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Publication numberUS2789804 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 23, 1957
Filing dateDec 7, 1955
Priority dateDec 7, 1955
Publication numberUS 2789804 A, US 2789804A, US-A-2789804, US2789804 A, US2789804A
InventorsJr Harry A Toulmin
Original AssigneeOhio Commw Eng Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method and apparatus for the removal of ice from runways by impact with removed pieces of ice
US 2789804 A
Abstract  available in
Images(5)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

April 23, 1957 H. A. TOULMIN,.JR 2,789,804 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR THE REMOVAL OF ICE FROM'RUNWAYS BY IMPACT WITH REMOVED PIECES OF ICE Filed Dec. 7, 1955 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 Arforneys April 23, 1957 H. A. TOULMIN, JR 2,789,804

ROM RUNWAYS METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR THE REMOVAL OF ICE F BY IMPACT WHH REMOVED PIECES OF ICE 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Dec. 7, 1955 INVENTOR ATTORNEYS k mv mm 2 ilv April 23, 1957 H. A. TOULMIN, JR 2,739,804 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR THE REMOVAL OF ICE FROM RUNWAYS BY IMPACT WITH REMOVED PIECES OF ICE Filed Dec. 7, 1955 5 Sheets-Sheet s INVENTOR HA Rf? Y A. TOUL MIN, Jr

/ I I v ATTORNEYS April 23, 1951 H. A. TOULMIN, JR

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR THE REMOVAL OF ICE FROM RUNWAYS Filed Dec. 7, 1955 BY IMPACT WITH REMOVED PIECES OF I 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 INVENTOR HARRY A. TOULM/MJr BY .fl l AM ATTORNEYS 2,789,804 E0 120M RUNWAYS A R T VAL OF IMPACT WITH REMOVED P Apr1l23, 1957 .TOULMIN, JR

METHOD AND APPARATUS F0 HE REMO IC BY IECES Filed Dec. 7, 1955 ICE 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 INVENTOR V HARRY A. TOULM//V,JK

ATTORNEYS METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR THE REMQVAL F ICE FRQM RUNWAYS BY IMPACT WITH REMOVED PIECES OF ICE Harry A. Toulmin, Jr., Dayton, Qhio, assignor to The Commonwealth Engineering Company of (lhio, Dayton, Ghio, a corporation of Ohio Application December 7, 1955, Serial No. 551,656

14 Claims. (Cl. 262-1) The present invention relates to ice removal, more particularly, to a method and apparatus for removing a residual layer of ice by subjecting it to a high speed stream of ice particles.

In removing ice from any surface, such as an aircraft runway, a highway or the deck of an aircraft carrier, there invariably remains a residual layer of sheet ice which adheres to the surface. It is difiicult to remove the ice sheet since the scraping means commonly employed cannot be brought into contact with the surface since either the scraper or the surface may be damaged.

The present invention discloses a method of removing the layer of ice adhering to the surface by directing particles of ice which have already been removed from the surface, or acquired from some other source, at a high velocity against the residual layer to blast or chip the ice comprising that layer.

It is therefore the principal object of this invention to provide an improved method and apparatus of removing ice from a surface.

It is another object of this invention to provide a method and apparatus of removing a layer of ice adhering to a surface by subjecting it to a high speed stream of ice particles which are obtained from ice previously removed from the surface or from another source.

It is a further object of this invention to provide an apparatus for directing a stream of ice particles at high velocity against a layer of ice on a surface to remove the ice layer by abrasive action.

It is an additional object of this invention to provide an apparatus for propelling a stream of ice particles at high velocity by either centrifugal force or a jet means against a layer of ice on a surface to remove the same by chipping or blasting.

Other objects and advantages of this invention will become readily apparent upon reference to the accompanying description when taken inconjunction with the following drawings, wherein:

Figure l is a side elevational view of an apparatus constructed in accordance with the teachings of this invention with a portion of the apparatus shown in section to illustrate details thereof;

Figure 2 is an overall perspective view of the ice distributing wheel for propelling a stream of high speed ice particles by centrifugal force, and the enclosing house with a portion of the latter removed;

Figure 3 is a sectional view taken along the lines 3-4: of Figure 2;

Figure 4 is a side elevational view of a modified apparatus of this invention which employs a turbo jet to produce a high speed stream of ice particles;

