US 2791168 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 7, 1957 H. A. MAUCH VENTILATING COVER Filed July 1, 1954 uvmvrm HANS A.'MAUCl-l if I W 7 ms ATTOIMI .s-
United States Patent VENTHJATING COVER Hans A. Mauch, Dayton, Ohio Application July 1, 1954, Serial No. 440,876
8 Claims. (Cl. 98-1) (Granted under Title 35, U. S. Code (1952), sec. 266) This invention described herein may be manufactured and used by or for the United States Government for governmental purposes without payment to me of any royalty thereon.
This invention relates to a new and novel protective air ventilating cover of a novel construction adapted for use in apparel, blankets, or covers of any sort; for humans, animals or even inanimate objects whereby effective control of temperature and humidity conditions in the area adjacent to and surrounding the surface of the body or object being covered may be uniformly maintained in a simple, novel and relatively inexpensive manner. The use of the principles of the invention and the structure of the novel ventilating cover and system presented herein results in outer or inner ventilating covers, garments, blankets and the like, of minimum bulk, relatively low weight and high flexibility. All this is further enhanced by the low production cost enabled by the employment of the invention.
To provide a thorough understanding of the novel and important nature of the invention, an understanding of the background of the invention and the problems which it answers must be effected. The main problems presented in effecting a proper air conditioning of a body exposed to uncomfortable or in some instances deteriorating thermal conditions to effect a uniform proper cooling or heating thereof are first to provide a well controlled ventilating air distribution thereabout with no gaps in the distribution effected and no over concentration of the cooling or heating effect in specific areas, either of which can result in harm to a body or object, particularly to a human body. Secondly, there is the problem of effecting a maximum caloric transfer between the body or object being covered and the ventilating medium such as air while using a minimum of air therefor so that a cumbersome air supply means is not necessitated by the use of the ventilating cover, and excess expense is avoided. The subject invention answers these problems as Well as others to present the highest type .of efiiciency in air condition ing a body or other object.
Most of the .prior art ventilating and air conditioning garments, suits and covers of various sorts, have presented only a partial answer to the problems. The covers and suits of the prior art are generally too bulky as well as too weighty for their .efiiciency ratio, and, moreover, utilize various types of tubing and ductwork in their covers to distribute ventilating air to the body or object covered so that the covers are not .only bulky and unwieldy but by the use of the tubing and ductwork such a large degree of back pressure is developed therein to the ventilating air distributed therethrough that it necessitates a heavy bulky compressor unit; a sufficiency of air supply pressure being necessary to overcome the back pressure developed as well as to supply enough ventilating air to elfect any cooling orheatingof the body or object covered.
The present novel invention apparatus and system is based on thefollowing premises and principles. There 2,791,168 Patented May 7, 1957 are four ways of effecting heat transfer, as is well known; by conduction, convection, radiation and evaporation. This invention utilizes all four of these methods of heat transfer jointly; conduction, convection, radiation and evaporation. One of the best ways and most efiicient ways to get good heat transfer by conduction and convection is to produce turbulence immediately adjacent the body or object to be cooled or heated. This requires a high ventilating air distribution velocity in conjunction with space or a chamber into which the high velocity air may be directed to produce turbulence about the body being cooled or heated. This effect is accomplished by the subject invention. Secondly, in the case of cooling, the invention employs the physiological principle therewith that where the outer temperature of ambient air or outer walls or both is higher than the body surface temperature, even though no heat transfer from the body is possible by conduction, convection or radiation due to the direction of the temperature gradient, there is still the avenue of heat transfer by evaporation available and this is utilized by the subject invention. It is noted that the calories necessary for the heat of evaporation of the perspiration from a body are taken from the body and this produces an evaporative cooling effect on the body. Accordingly the body can cool in an environmental temperature higher than the body temperature.
Thus, the invention utilizes the natural evaporative mechanism of a body in the use of the novel ventilating cover, in a novel manner which effects a highly eificient cooling arrangement. The structure of the novel cover effects a turbulence of the ventilating air introduced therein in a simple manner adjacent the body covered to effect an intermixture of the nonsaturated air introduced with the vapor saturated air adjacent the body in a turbulent manner, and, further, vents the stagnant air adjacent the body to the outside atmosphere in such a way as to provide an extremely efiicient uniform and effective cooling of the body. Moreover, the novel structural arrangement of the ventilating cover of the invention eliminates the back-pressure-producing passages and ductwork employed in the prior art to elfect a bag-like enclosure which produces a minimum of back pressure to ventilating air distributed therethrough so that it requires only a simple, lightweight small blower or fan to provide the amount of ventilating air necessary for highly eflicient cooling of the body to which it is applied.
An object of the invention is to provide a new and improved novel ventilating cover adapted for fabrication into a garment, blanket or the like, for air conditioning bodies; human, animal or even inanimate, to effect a highly efficient air conditioning of the body to which it is applied with complete thermal control of the surface thereof.
