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Publication numberUS2790225 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 30, 1957
Filing dateMay 21, 1954
Priority dateMay 21, 1954
Publication numberUS 2790225 A, US 2790225A, US-A-2790225, US2790225 A, US2790225A
InventorsEdward J Cogovan, Benjamin W Peebles
Original AssigneeMohasco Ind Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method of making pile fabrics
US 2790225 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

April 30, 1957 E. J. coGovAN ET AL 2,790,225

METHOD OF MAKING PILE FABRICS Filed May 21, 1954 Il n 7 t* '/5 @fgl; /4/ n1 ENToRs l METHB F MAKING PILE FABRICS Y Edward I. Cogovan, Amsterdam, andy Benjamin` W. Peebles, Broadalhin, N. Y., assignors, by mesne assignn ments, to,Mohasco Industries, nc., Amsterdam, N. Y., a corporation of New York Application May 21, 1954,- Serial No. 431,556

7 Claims. (Cl. 23-72) This invention relates to the porductionof pile fabrics and is concerned more particularlywith a novelmethod of producingpile fabrics havingva pile made up of high and low areasin accordance with a patternso that the pile appears to have been embossed or carved., The production ofy the-pile fabric described by the method, ofthe invention involves the use of conventionalrpile yarn for the high areasof the pile and of a special yarn prepared inaccordance with the method for thelow areas. The special yarn has the characteristic of uncoiling and shrinking, when exposed to an elevated temperature, and pile elements. formed of the special yarn can thus be caused to pull down and expand in the pile, when a pile fabric containing the` special yarn in the pile is subjected to the usual steam conditioning treatment forming part of theV finishing operations. The new method may be employed in the production of pile fabrics suitable for the usual purposes, for which such fabrics are commonly used, and, since the method may be advantageously used in the production of pile fabric oor coverings, that application of the methodwill be illustrated and described for purposes of explanation.

For a better understanding ofthe invention, referenceV may be madeto the accompanying drawings, in which- Fig. l is a view in perspective of a pile fabric, floor covering made in accordance with the invention;

Pig. 2 is a: longitudinal section on an enlarged scale ofa pile fabric made in accordance with the. invention at an intermediate. stage in its manufacture;

Fig. 3 isa view similar'to. Fig. 2 showingsthe completed: fabric; and

Figs. 4 and 5 are sectional views on thelines, 4 4, and S-Scf- Fig. 3, respectively.

In the. production. of the fabric shown in. the. drawings,Z the pile yarn employed is spunfrom a blend-of fibers ofV staple length containing a substantial quantity of. a synthetic iiberwhich shrinks when subjected toheat. There are numerous synthetic fibers having this characteristic, and a typical one is a form of polyvinyl chloride, which is sold commercially under the name Fibravyl and has a` melting point of about 210V F., an adhesive point at about-170 F., and a softening point at about 158V F; Other heat-shrinkable-libers are made of variouspolymers and copolymers, examples being the tibersknownI cornmercially as Vinyon HH, saran, dynel, and Dow 274.

In a `yarn for use in the practice of the method, suchheat-shinkable fibers may be employed with other fibers commonly used in the production of pile yarn. For ex., ample, a` satisfactory yarn may be one spun from a blend, which includes from about 15% to about 30% by weight of the heat-shrinkable liber with the remainder made of wool orof a mixture of wool and the other fibers, such as rayon, cellulose acetate, nylon, etc., commonly used in the production of pile yarn for use in carpet manufacture. When the amount of wool used is within the range of 50% to 85%, about'v 15% of the heat-shrinkable fiber is employed, but,- if there is less than 50% of wool in the blend, it is usually advantageous to increase the amount rates Patent 2,790,22S Patented Apr. 30, 1951 ice of the.k heat-shrinleable rberwithin vthe range. specified up to`about 30%. v