Figure 5 is a sectional view taken along the lines55 of Figure 4;

Figure 6 is a top plan view of the modified apparatus illustrated in Figure 4; v

Figure 7v is a sectional view: taken along the lines 7-7 of Figure 4;

Figures 8 through. 10 are front elevational views of States Patent ice the front Wheels of the modification shown in Figure 4 to illustrate the various positions to which the wheels may be adjusted;

Figure 11 is an overall perspective view of a modification of the apparatus of this invention wherein ice which has been previously removed from the runway is employed to supply a high speed stream of ice particles;

Figure 12 is a side elevational View of the modification shown in Figure 11 with a portion thereof in section;

Figure 13 is a sectional view taken along the lines 13-13 of Figure 12;

Figure 14 is an overall perspective view of the ice crusher and fan employed in the modification of Figure 11 with a portion of the passage removed to show the inner details of construction;

Figure 15 is a side elevation view with a portion thereof in section of a booster for augmenting the speed of the stream of ice particles;

Figure 16 is a longitudinal vertical sectional view of a modification of the apparatus illustrated in Figures ll and 12 where the broken ice removed from the ice sheet is collected and employed against remaining portions of the ice sheet; and

Figure 17 is a vertical sectional view of the modification of the structure which permits collection by suction of particles which have been broken away from the ice layer upon the surface.

Returning now to the drawings, more particularly to Figure 1 wherein like reference symbols indicate the same parts throughout the various views, 1 indicates generally an apparatus constructed in accordance with this invention. The apparatus is constructed to remove a residual layer of sheet ice 2 which remains upon a surface 3 after a layer of ice indicated at 4 has been removed as much as possible.

The apparatus 1 comprises a body 5 upon which is mounted a prime mover 6, which both propels the vehicle and comprises a source of power for the various pieces of auxiliary equipment upon the body. The body is supported upon a plurality of rubber tired wheels 8. However, endless tracks could also be employed.

Power is transmitted from the prime mover 6 into the transmission 7 to which various power take-offs are connected as will be later described.

Mounted beneath the forward portion of the body 5 is the rotary scraper indicated at 9, comprising a plurality of annularly extending teeth 10. The scraper 9 is mounted upon a drive shaft 11 which is drivingly connected to the transmission 7. The rotating action of the scraper and the teeth on the ice layer 4- grinds the layer into ice particles. After the scraping, however, the residual ice layer 2 remains.

Positioned directly behind the rotary scraper 9 is an ice particle collector, indicated at 12, and comprising a sleeve-like hub 13 having a plurality of curved radially extending arms 14 secured thereto. The collector i2 is driven by a belt 15 which is powered by the trans mission 7.

The collector 12 rotates. in a counterclockwise direction, as indicated by the arrow 16, to throw the ice particles upwardly and rearwardly, as illustrated in Figure 1.

The thrown ice particles are received upon a lower end 17 of a conveyor belt 18 which belt is driven from the transmission and mounted upon rollers secured in a frame 19. The conveyor belt 13 is inclined upwardly and rearwardly and the upper end of the belt, as indicated at 20, is positioned over the rear portion of the body 5.

An inclined wheel 21, as illustrated in Figure 1, is mounted beneath the upper end of the conveyor belt 20. The wheel 21 has a plurality of radially extending ribs 22 thereon which increase in height toward the periph- 2,789,804; r i f cry of the wheel. The wheel 21 is mounted upon a drive shaft 23 which is drivingly connected to an engine 24, as shown in Figure 3, and enclosed in a housing 25. Shafts 26 extend from opposing sides of the housing and are journalled upon brackets 27 to form a pivotal mounting of the inclined wheel 21.

The inclined wheel 21 is completely covered by a housing 28 which is circular in shape and has a central opening 29. Extending upwardly from the opening 29 is a conduit 30 which flares into a funnel, as indicated at 31. The top edge of the funnel 31, as indicated at 32, is just below the upper end 20 of the conveyor belt 18. Consequently, ice particles will be delivered at the end of the conveyor belt into the funnel or hopper.

There is a radially extending passage 33 communicating with the housing 28. The passage 33 tapers into a thin slit-like opening at 34. The opening 34 will deliver a thin sheet of air and ice particles in a manner which will be presently described.

A hydraulic motor, indicated at 35, nected between the body 5 and the upper end of the housing 28 by the pin 36. Actuation of the hydraulic motor 35 will vary the angle of incline of the distributor wheel 21.

