US 2791699 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
B. B. TAYLOR May 7, 1957 CAR STARTER United States Patent O CAR STARTER Burnest B. Taylor, Indianapolis, Intl. Application August 10, 1955, Serial No. 527,530
6 Claims. (Cl. 29th-38) This invention relates to starter systems for internal combustion engines and is particularly directed to means for starting unattended engines.
Systems have been proposed heretofore for starting automobile engines at a predetermined future time and which `are unattended. A clock controlled switch can quite conveniently be set to close circuits for initiating the starting cycle at any selected hour in the future. After the initiation of the starting cycle several automatic functions must be performed if a successful system is to be expected. For example, the starter motor, the ignition system and the throttle at the carburetor must be activated simultaneously, and in case of the failure of the engine to start, the starting motor and ignition circuit must be positively interrupted Within a relatively short period of time after the beginning of the starting cycle. In systems heretofore, interruption of the various battery circuits was not positively controlled thus making the primary battery vulnerable to serious overload and rapid discharge. Obviously, a discharged battery is ineffective in starting the motor and yet may produce sufficient cur* rent to create a fire hazard.
The object of this invention is a starter system for internal combustion engines in which the circuits to the starting motor, to the ignition system and to the throttle are positively time-controlled.
Other objects of this invention will appear by referring to a specific embodiment thereof described in the following specification and shown in the accompanying drawing in which the single ligure diagrammatically shows the important circuit elements of the system.
A primary source of direct current power such as a storage battery is shown at 1. The ignition system of the conventional internal combustion engine comprises a distributor 2 for distributing successively high voltage ignition current to the several spark plugs. This high volt* age is obtained from 'the secondary winding 3 coupled through an iron core to the low voltage winding 4 of the coil. The circuit breaker 5 is, as usual, connected in the low voltage side of the coil.
The fuel supply system of the engine includes an intake manifold with a throttle valve such as the butterfly valve 11 rotationally controllable by the accelerator rod 12. When the engine is idle the pressure in the intake manifold is near atmospheric pressure. When, however, the engine is running under light load and with the Ithrottle nearly closed, the pressure in the manifold drops below atmospheric pressure. Thus, the bellows 13 can be made to respond to the manifold pressure and cause the normally closed contacts of switch 14 to open when the manifold pressure drops. At 15 is shown an electromagnet with an armature 16 for pushing on the accelerator rod to open the throttle. The third important element of the engine is its starter motor 20 which can be connected to the battery 1 through heavy current conductors 21 and through the relatively heavy contacts 22 of the starting relay. The primary circuit 23 of this relay is key and button controlled as is well-known in the art.
The usual electrical system of an automobile includes the battery 1 with one terminal solidly grounded. The positive terminal of the battery shown is grounded although the negative terminal could be grounded. The opposite terminal of the battery, usually termed the hot side, supplies current to the entire electrical system of the engine, single wires only being shown for the various circuits, the opposite side of the circuit being the framework of the automobile. Another important element of an internal combustion engine is an oil pump for supplying oil under pressure to the bearings and various moving parts of the engine. The pressure of oil in the line 3i? connected to the oil pump will accordingly be zero when the engine is standing idle and rises to a predetermined level when the engine is running. According to an important feature of this invention, the oil pressure is employed by means of pressure bellows 3l to control the normally open contacts 32 of a pressure relay. Finally, the cooling system of the engine plays an important part in this invention. Where the engine is water cooled, the cooling media may be considered to flow in the water jacket diagrammatically shown at 4G. Normally open thermostatic switches 41 and normally closed thermostatic switches 42 are submerged in the cooling media of the engine such as Water or `are in intimate heat transfer contact with the water jacket.
The elements added to the conventional automobile engine according to this invention comprise the clock controlled switch 50. Clock control switches are commercially obtainable which will open and/ or close a circuit at pre-set times in the future. lt is contemplated that the clock 5t) will close the circuit represented by lines 5l at a pre-set hour and will open the circuit after a time lapse of, say, l5 minutes. Conductors 51 energize winding of a multi-contact relay to close contacts 61, 62, 63 and 64 which normally stand open. One of each of the pairs of these contacts is connected in parallel and to the ungrounded side of the battery so that when relay winding 60 is energized all circuits are closed.
It is important that the starting circuit cannot be actuated unless the gearshift is in neutral. For this puipose switch 51a, operated by the gear shift lever, stands closed only when the gears are in neutral.
Contact 61 energizes the small direct current motor 7) so that motor 78 starts the instant the clock circuit is closed. Through a speed reduction gear box '79a the motor 7d drives discs 71, 72 and 73. These discs com prise timecontrolled circuit closers and for the purpose of illustration are shown as cams, each with two cam levels. The cams have cam followers 71a, 72a and 73a, respectively, which will positively yopen or close switches Zlib, 72b and 73h. For reasons which will more fully hereinafter appear, the cam rises of the three cams are of progressively different lengths. The speed of the motor driven shaft and the circumferential width of the cam rises (or com-mutator bars) are preferably adjusted so that switch '/'lb will remain closed approximately 1.5 minutes. rthis closing time is adjusted to the period desired for driving the engine at a warm-up speed. it has been found that the motor can most eiiciently be brought to good operating temperature by alternately permitting the motor to idle and to run at about one-half speed. The temperature apparently rises with minimum wear on the motor by timing each period to about 1.5 minutes.