A typical pile yarn for use in the .practice lof the method comprises a` dyedliiberl blendA containing` 50% of1 wool, 35% of cellulose acetate, andthe remainder the heatshrinkable fiber, while another containsl 35% wool,l 351%, viscose rayon, andv 30%, heat-shinkable fiber. Thedyed stock is subjectedy to the usualpreparing and carding.op. erations and; then/spun into singles yarn containing, ap proximately 5.6A` turnspernch. Two ends` ofI the singles yarn are plied togethervwith18.8 turns per inch ofy twist of the same hand asthe singles twist. The. plied yarn, is subjected to a mildtreatment to set, the twist, while` being preventedfrom,shrinking., For this purpose, thel yarn iswoundv on cores` and the, packages of` yarnI are exposed ina conditipningchamber, to steamforaperiod ofA about two.hours,ata,temperature of. 212 F. The yarn, is not soakedlor immersed before being, subjected to the,A conditioning treatment and thus entersthe conditioning chamberl in thedry state. With the yarn wound upon the cores, the exposure` of` the yarnto they temperature stated cannot produce shrinkage. Upon completion of theP twist-setting operation, the yarn is unwound from the packageslandtwistedin a reverse diretcion, so that` the twist passes through the zero point and the final plied yarn has4 about 4,turns per inchv of twist of the handy opposite to that of,` the initial twist. i

When the reversely twistedA yarn is to beA used in weaving operations on apilek wire loom, as, for example, in the production, of Wilton andvelvet fabrics, the yarn maybe employed Without further treatment, sincev the yarn is held straight during` the` weaving operation by the tension, to` which'the yarn is subjected, on the loom. When the yarn is to be usedin the weaving of Axminster fabrics, it is given a temporary set in straight condition.l For this purpose, theyarn, is stretched until it is, straight, and thenmoistened and dried while held straight.,V

In the weaving, operation, the yarn is incorporated as pileV or surface yarn in` a backingA ofv any of the usuall constructions. In thev drawing, the fabric 10 illustrated is a conventional Axrninster Weave and includes stuffer warp yarns 11 lying invupper and lower levels and crossed by weft shots 12,13,an d 14, which lie above the upper stulfer warpyarngbetween the upper 'and lower stutter warp yarns, andV below the lower stutfer warp yarns, re- Spectively.` Theweft, shots are held in place by binder warp yarnsl 1,75, which cross over weft shots` l2v andunder weft shotsv 14to hold themvagainst the top ofthe upper and the bottom. off theA lower stuffer Warp yarns.

In the production of the fabric, lengths of reversely twisted yarn; containing the heatfshrinkable liber are anchored in the backing? to form tufts 16 in areas, in accordance. with a pattern, while the remaining tufts 1.7 are made of lengths of conventional yarn, which may, for example, be spun from wool or a blend of 50% wool and 50% rayon. As indicated in Fig. 2, the heat,- shrinkable yarn has, been subjectedl to a temporary set before being inserted into the fabric and its two plies lie in tight contact. The conventional yarn used in the tufts 17 is of relatively low plying twist, so that the ends, of, singles yarns open up after insertion of the tufts, as indicated somewhat schematically in the drawing. The fabric taken from the loom is sheared, so that the topsv of al1 the tufts will lie at the same level, after which the fabric is subjected to the usual conditioning opera: tion, during which it is passed through a conditioning chamber and subjected to the action of steam at atmos-` pheric temperature. Asa result of thev action of the heat and moisture, the tufts 17 of the conventionalyarns in,- crease somewhat in flutfness, while the tufts 016V, made of the hear-Shrinkeble yan1 Pull .down andthe dades rete ends therein uncoil, so that each tuft leg assumes the form of a double helix of substantially greater diameter and less height than that leg before the conditioning treatment. Since the heat-shrinkable yarn was employed for tufts in areas determined by a pattern, the finished fabric comprises areas of high tufts 17 of conventional yarn and other areas of low tufts 16a of the heatshrinkable yarn in double helical form. The fabric thus has the appearance of having been embossed or carved.

In the use of the reversely twisted heat-shrinkable yarn on an Axminster loom, it is necessary to give the yarn a temporary set while held stretched, since the unset yarn is bulky and highly elastic. If such a yarn without the temporary set were employed on an Axminster loom, the yarn would tend to spring back into its tube after the insertion of a tuft of the yarn and this might prevent the insertion of a second tuft of the yarn. Such action is preventedwhen the yarn is given the temporary set, as described. When the yarn is employed in weaving on a pile wire loom, the yarn is held straight under tension, as it is inserted to form loops over the wires, and, as each wire is withdrawn to cut the loops over it, the tuft legs thus formed pull down somewhat. Subsequently, in the steam conditioning operation, the tuft legs of the heats'hrinkable yarn shorten further and expand by uncoiling to form a double helix as above described.