Proceeding next to Figure 4 there is illustrated therein a modification of the ice removing apparatus wherein the stream of ice particles is produced by jet means. In this modification the apparatus, indicated at 37, comprises a body 38 which is mounted upon rubber tired wheels 39. There is a beam 40 pivotally mounted at the front end of the body 38 for attachment to a tractor.

A power plant 41 is mounted at the front end of the body 38. A rotary scraper 42 is mounted forwardly and beneath the power plant 41 and compr ses a plurality of downwardly depending teeth or spikes 43. 42 is mounted upon a drive shaft 44 which is drivingly connected by gears 45 to the prime mover 41.

Mounted rearward of the scraper 42 upon depending brackets 46 is a collector 47 comprising a plurality of radially extending curved arms 48. The collector 47 is drivingly connected by a chain 49 to the prime mover 41. Rotation of the collector is in counterclockwise direction, as indicated by the arrow 58. This movement of the collector picks up the ice particles, indicated at 51, and hurls them rearwardly and upwardly where they are collected on the lower end 52 of a conveyor belt 53, which is belt driven from a power take-01f on the prime mover 41, and which is enclosed within a housings-4. The conveyor 53 is inclined upwardly and rearwardly and the upper end thereof, indicated at 55, is at the rear portion of the vehicle body 38.

The upper end 55 of the conveyor extends into a vertically positioned chamber 56 which is mounted on the rear portion of the body 38. The chamber 5-6 tapers to from a slit opening 57 at the bottom of the chamber. The bottom of the chamber is positioned proximate the surface upon which the apparatus is traveling, as illustrated in Figure 4.

A turbo jet 58 is mounted in the upper wall of the chamber 56 and the exhaust 59 of the turbo jet is directed downwardly toward the slit opening 57. A fuel tank 6%) is mounted upon the top wall of the chamber 56 and supplies fuel to the turbo jet 58.

In this modification, as the ice particles are delivered over the upper end of the conveyor over the chamber, as indicated at 61, they descend into the jet stream produced by the exhaust of the turbo jet 58. This causes a high velocity stream of ice particles to be directed downwardly and outwardly through the slit opening 57 against the residual layer of ice 2 upon the surface 3.

As illustrated in Figure 5, this modification comprises wheels which may be vertically adjusted. Each of the front wheels 62 is mounted upon a spindle 63 which is connected to the end of a piston rod 64 having its inner end attached to a piston 65 slidably mounted within a is pivotally con- The scraper 4 hydraulic cylinder 66. A hydraulic control circuit connects the hydraulic cylinder 66 with controls which may be either mounted upon the body 38 or on the tractor towing the apparatus.

Suitable manipulation of the hydraulic control circuit will produce the various wheel positions, as indicated 1n Figures 8, 9 and 10. This positioning of the wheels also positions the rotary scraper with respect to the resldual layer of ice.

In addition, when the apparatus is traveling along an uneven surface, as indicated in Figure 10, the rotary scraper may, nevertheless, be positioned parallel to the surface.

Proceeding next to Figure 11, there is illustrated another modification of this invention, which compnses a truck-like vehicle 67 having a control cab 68, a motor 69, and mounted upon rubber tires 78. Extending rearwardly of the control .cab 68 is the body of the truck, indicated at 71, and upon which is mounted an enclosure 72.

As may be seen in Figure 12, the enclosure 72 houses a passage 73 which is in the nature of a wind tunnel. The passage 73 has an inlet end 74 and an outlet end 75 and is mounted upon a forward block 76 and a rear block 77.

The structural details of the wind tunnel passage 73 may be more thoroughly seen by referring to Figures 13 and 14. A shaft 78 is journalled within the mounts 76 and 77, portions of which extend upwardly into the passage 73.

Mounted on the shaft 78 forwardly of the mount 76 is an ice crusher, indicated generally at 79. The ice crusher 79 comprises a plurality of hubs 80, each of which has radially extending therefrom a plurality of sharp spikes or teeth 81. The hubs 80 are keyed to the shaft 78 and are spaced from each other, as indicated in Figure 14. Mounted rearwardly of the mount 76 and the shaft 78 is a fan, indicated generally at 82 and comprising a plurality of hubs 83, each of which is keyed to the shaft 78. There is a plurality of fan blades 84 extending radially outwardly from each of the hubs 83.