Another object of the invention is to provide a new and novel air ventilating cover assembly which provides turbulence of the ventilating medium adjacent the body to which it is applied to produce efiicient heat transfer by conduction and convection and to work in conjunction with the natural sweat mechanism of the body .to effect a complete and uniform cooling of such body.
A further object of the invention is to provide a new and novel structural arrangement for an improved ventilating cover whereby a garment, or blanket or the like, may obtain, which enables the air conditioning of a body with a high degree of efficiency and a minimum supply of ventilating air.
An additional object of the invention is to provide a new and improved structural arrangement for an air ventilating cover whereby airconditioned garments, and covers and the like, may be manufactured which arelightweight, flexible, not bulky, and even inexpensive, yet
I 3 provide a most efiicient air conditioning of the body to which it is applied.
Another object of the invention is to provide a new and novel ventilating cover comprising two layers of an impermeable material, the layers being joined about their edges and also in spots at selected intervals intermediate their joined edges, the inner layer having groups of holes therethrough in spaced predetermined fashion whereby on introduction of an inflating medium between the layers, spaced chambers will form between the inner layer and the body to which the cover is applied into which the inflating medium will be directed to create turbulence therein and effect a complete and uniform control of the temperature and humidity adjacent and about the said body.
Other objects and advantages of the invention will be readily apparent to those versed in the art from the following description taken in conjunction with the ac companying drawings wherein:
Fig. 1 shows a plan view of the novel cover with respect to a fragmentary portion thereof as taken from the inner side thereof.
Fig. 2 shows a cross-sectional view of the novel cover taken approximately on line 22 in Fig. 1 looking in the direction of the arrows whereby the extremely efficient function thereof as an air conditioning means becomes readily apparent.
The structural composition and arrangement of the invention can best be described with reference to the drawings wherein a portion of the novel air conditioning cover material is shown which may be fabricated into a garment or cover of any sort, shape, or size. The cover consists, in the example shown, of an outer sheet or layer 1 of thin, flexible, and impermeable material, and an inner sheet 2 of the same type material but having small holes 3 and 4 therethrough in a predetermined desired pattern as can be seen in Fig. 1 of the drawings, in a manner and for purposes as will be described. The sheets 1 and 2 are tightly joined together along their outer edges regardless of the shape or size thereof as by Welding, cementing or other suitable means, depending on the material employed. In effect, the sealing of the edges of the sheets forms a fiat bag-like enclosure. The outer sheet 1 has an air supply connection secured therein to facilitate introduction of ventilating air into the bag-like structure. At selectively spaced intervals intermediate their joined edges the sheets 1 and 2 are also firmly and tightly secured together at spots indicated by the numeral 7 in the drawings. The securing of the sheets together, as noted previously, may be done in any suitable manner. By observation of the drawings it will be noted that the joined areas 7 are arranged centrally with respect to each group of jet holes 4 in the inner sheet or layer 2, the groups each comprising two jet holes 4. Also each of the joined areas 7 has a vent opening 9 therethrough centrally thereof.
As has been mentioned previously, this cover can be made in any conceivable shape or size, for use on humans, animals or even inanimate objects. On application of the cover structure in uninflated condition, the inner sheet 2 thereof will be applied immediately against the body or whatever cover there may be on the body. The connection 6 for introducing ventilating air into the bag-like structure in use need be connected merely to a small blower or fan unit for the ventilating air supply since, as can be readily seen, this novel air conditioning cover which constitutes the subject invention employs no air hose network, no complex passageways and no extensive ductwork. The elimination of these prior art means for distributing air eliminates a back pressure build-up which obtains in the use thereof to a very substantial extent and enables a distinct advance in the art thereby. It enables the combination of the features of low air consumption and a very high efficiency for the simple air conditioning structure presented by the invention.
In use, as the ventilating air is introduced, the portions of the bag-like cover intermediate the joined portions 7 thereof billow out slightly as at 10. This slight billowing forms turbulence chambers 8 immediately adjacent the body being covered, between the body surface and the inner sheet 2 at each joined portion thereof. As can be seen from the drawings also, the arrangement of the jet holes 4 in the inner sheet 2 immediately about the joined portions 7 thereof effects, on the introduction of ventilat- 4 into the respective turbulence chambers 8 generate a violent turbulence in the chambers 8 producing a high heat transfer coefficient thereby. This turbulence which is created by the novel structure of the invention considerably facilitates the evaporation of sweat from a perspiring body by effecting an intermixture of the saturated air adjacent the body with the ventilating air and results in a high efiiciency, low air consumption evaporative cooling effect. In such instance the heated air leaves the chambers 8 through ports 9 in the joined areas 7 thereof. Of course when heating of the body is desired, the turbulence is similarly effective due to the high heat transfer coefiicient resulting therefrom to effect a warming action on the body being covered in a manner which is obvious.