The cam rise time of cam 72, however1 is shorter and in the example mentioned may be about 9 seconds. During this 9-second period, the starter motor is driven as will be explained. The time rise of the third cam '73 is preferably shorter than the cam rise of cam 72. In the example mentioned this cam rise and the close time 'of contacts '73b is 4.5 seconds. During this time the primary 16 of the solenoid and holds the throttle open throughout the cam rise time of cam 71. If the cams turn at the rate of one revolution in 3 minutes and if the cam rise and cam fall are equal in circumferential length then the throttle will remain open 1.5 minutes and will remain closed 1.5 minutes. These time periods may, of course, be lengthened or shortened and may be proportioned as experience dictates for a particular engine to be started. In the closed position of the throttle the engine is appropriately adjusted to idle at its lowest speed. The throttle also is adjusted by its linkage to run at a warm-up speed in the neighborhood of one-half its top racing speed.
The contact 72b closes substantially simultaneously with the closure of contact 71b and serially connects the voltage source from contacts 62 through the normally closed contacts 14 to the solenoid 23 of the starting relay. When the motor starts, the pressure in the manifold 10 drops, the bellows 13 collapse and contacts '14 open, ldisengaging the starter relay winding 23.
Contacts 73h are also closed substantially simultaneously with the closure of contacts 71b and 72b. Contacts 73b :connect the voltage source at 63 to the ignition coil. The opening and closing of the circuit breaker points at 5 supply the necessary high voltage at the distributor and at the spark plugs. According to an important feature of this invention, the contacts 73b are paralleled by a second circuit which maintains a closed ignition circuit after contacts 7 3b open. This parallel circuitV comprises the normally open contacts 32 of the pressure responsive relay coupled to the pressure oil line of the engine. When the engine starts, the oil line pressure closes contacts 32 through the response of the diaphragm 31 to the oil pressure. Such a parallel circuit takes over the control of the ignition circuit the instant the engine starts and the oil pressure rises and removes control of the ignition circuit from the time control switch 73h. If the engine does not start, the ignition circuit control remains responsive to the time controlled cam and its switches.
In starting and running unattended engines it is desirable to incorporate reliable safety devices so that should the engine overheat it will shut down. For this purpose the normally closed thermostatic relay contacts 42, submerged in the cooling medium of the engine, are connected in series with the ignition circuit. Conveniently, the contacts 42 are connected in series with the pressure responsive switch 32 as shown.
If it is desired that the car heater be started after the engine has reached a predetermined temperature, the normally open contacts 41 of the thermostatic relay are connected between the voltage source at Contact 64 and the motor of the car heater (not shown).
In operation, the clock initiates all functions at a predetermined time when coil 60 is energized and all of the contacts 61, 62, 63 and 64 are pulled up. This starts D. C. motor 70 whereupon contacts 71b, '72b and 73b are closed .at the time of or shortly after initiation by the clock. The throttle opens in response to contacts '11b and connected solenoid 15, the ignition circuit is closed by 73h, and the starter relay is closed by contacts 72b. If the motor starts immediately, the starter motor relay is interrupted by the pressure responsive contacts 14 at the manifold, and the ignition circuit is transferred from 4 73b to 32. If the engine does not start within 9 seconds or within the time dictated by cam 72, contact 72b opens and interrupts the starter relay. 1.5 minutes thereafter, in the example mentioned, the starting cycle recommences, the throttle being opened, the starter relay being closed, and the ignition circuit being closed.
Many modifications may be made in this invention Without departing from the spirit thereof as defined in the following claims.
What is claimed is:
l. A starter system for an engine having a fuel intake manifold with a throttle, a starter motor and an ignition coil, the system comprising a plurality of motor driven time-controlled circuit closers, said closers being arranged to close substantially simultaneously and to open at successively different times, means responsive to one closer for operating said throttle, means responsive to another closer for energizing said starting motor, and means responsive to still another closer for energizing said ignition coil.
2. In the system defined in claim 1, the last named means comprising a rst circuit serially including the last mentioned closer, said ignition coil and a battery; and a normally open pressure responsive relay with contacts connected in parallel with the contacts of the last mentioned closer.
3. A starter system for an internal combustion engine having a battery, a starter motor, a starter relay with contacts between the battery and starter motor, an oil pressure pump, an intake manifold with a throttle, and an ignition coil; the system comprising three time-controlled circuit closers, means for closing the circuit closers substantially simultaneously and `for holding the closers closed for different periods of time, a throttle controlling solenoid, a rst closer being in serial circuit with said solenoid and battery, a second closer being in serial circuit with said starter relay, and a third closer being in serial circuit with said ignition coil.
4. 'Ihe system of claim 3 further comprising a first pressure responsive switch associated with said manifold and with contacts serially in circuit with said starter relay.
5. The system of claim 3 further comprising a second pressure responsive switch associated with said oil pump and with contacts connected in parallel with the third mentioned closer.
6. A starter system for an engine having a fuel intake manifold with a throttle, a starter motor and an ignition coil, the system comprising a plurality of time-controlled circuit closers, said closers being arranged to close substantially simultaneously and to open at successively differentY times, means responsive to one closer for operating said throttle, means responsive to another closer for energizing said starting motor, and means responsive to still another closer for energizing sa-id ignition coil.
References Cited in the tile of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Braden et al. Dec. 28,