Power is obtained to drive the ice crusher 79 and the fan 82 through a gear train 85 which is drivingly connected to a drive shaft 86 having one end journalled within the mount 76 and the other end connected to a power take-ofi from the motor 69 of the apparatus.

Returning to Figures 11 and 12, there is a vertical conduit 87 connected within the intake end 74 of the wind tunnel 73. There is a laterally extending conduit 88 pivotally mounted upon the vertical conduit 87 and supported by a cable 89 attached to a frame member 90.

A conduit 91 having an angle therein is pivotally connected to the laterally extending conduit 88 and has a flared portion 92 at the outer end thereof.

A discharge conduit 93 is connected to the outlet end 75 of the wind tunnel 73. The discharge conduit 93 is flattened, as illustrated at 94 in Figure 11, to form a slit-like opening 95 which is positioned proximate to the surface upon which the vehicle is traveling.

A blower 96 is mounted upon the discharge conduit 93. The blower 96 is of the centrifugal type having blades 97 which direct a stream of air through a discharge passage 98 connected to the discharge conduit 93 at 99.

In this modification operation of the fan 82 will produce an air stream traveling in the direction of the arrows 100 to produce an air stream through the wind tunnel 73. This air stream will produce a suction at the flared intake 92 and will collect ice which has been previously removed from the surface. This ice is then drawn through the crusher where it is finally comminuted and discharged through the discharge conduit 93 where its velocity is augmented by the action of the blower 96. As a result, a thin sheet of ice particles is discharged at a high velocity against the residual layer of dresses ice remaining upon the surface, as indicated at 101 in- Figure 11.

In order to increase the velocity of the ice particles traveling through discharge conduit 93 in the apparatus illustrated in Figures 11 and 12, a booster burner 102 may be attached to the discharge conduit 93 as illustrated in Figure 15. The exhaust gases do not melt the ice particles traveling through the discharge conduit d3 since the particles are already propelled at a high velocity by the fan in the wind tunnel. However, the exhaust gases from the booster burner 162 considerably increase the speed of the ice particles as they are discharged from the opening 95. The result is a greatly improved chipping and blasting action of ice particles against the residual layer of ice adhering to the surface.

Proceeding next to Figure 16, there is illustrated a modification which permits the reuse of the ice particles discharged by the wind tunnel 73.

In this modification a supply conduit 103 is connected to the inlet '74 of the wind tunnel 73. There is a hopper 104 for the storage of ice particles mounted above the supply conduit 103. Valve means 105 are provided to regulate the flow of ice particles from the hopper into the wind tunnel 73.

Surrounding the flattened portion of the discharge conduit 93 is a conical hood 1% whose lower edge 1'67 is below the slit opening 95. The upper end of the enclosure 106 communicates through a conduit 108 to the supply conduit 103 to a point which is on the suction end of the wind tunnel 72.

Consequently, as ice particles are discharged through the slit opening 95 to chip and blast the residual layer of ice, these ice particles plus the ice particles removed from the residual layer are drawn up by suction through the conical hood 1% and are redelivered into the supply conduit 1&3 where they are intermixed with ice particles supplied from the hopper 104. In some situations it will not be necessary to supply ice particles from the hopper 1.94 with this modification since sufficient particles will be reclaimed through the conical hood 106 to be reused.

In the modification illustrated in Figure 17 a structure is disclosed Which permits collecting ice particles removed by the rotary scraper through suction and delivered into the Wind tunnel 73 where they may be discharged against the residual layer of ice. In this modification a hood-like enclosure 109 is mounted from the vehicle. A motor 110 is supported within the enclosure on the frame 111. A rotary scraper 112 is connected on the end of a shaft 113 which is driven by the motor 110.

As ice particles are removed by the action of the rotary scraper 112, they are drawn up through suction within the hood 109, as indicated by the arrows 114. The particles are then conveyed to a conduit 115 which communicates with the upper end of the hood 109 and delivered into the inlet end 74 of the wind tunnel 73 as previously described.

