereinafter described.
Each valve 36 comprises a pair of vertically extending webs 300 which are welded to the concave side of the closure plate 39a and which have a general triangular shape with their upper pontions provided with apertures engaged by the hub 3% to which they are welded or otherwise secured. Each hub 30a is mounted upon an operating shaft 35 to which it is secured by a series of bolts 36 extending through ransversc apertures in the hub and in the shaft with their threaded extremities engaged by nuts 37. Each shaft is journaled in a pair of earings 33 each comprising a sealed bearing unit 38a closed by a housing 38!) which is apertured for engage ment by the shaft. These parts are secured by bolts 39 to plates 4! which are welded to the plates 23 and 2d and also to the ends of cover plates 41 of inverted U- shaped cross section which are welded along their inclined edges to the plates 23 and 24. Each shaft 35 is thus supported by bearings which are protected from the finely divided material contained hi the hopper.
At the outer sides of the car each shaft 35 extends through an opening 23a in the inclined side plate and the projecting end of the shaft is provided with a hexagonal head 35a adapted to be engaged by a wrench or other suitable tool for rotating the shaft 35 and thereby moving the valve 30 to and from the closed position which is shown in Figs. 4 and 6. To facilitate the starting of the movement of the valve 31), the arcuate closure plate 30a is provided with a central aperture communicating with an internally threaded cup-shaped member 30:: formed on the upper side thereof. The socket which is thus formed is adapted to be engaged by a rod or other threaded member extending downwardly through the discharge opening so that the operator may insert the rod and exert substantial leverage on the valve 30 to initiate its angular movement at the same time that pressure is first applied to the shaft 35 through its head 350.
In order to secure the valve 30 in adjusted position, the shaft 35 is provided on the outside of the hopper with two projecting lugs 35b spaced apart and adapted to be engaged by the notch 44a of a latch member 44 which is pivoted at 45 on a bracket 46 extending downwardly from the plate 23 to which it is secured, as shown in Figs. and 6. With this arrangement of the parts, it will be apparent that the latch member 44 may be moved into engagement with one of the lugs 35b for securing the valve member 39 in either of two open positions each located 120 from the closed position, one of these open positions being shown by dotted lines in Fig. 4. Thus, the shaft 35 may be rotated in either direction to open the valve and when the valve has reached either open position it may be latched in that position by moving the member 44 into engagement with one of the lugs 35b.
The arcuate closure plate 30a of the alve member 30 and the webs 301: are made relatively thin so that when the valve member is moved toward either open position the edges 3% of the arcuate plate and the edges 3% of the Webs penetrate readily the finely divided material in the hopper and permit these parts to move with sub stantial freedom through the material notwithstanding the weight of the material on the plate 30:: of the valve member. The facility with which the valve member may be moved to open position is increased when the finely divided material in the region of the discharge opening has been aerated, as in the embodiment of the invention illustrated. It will be noted that the valve 30 is located entirely within the hopper and that the plate 30a moves to open position through the body of materials in the hopper about the center of curvature of its arc. The present invention therefore provides an advantageous means for controlling the discharge of the finely divided materials through the opening with less effort than has heretofore been required in the operation of other valve structures and without the delay and inconveniences which have been encountered in former practice.
In order to seal the car against the unauthorized-re moval of the finely dividedmaterials from the hopper, the sealing plate 33 is preferably provided beneath each discharge opening 22. This sealing plate is of rectangular form with depending flanges 33a around its margins and it has cemented to the upper side thereof a rubber plate or gasket 47 which is adapted to seat against the plate 32 when the sealing plate is in its closed position, as shown in Figs. 4 and 6. The flanges 33a on opposite sides of the sealing plate are notched to receive a transverse bar 4-8 which is welded thereto and which is adapted to be engaged at its ends by bolts 50 secured in brackets 51 attached to the undersides of the air channel member 23. The bar 48 is provided at one end with an eyelet 48a engaged by one of the bolts 50 and the lower threaded portion of the bolt is engaged by a washer 52 and a nut 53 whereby the vertical position of this end of the bar 48 may be adjusted. The bolt is provided with an aperture 500 adapted to be engaged by a pin for preventing the complete removal of the nut. At its other end, the bar 48 is provided with a U-shaped member 48b which is adapted to be moved into interlocking engagement with the other bolt 50 whereupon the nut 53 may be tightened against it Washer 52 in order to exert pressure on the bar 48 and thereby clamp the rubber gasket 47 against the valve seat 32.