Now, with respect to the small holes 3 in the inner sheet 2 of the cover structure, which it will be noted are each substantially centrally located relative to a slightly billowed section 10 of the cover, the ventilating air also passes through holes 3 to push whatever stagnant air that may be entrapped between the body being covered and the inner sheet 2 toward adjacent chambers 8 wherein the stagnant air is caught up in the turbulence created by the jets 4 and carried out through the ports 9 to the atmosphere.
In summary, the invention provides a highly efiicient uniformly applied air conditioning of a body which has applied thereto the novel cover structure in a manner suitable to the configuration of such body. It is an extremely important advance in the art of air conditioning human and animal bodies since its uniform action avoids the damaging effects of cold spots which are prevalent in the prior art devices directed to similar purposes, and the invention is equally as beneficial as applied to inanimate objects since it provides such an excellent uniform control of temperature and humidity adjacent a body as to maintain it in the best condition possible. The novel cover medium is not bulky, and may be of very lightweight material while the simple nature of its fabrication enables a low cost of production in application thereof to a cover or garment. The arrangement of the high velocity jets 4 to effect high velocity turbulence immediate the body being covered promotes a highly efficient evaporative cooling effect on the body while the novel structural and functional arrangement of the small holes 3 insures uniformity of air conditioning by conducting the stagnant air from immediately adjacent the body to the turbulence chambers whereby heat exchange and dispersal of the stagnant air is effected.
It is noted, if desired, a layer of high permeability, flexible, compression resistant spacer material may be inserted between sheets 1 and 2 of the cover in the section thereof denoted by the numeral 1.0. This is not necessary but may be useful in portions of a cover or garment fabricated according to the invention where such portions are subject to outside loads.
Thus, the invention presents a highly novel air conditioning device capable of universal application to get uniform thermal control of the body or object to which it is applied, and the structure presented is a major advance in the art by its very simplicity. It should be carefully noted that all portions of the cover according to the invention are in free and immediate communication so that loading a portion thereof will not block off any substantial section of the cover and will not produce any particular effect on its efficient action.
While a single embodiment and application of the invention apparatu has been shown and described herein, many other modifications and applications thereof will be readily apparent therefrom to those versed in the art and such is considered to be within the scope of the invention.
1. An air ventilating means for fabrication into a cover, garment or the like, for air conditioning of a body; human, animal or even inanimate, comprising, layers of sheet material the outer layers being sealingly engaged at the outer portions thereof and being of air impermeable material, a bag-like enclosure obtaining thereby, said layers be ng further securely engaged at selected spaced intervals intermediate the outer portions thereof, an air inlet means connected in one of said outer layers, vent means through said layers at the intermediate engaged portions thereof, and jet openings in one of said outer layers arranged closely adjacent said selected engaged portions, said layer with jet openings therein being adapted to be placed in contact with the body to which the air ventilating means is applied whereby on introduction of ventilating air through said air inlet means, the layers intermediate the engaged portions thereof will billow slightly forming pockets including said vent means and effecting angular disposition of said jet openings relative said pockets and said ventilating air will proceed through said jet openings with high velocity creating turbulence in said respective pockets to effect displacement of the stagnant air adjacent the body and a resulting uniform thermal control thereof.
2. An air ventilating cover structure comprising, two layers of impermeable flexible material sealingly connected to form a bag-like enclosure, one of said layers being secured to the other in selected areas so as to form pockets in the outer surface thereof upon application of. said one of said layers in contacting relation to a body to effect air conditioning thereof, means defining air jet openings in said one layer, and air inlet means in one layer, said jet openings being arranged in opposed relation adjacent said selected secured areas to open into said respective pockets whereby on introduction of ventilating air through said air inlet means, said ventilating air will be directed through said air jet openings in high velocity jets to create turbulence immediately adjacent to the body in said pockets to enable a highly efficient heat transfer and/or evaporative cooling effect, and vent means in said layers in the selected secured areas thereof whereby the stagnant air adjacent the body will be dispersed through said vents to effect a uniform thermal control of the body.
3. An air ventilating cover structure comprising, two layers of impermeable flexible material sealingly connected at the outer edges thereof to form a bag-like enclosure, one of said layers being joined to the other so as to form spaced pockets in the outer surface thereof in use, said cover structure being applied to a body for air conditioning thereof with said one of said layers in proximate engagement with the outer surface of the body, air jet openings in said one of said layers adjacent the joined portions thereof so as to open angularly into said spaced pockets, further openings in said one of said layers arranged intermediate the joined portions thereof in uniformly spaced relation thereto, air inlet means in one of said layers, and vent means in said layers connecting into the spaced pockets, whereby on introduction of ventilating air through said inlet means, said air will be directed through said air jet openings in high velocity jets to create turbulence immedia ly diac e body an a h ly efficient uniform control of the temperature and humidity.
thereof, dispersing the stagnant air from about the body out through the vent means.