This modification is somewhat similar to the modification in Figures 11 and 12 in that suction is employed to collect ice particles. However, in the modification of Figure 17, the ice particles are collected immediately upon their being cut from the layer of ice. The structure illustrated in Figures 17 may be incorporated in the ilared portion 92 of the apparatus depicted in Figure 11.

in operation, the process of this invention is essentially an abrading procedure. The abrasive, in the form of minute particles, comprises ice obtained either from ice which had been previously removed or from ice which is currently being removed. The abrading effect of the ice particles is largely dependent 'on the hardness of the particles and speed at which they are delivered. The hardness of the particles varies directly as the temperature. Consequently ice particles are softer than the surface from which the ice is being removed and there will be no damage to thissurface. However, the residual ice layer will be completely removed.

Thus it can be seen that the present invention introduces a new concept in the removal of ice from surfaces such as aircraft runways and the like. By delivering ice particles at high velocity against the residual layer of ice an abrading action is obtained which grinds away the residual layer in the form of additional ice particles. These ice particles may then be discharged as waste or recirculated for re-use as an abrasive.

It will be understood that this invention is susceptible [to modification in order to adapt it to different usages and conditions, and, accordingly, it is desired to comprehend such modifications within this invention as may fall within the scope of the appended claims.

What is claimed is:

1. The method of removing ice from an aircraft runway in low temperature areas, the steps of removing ice from the runway down to the last adherent ice layer against the runway surface, collecting the removed ice in broken pieces, and propelling the broken ice at high velocity against the ice layer to break and abrade said layer from the runway.

2. In a method of removing ice from a runway for aircraft in low temperature areas, the steps of removing ice from the runway down to the last adherent layer against the surface thereof, collecting the removed ice in broken pieces, and propelling the broken ice at a high speed against the ice layer at an angle thereto to break and abrade said layer from the runway.

3. In a method of removing ice from a runway for aircraft in low temperature areas hanging from zero to below zero, the steps of removing ice from the runway to leave a thin sheet of ice of the order of from one to two inches in thickness against the runway surface, collecting the removed ice in broken pieces, and impclling the ice at high velocity against the ice layer to break and abrade said layer from the runway.

4. In a method of removing ice from an aircraft runway in low temperature areas, the steps of, removing the ice to leave an ice sheet adhering against the runway surface, employing a high speed air stream to collect the removed broken ice, and delivering the broken ice at a velocity of from 50 to 400 M. P. H. against said ice sheet to break and abrade said ice sheet from the runway.

5. In an ice removing apparatus, a vehicle and means for propelling said vehicle, means for removing ice from a surface, means for collecting the removed ice in particles, means for receiving said ice particles and conveying the same, and means for directing said ice particles at high speed against the ice sheet remaining on the surface to remove the ice sheet by abrasion.

6. In an ice removing apparatus, a. vehicle and means for propelling said apparatus, means for removing ice from a surface, means for collecting the removed ice in particles, means for receiving said ice particles and conveying the same, an inclined wheel beneath said conveying means to receive said ice particles at the center thereof, said wheel having radially extending ribs on the surface thereof receiving said ice particles, means for rotating said wheel to discharge ice particles therefrom by centrifugal force, and guide means for directing said discharged ice particles against the ice sheet remaining on the surface to remove the same by abrasion.

7. In an ice removing apparatus, a body for propelling said apparatus, a rotary scraper in the forward portion of said apparatus to remove ice in broken form, means for collecting said scraped ice particles, a conveyor belt for receiving said ice particles and delivering the same upwardly to the rear portion of the apparatus, an inclined wheel beneath said conveying means to receive said ice particles at the center thereof, said wheel having radially extending ribs 101] the surface thereof receiving said ice particles, means for rotating said wheel to discharge ice particles therefrom by centrifugal force, and guide means for directing said discharged ice particles against the ice sheet remaining on the surface toremove the same by abrasion.

8. In an ice removing apparatus, a vehicle and means for propelling said apparatus, means for removing ice in particle form from a surface, means for collecting the removed ice particles, means for receiving said ice particles and conveying the same, means for producing a high speed air stream directed downwardly against the surface, and means for discharging said conveyed ice particles into said air stream whereby said ice particles remove the ice sheet remaining on the surface.

9. In an ice removing apparatus, a vehicle and means for propelling said apparatus, means for removing ice in particle form from a surface, means for collecting the removed ice particles, means for removing and conveying said ice particles, a turbo jet producing a downwardly directed air stream, said conveying means discharging said ice particles into said jet air stream against the ice layer whereby the ice particles remove the ice sheet remaining on the surface.