By the use of the heat-shrinkable ber in the blend, from which the pile yarn is spun, the desired pulling down of the tufts in the fabric is accomplished without subjecting the yarn to a severe twist-setting treatment. Such treatment degrades wool fiber and makes it brittle so that its durability is seriously impaired. When the heat-shrinkable fiber is employed, the twist-setting treatmeut may be so mild that the wearing qualities of wool present in the yarn are not affected to any significant degree. At the same time, the presence of the heatshrinkable fiber causes. the tuft legs to pull down and to expand and uncoil with a uniform action, so that the fabric is of improved appearance.

We claim:

l. A method of making a pile fabric which comprises spinning singles yarns from a blend of staple fibers including from about to about 30% by weight of heatshrinkable synthetic fibers, plying together at least two such singles yarns to form a multi-ply yarn, setting the twist in the multi-ply yarn while preventing it from shrinking, reversely twisting the multi-ply yarn through the twist zero point, weaving a pile fabric in operations, in which the multi-ply yarn, while held in straight condition, is utilized to form certain elements of the pile while conventional pile yarn is utilized to form other elements of the pile, and subjecting the fabric to moist heat sufficient to shrink the heat-shrinkable fibers and to cause pulling down of the pile elements formed of the reversely twisted yarn.

2. A method of making a pile fabric which comprises spinning singles yarns from a blend of staple bers including from about 15 to about 30% by weight of heatshrinkable polyvinyl chloride fibers, plying together at least two such singles yarns to form a multi-ply yarn, setting the twist in the multi-ply yarn' while preventing it from shrinking, reversely twisting the multi-ply yarn through the twist zero point, Weaving a pile fabric in operations, in which the multi-ply yarn, while held in straight condition, is utilized to form certain elements of the pile while conventional pile yarn is utilized to form other elements of the pile, and subjecting the fabric to moist heat sutiicient to shrink the heat-shrinkable fibers and to cause pulling down of the pile elements formed of the reversely twisted yarn.

3. A method of making a pile fabric which comprises spinning singles yarns from a blend of staple fibers including from about 15 to about 30% by weight of heatshrinkable synthetic fibers, plying together at least two such singlesyarns to form a multi-ply yarn, winding the multi-ply yarn into packages upon cores, setting the twist in the yarn in the packages, unwinding the yarn from the packages, reversely twisting the multi-ply yarn through the twist zero point, weaving a pile fabric in operations, in which the multi-ply yarn, while held in straight condition, is utilized to form certain elements of the pile while conventional pile yarn is utilized to form other elements of the pile, and subjecting the fabric to moist heat sufficient to shrink the heat-shrinkable fibers and to cause pulling down of the pile elements formed of the reversely twisted yarn.

4. A method of making a pile fabric which comprises spinning singles yarns from a blend of staple fibers including from about 15 to about 30% by weight of heatshrinkable synthetic fibers, plying together at least two such singles yarns to form a multi-ply yarn, setting the twist in the multi-ply yarn while preventing it from shrinking, reversely twisting the multi-ply yarn through the twist zero point, weaving a pile fabric in operations, in which the multi-ply yarn, while held in straight condition, is utilized to form certain elements of the pile while conventional pile yarn is utilized to form other elements of the pile, and conditioning the fabric by steam at a temperature which causes shrinkage of the heatshrinkable fibers and pulling down of the pile elements formed of the reversely twisted yarn.

5. A method of making a pile fabric, which comprises spinning singles yarns from a blend of staple fibers including, by weight, at least about 35% wool and from about l5% to about 35% of heat-shrinkable synthetic fibers, plying together at least two of said singles yarns to form a multi-ply yarn, setting the twist in the multiply yarn while preventing it from shrinking, reversely twisting the multi-ply yarn through the twist zero point, weaving a pile fabric in operations, in which the multiply yarn, while held in straight condition, is utilized to form certain elements of the pile while conventional pile yarn is utilized to form other elements of the pile, and subjecting the fabric to moist heat sufficient to shrink the heat-shrinkable fibers and to cause pulling down of the pile elements formed of the reversely twisted yarn.