4. An air conditioning cover structure for use in fabricating garments, blankets and the like, for application as an air ventilating cover to humans, animals and even in animate objects, comprising, two sheets of flexible im-' permeable material joined together at their edges to form a bag-like enclosure, said sheets being further connected together intermediate their edges at selectively spaced intervals, vent means extending through said sheets at the intermediate joined portions thereof and jet openings in one of said sheets surrounding the intermediate joined portions thereof in closely spaced relation thereto and disposed angularly relative said body in use, one of said sheets having ventilating air inlet means therein whereby on application of said cover structure to a body or other object with said sheet with jet openings therein placed thereagainst, upon introduction of ventilating air through said air inlet means to the space between said sheets, said air will proceed through said jet openings to effect a high velocity air dispersal immediately adjacent the body or object to effect a highly efficient control of the temperature and humidity thereof, venting the stagnant air through said vent means.
5. An air conditioning cover structure for use in fabricating garments, blankets and the like, for application in use to humans, animals and even inanimate bodies, comprising, two layers of flexible impermeable material join-ed together about their edges to form a bag-like enclosure, said layers being further connected together intermediate their edges at selectively spaced intervals, vent openings through said layers at the intermediate connected portions thereof, jet openings in one of said layers surrounding the connected portions intermediate its edges in closely spaced relation to said respectively connected portions, further openings in said one layer selectively uniformly spaced from the connected portions thereof, one layer having air inlet means therein whereby on application of said cover structure to a body or object, with said layer with jet openings therein thereagainst, and introduction of ventilating air therein, said layers will billow intermediate the joined portions thereof forming pockets causing said jet openings to anguularly open into said pockets and air will proceed through said jet openings to effect a high velocity turbulence adjacent the body or object to effect a highly efiicient control of the temperature and humidity thereof.
6. An air conditioning cover structure for fabrication into a cover, garment or the like, for the air conditioning of a human, animal, or even inanimate object, comprising, two layers of flexible impermeable material joined together about their edges to form a bag-like enclosure, one of said layers being further sealingly joined to the other intermediate the edges thereof at uniformly spaced intervals, said one of said layers being of sufficient size intermediate its sealed edges, so that upon introduction of ventilating air therebetween said one sheet will billow to form spaced pockets thereby with said intermediate joined portions respectively forming the centers of said pockets, said one layer having openings immediately about the intermediate connections thereof whereby on billowing of said one sheet, said openings will be directed at an acute angle relative to said other layer, and on application of the cover structure to a body withsaid one layer in proximate relation to the body and introduction of air therein, the ventilating air will proceed from said openings in high velocity jets to scavenge the stagnant air from immediately adjacent the body, and vent openings through said cover structure connecting into said pockets to provide outlet means for said scavenged air.
7. An air-conditioning cover structure for fabrication into a cover, garment or the like, for the air-conditioning of a human, animal or even inanimate object, comprising,
two layers of flexible impermeable material joinedtogether about their edges to form a bag-like inclosure, one of said layers being further sealingly joined to the other, intermediate their edges, at selectively spaced portions thereof, an air inlet means connecting into said bag-like inclosure, said bag-like inclosure being so shaped as to have a dimpled exterior on at least one side thereof, with said intermediate joined portions forming the center of'said dimples, vent openings through said intermediate joined portions, further openings in one layer intermedi ate said joined portions, whereby on introduction of ventilating air into-said inclosure after application thereof against .a body, air will issue from said further openings and will eventually be ejected through said vent openings, to-effectcomplete thermal control of the ob-- ject or body to which the cover structure is applied.
8. 'An air conditioning cover structure for fabrication into a cover, garment or the like, for a human, animal or even inanimate body, comprising, a bag-like enclosure of impermeable flexible material, an air inlet means there in, said bag-like enclosure means having intermediate connection means being so arranged as to effect a dimpled exterior upon introduction of ventilating air therein, vent openings through said enclosure at such dimpled portions thereof, jet openings in said enclosure to one side thereof about the vent openings to be within said dinipled portions, further openings in said enclosure at said one side thereof selectively spaced relative to said vent openings whereby on introduction of ventilating air into said enclosure after application thereof against a body, high velocity jets will issue from said jet openings and scaveng ing air will issue from said further openings to effect a com plete ejection of scavenged air through said vent openings and uniform thermal control of the object or body to which the cover structure is applied.
2 References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,970,802 Johnson Aug. 21, 1934 2,022,959 Gordon Dec. 3, 1935 2,158,801 Petterson May 16, 1939 2,269,342 Johnson Jan. 6, 1942