10. In an ice removing apparatus adapted for travel upon a surface, means for propelling said apparatus, a rotary scraper in the forward portion of said apparatus to remove ice, and means for producing an air stream to retrieve the ice particles removed by said scraper and for directing the ice particles against the ice sheet re maining on the surface, and means connected to saidair stream producing means to collect the removed ice and to convey the same.

11. In an ice removing apparatus adapted for travel upon a surface, means for propelling said apparatus, means for removing ice from a surface, means for pro ducing an air stream to retrieve the ice particles removed and for directing the ice particles against the ice sheet adhering to the surface, and means connected to said air stream producing means to collect the removed ice '8 and to convey the same and booster means for increasing the velocity of the air stream as it is directed against the ice sheet.

12. In an ice removing apparatus having wheels and adapted for travel upon a surface, means for removing ice from a surface, means for producing an air stream to retrieve the removed ice particles and for directing the ice particles against the ice sheet remaining on the surface, and means connected to said air stream producing means to collect the removed ice and to convey the same and means for vertically adjusting said wheels whereby said ice removing means is maintained parallel with the surface without regard to the thickness of the ice remaining thereon.

13. The method of removing ice from an aircraft runway in low temperature areas, the steps of removing ice from the runway down to the last adherent ice layer against the runway surface, collecting the removed ice in broken pieces, and propelling the broken ice by con trifugal force at high velocity against the ice layer to break and abrade said layer from the runway.

14. The method of removing ice from an aircraft runway in low temperature areas, the steps of removing ice from the runway down to the last adherent ice layer against the runway surface, collecting the removed ice in broken pieces, and propelling the broken ice by jet means at high velocity against the ice layer to break and abrade said layer from the runway.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,606,011 Lommen Aug. 5, 1952 2,684,558 Harris et a1. July 27, 1954 2,699,403 Counts Jan. 11, 1955

Patent Citations
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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3596384 *Dec 9, 1968Aug 3, 1971Neujahr Roy EExcavation refill packer
US3911601 *Apr 8, 1974Oct 14, 1975Raymond Lee Organization IncSnow blower vehicle
US3945155 *Jan 14, 1974Mar 23, 1976Wheelabrator-Frye, Inc.Method of removing ice from a surface by blasting
US4050169 *Oct 29, 1975Sep 27, 1977Etudes Techniques Et Realisations (E.T.R.)Snow distribution system
US4092789 *Dec 20, 1976Jun 6, 1978Jon Craig ArfonsMobile directional high velocity air moving apparatus
US4202141 *Nov 8, 1978May 13, 1980Fricke Roy ATwo way spark plug cleaner and method
US4404762 *Feb 8, 1982Sep 20, 1983Munsterer Gerald ASki trail resurfacing apparatus
US4516285 *Aug 11, 1983May 14, 1985Le Materiel De Voirie, SarlPick-up sweeper of the type with elevating conveyor with dirt distributing device in the dirt collecting receptacle
US4566230 *Jun 18, 1984Jan 28, 1986Kennecott CorporationImpact blasting system for etching metal surfaces
US4770711 *Aug 24, 1984Sep 13, 1988Petroleum Fermentations N.V.Method for cleaning chemical sludge deposits of oil storage tanks
US5205085 *May 21, 1992Apr 27, 1993Uragami FukashiCentrifugal blasting apparatus
US5540004 *May 2, 1994Jul 30, 1996Tessier Resources Ltd.Apparatus for removing scraping a ground surface
US6126516 *May 10, 1999Oct 3, 2000United States Filter CorporationCentrifugal blasting apparatus
US6764390Nov 28, 2001Jul 20, 2004International Surface Preparation Group, Inc.Centrifugal throwing vane
US7571557 *Aug 2, 2007Aug 11, 2009Guy CharbonneauIce-removing device
US20120280558 *Jun 27, 2011Nov 8, 2012Hall David RFoam Configured to Suppress Dust on a Surface to be Worked
Classifications
U.S. Classification299/17, 134/7, 15/320, 299/41.1, 37/197, 15/340.1, 37/238, 37/466, 37/195, 451/97, 37/906, 37/227, 37/190, 126/271.20R, 37/189, 299/24, 37/244
International ClassificationE01H5/12
Cooperative ClassificationY10S37/906, E01H5/12
European ClassificationE01H5/12