6. A method of making an Axminster fabric, which comprises spinning singles yarns from a blend of staple fibers including from about 15 to about 30% by weight of heat-shrinkable synthetic fibers, plying together at least two such singles yarns to form a multi-ply yarn, setting the twist in the multi-ply yarn while preventing it from shrinking, reversely twisting the multi-ply yarn through the twist zero point, imparting a temporary set to the reversely twisted yarn while holding it straight, weaving a pile fabric on an AXminster loom with the reversely twisted yarn and conventional pile yarn used, respectively, to form different pile tufts in different areas in accordance with a pattern, and subjecting the fabric to moist heat sufficient to shrink the heat-shrinkable fibers and to cause pulling down of the tuft legs formed of the reversely twisted yarn. f Y 7. A method of making'a pile fabric, which comprises spinning singles yarns from a blend of staple fibers including from about 15% to about 30% by weight of heat-shrinkable synthetic fibers, plying together at least two such singles yarns to form a multi-ply yarn, winding the multi-ply yarn into packages upon cores, exposing the packages to steam at a temperature of about 212 F. to set the twist in the multi-ply yarn, unwinding the yarn from the packages, reversely twisting the multi-ply yarn through the twist zero point, weaving a pile fabric in operations, in which the multi-ply yarn, while held in straight condition, is utilized with conventional pile yarn to form the elements of the pile, and subjecting the fabric to heat sucient to cause shrinking of the pile elements formed of the reversely twisted yarn.

(References on following page) References Cited in the le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Stroud Feb. 28, 1928 Fonda June 28, 1938 Rugeley Mar. 31, 1942 Rugeley et al. Apr. 7, 1942 Wadely et a1. May 4, 1943 McElhaney May 11, 1943 6 Miller June 19, 1951 Mersereau et al. Dec. 15, 1953 Miller Dec. 15, 1953 Jackson Dec. 15, 1953 Reinhardt et al Apr. 27, 1954 Matthews Jan. 18, 1955 Groat July 17, 1956

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US1661018 *Aug 2, 1926Feb 28, 1928James P StroudPile fabric
US2121909 *Aug 31, 1937Jun 28, 1938Nye Wait Company IncTextile fabric and method of making the same
US2277782 *May 3, 1939Mar 31, 1942Carbide & Carbon Chem CorpCrimping materials containing synthetic textile fibers
US2278895 *Dec 6, 1938Apr 7, 1942Carbide & Carbon Chem CorpComposite material
US2318345 *Aug 2, 1940May 4, 1943Firth Carpet Company IncPile carpet or rug
US2319073 *Mar 20, 1942May 11, 1943Wissahickon Piush Mills IncPlush and method of making the same
US2557453 *Feb 1, 1950Jun 19, 1951Alexander Smith & Sons CarpetMethod of forming axminster fabric
US2662558 *Nov 24, 1950Dec 15, 1953Alexander Smith IncPile fabric
US2662559 *May 17, 1951Dec 15, 1953Alexander Smith IncPile fabric
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US2676384 *Mar 2, 1954Apr 27, 1954Bigelow Sanford Carpet CoPile carpet and method of making the same
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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2866255 *Jun 5, 1956Dec 30, 1958Collins & Aikman CorpFur-effect fabric and method of making same
US2973018 *Feb 23, 1956Feb 28, 1961British CelaneseCellulose triacetate pile fabric and method of making same
US2979803 *Jun 5, 1956Apr 18, 1961Collins & Aikman CorpFur-effect fabrics and method of making same
US3009235 *May 9, 1958Nov 21, 1961Internat Velcro CompanySeparable fastening device
US3013325 *May 22, 1958Dec 19, 1961Arthur F McnallyFur-effect fabric and method of making same
US3034194 *Nov 4, 1957May 15, 1962Callaway Mills CoMethod for producing a tufted fabric having a deep fleecelike surface and the resulting product
US3035329 *Mar 13, 1957May 22, 1962Du PontDouble pleated fabric
US3078543 *Jul 14, 1960Feb 26, 1963Bloch GodfreyLoop pile fabric
US3096561 *Dec 14, 1959Jul 9, 1963Collins & Aikman CorpTufted pile fabric and method
US3187782 *Feb 4, 1963Jun 8, 1965Wellington Sears Company IncTerry cloth and method of making same
US4383404 *Aug 26, 1981May 17, 1983Milliken Research CorporationMethod and apparatus to produce post heated textured yarn
US4500319 *Apr 9, 1982Feb 19, 1985Congoleum CorporationTextured pile fabrics
US5766722 *Mar 15, 1996Jun 16, 1998Ikeda Bussan Co., Ltd.Automotive floor covering
Classifications
U.S. Classification28/160, 28/167, 428/88, 139/391
International ClassificationD03D27/00
Cooperative ClassificationD03D2700/60, D03D27/00
European ClassificationD03D27/00