The valve seat 32 is provided at one side with a projecting flange 32a having an aperture 32b therein and this aperture is adapted to register with an aperture 33b formed in a flange 330 which extends laterally from the sealing plate 33. A metal seal such as that commonly used in sealing freight car doors may be passed through the registering apertures 32b and 33b to prevent the unauthorized discharge of finely divided materials from the hopper. When the hopper is to be emptied the seal may be broken by an authorized person whereupon the nuts 53 may be slightly loosened and the sealing plate 33 then swung to a position outwardly of the discharge opening 22.
Although one form of the invention has been shown and described by way of illustration, it will be understood that it may be constructed in various other embodiments which come within the scope of the appended claims.
1. The combination with a hopper adapted to contain finely divided materials and having an outlet at its bottom, of a valve comprising a thin arcuate plate which is convexed downwardly over said outlet to support said materials directly, and means for actuating said valve to move said plate cdgewise through said materials in said hopper about the axis of its arc away from said outlet, said plate having unobstructed edges movable through said materials.
2. The combination with a hopper adapted to contain finely divided materials and having an outlet at its bottom, of a valve comprising an arcuate plate located entirely within said hopper and a hub connected to said plate by intervening parts, said plate being mounted to extend over said outlet and to provide a direct support for said materials, and a shaft journaled in bearings carried by said hopper and having said hub mounted thereon, said plate and said parts being movable edgewise through said materials with said materials resting directly on plate when said valve is opened, said plate and said parts having unobstructed edges movable through said materials.
3. The combination set forth in claim 1, wherein a socket is formed in said plate that is accessible through said outlet for engagement by a starting tool.
4. The combination with a hopper adapted to contain finely divided materials and having an outlet at its bottom, of a valve having an arcuate portion adapted to extend over said opening within said hopper with said terials resting directly thereon, said plate being movable cdgewise through said materials in said hopper to open position, a valve seat located around said outlet below said valve, and a plate adapted to be removably secured in sealed relation against said seat, said seat and said plate having parts provided with registering apertures adapted to receive a detachable device serving to seal against unauthorized removal said plate with respect to said seat.
5. The combination with a hopper adapted to contain finely divided materials and having an outlet at its bottom, of a valve for said outlet comprising a thin closure plate located entirely Within said hopper and having unobstructed edges which are movable edgewise through said materials away from said outlet with said materials resting on its upper side.
6. The combination with a hopper adapted to contain finely divided materials and having walls sloping downwardly to a discharge outlet, of a thin arcuate valve plate concaved upwardly and overlapping the margins of said outlet within said hopper when it is in closed position, said materials resting directly on the upper face of said plate in said position, a shaft extending horizontally through the lower part of said hopper, bearings carried by said hopper and having said shaft journalled therein, a hub secured on said shaft Within said hopper, a pair of thin web members connected to said hub and to said valve plate and located in vertical planes transverse to the axis of said shaft, and means for rotating said shaft to move said valve plate and said Web members edgewise through an upwardly directed arcuate path and through the body of said materials Within said hopper to permit the discharge of said materials through said opening.
7. The combination with a hopper adapted to contain finely divided materials having walls sloping downwardly to a discharge outlet, of a shaft extending across the lower part of said hopper above said discharge outlet and having bearings in said walls, a thin arcuate valve plate overlapping the edges of said discharge outlet when in closed position and concaved upwardly concentric with said shaft through an arc of less than said are being of such curvature that said plate diverges from said walls, a thin web member connected to said shaft and to said valve plate and lying in a vertical plane transverse to the axis of said shaft, and means for rotating said shaft to move said valve plate and said Web member edgewise through the body of said materials within said hopper with said materials resting directly on said valve plate, thereby exposing said discharge outlet to permit the discharge of said materials by gravity therethrough.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 719,868 Randel Feb. 3, 1903 1,654,050 Page Dec. 27, 1927 1,692,276 Motisher Nov. 20, 1928 1,746,410 Tolman Feb. 11, 1930 2,620,946 Auer Dec. 9, 1952 2,638,254 Heltzel May 12, 1953