US 2794440 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
A. LEVIE METHOD OF FERMANENTLY WAVING HUMAN HAIR Filed Feb. 14. 1956 June 4, i957 Patented June 4.-, 1957 e ic 2,794,440 TVETHGD GF PERMANENTLY WAVING l Allan Lei/ie, St. Louis Park, Minn. Appiieation February 14, 1956, Serial No. 565,409
. 2 claims. (ci. 132-7) This invention relates to a novel and substantially improved method of permanently waving hum-an hair to scientifically control softening and processing of the many individual curls produced and to improve the texture of the finished coifure, giving Igreater uniformity of treatment and avoiding over processing of any of the many curls produced.
In conventional methods now employed for permanently waving hair with use of cold chemicals as distinguished from the earlier heat treatments land in the other prior art known to me, after shampooing the head of hair to be waved and drying the hair, the chemical Waving lotion such `as ammonium thioglycolate is immediately applied to the hair in sections, usually starting with the neck-line sections which are parted into locks and one section at a time is covered with the waving solution, combed several times and the section or lock is then wound upon curling rods smoothly and the rod secured to prevent unwinding of the hair yand then, disposed in a position close to the scalp. The entire head of hair is parted into sections or locks and the locks successively treated and combed with the chemical waving solution, requiring usually from thirty to forty minutes, depending upon the skill of the operator and of course, the fullness or thickness of the hair structure.
The chemical waving solution of course, begins to soften the individual hair strands immediately upon application with the result that the curls rst blocked and wound receive considerably more Vprocessing than the ones last wound. After three or four minutes subsequent to the wrapping and application of waving lotion to all the locks, the operator takes a test curl, carefully unwinding the lock and inspecting the same to determine whether or not the hair has acquired adequate curvature. Usually, a number of inspections utilizing in each instance a different curl, are required and determination of the processing time is left almost entirely to the operatorsY discretion. n
When the operator feels that the correct curvature of the hair has been effected on a test curl, she then proceeds to neutralize with a conventional neutralizer, usually an oxidizing agent.
Thereafter, the hair is carefully rinsed and the wave combed and set. Y
In such conventional methods, such factors as improper judgment on the part of the operator and the substantial Variance in the processing periods of the individual curls very often results in either over processing or under processing, many times damaging the hair Vstructure beyond repair.
It is an object of my invention to provide a novel and readily controllable method of permanently waving human hair which will overcome and substantially `eliminate the objections (heretofore enumerated) to conventional methods now in use and which will scientifically control the processing of each permanent wave, producing long lasting curls with processing of the hair structure substantially uniformly and to the desired state throughout. Y
More specifically it is an object to provide a new and improved method of the class described whereininitial and overall application of the hair waving or softening solution to the hair, is carried out most effectively for desired uniform application and tothe end that during the 'predetermined hair curling and setting period, the
2 individual hair curls are processed chemically and structurally to substantially the same extent. With my process, over or under processing of some of the curls is `avoided with the resultant production of beautiful, lasting curls, giving proper curvature to the hair. v I
Another object is the provision of a method of the class described, wherein a minimum of hair waving solution may be employed to fullest 4advantage `and with maximum distribution to the individual curls, throughthe employment of a yre-use technique which incidentally, prevents excess contact of the waving solution with the human scalp.
The foregoing and other objects of the invention will be more apparent from the following description made in connection with the accompanying drawings, which illustrate some of the steps and exemplary apparatus which may be employed in carrying out my method and in which:V
Fig. l is a -rear View showing the back of `a womans head during the last portion of the hair blocking and wrapping operation;
Fig. 2 is a perspective View showing a suitable form of collection tray and its conduit connection with a container for preventing penetration of the waving solution to the scalp and permitting collection `and reuse of the more expensive waving solution; and
Fig. 3 is a similar rear view showing the efficient and relatively fast step of originallyy applying the waving lotion to the wrapped curls on the head, constituting a vital step of my method.
In the carrying out of my method, the head of human hair to be waved is first shampooed and thoroughly dried, as under a hair dryer.
Then, a liquid or solution is applied to the dried hair, combed down rearwardly to facilitate the subsequent blocking and wrapping of the hair. While merely moistening of the hair uniformly and combing to distribute moisture may be adequate, I prefer to provide and apply ra conditioning lotion containing a small percentage of keratinV and a small amount of keratin-solvent such as ammonia. A predetermined quantity of the lotion is used, ranging from 11A ounces to 11/2 ounces. This lotion is applied and thoroughly combed into the hair and thereafter the head of hair is carefully blocked, parted into locks and wrapped or Wound smoothly and carefully upon individual curling rods usually starting with the smaller and shorter neck curls, Working upwardly towards the crown curls at the top of the head. The last part of the blocking and wrapping operations upon the previously moistened and conditioned hair, is illustrated in Fig. 1 of the drawings.
Conventional curling rods of varying sizes for varying diameters of curls desired, are utilized which retain the curl against unwinding and consequently the rod and its associated mechanism when the curl is formed just outwardly of the scalp of the subject. Rods of the injector type (hollow and having a series of liquid discharge ports) are recommended if the hair is very long or if it packs on the rods.
The curls have now been blocked and wrapped and clustered in proper relation close to the scalp of the human head, and as has been previously pointed out, the blocking and wrapping has all been performed and completed before any application of the Waving or hair softening lotion to the hair.
The proper strength of hair waving lotion is chosen for the particular subject, it being desirable to have at least three strengths, One for normal hair, one for resistant hair and one for hair easily waved. I do not limit my process to the use of any particular hair waving lotion but a solution of ammonium thioglycolate is highly eifective for carrying out my purposes. The waving 10- tion is preferably placed in an applicator or exible squeeze bottle having anozzle dispensing cap and the lotion is applied to the individual curls from one end to the other of the same preferably startingwith curls at 'the neckline.
Simultaneously with vapplication of-the wavinglotion'v a medium is provided and astepV of my method 1s .1n-` cluded which consists in collecting any surplus wavingr lotion which drips or drains from-the individual curls from thev applied lotion.l A suitable collection and re-v turn tray for this purpose is'illustrated in Fig. 2 consisting an inclined, i'laringl-ropen-top 'tray portion 6 which has side walls 6a and a flat bottom 6b and which through a forward funnel portion 7, is in communication'with a short tube or conduitV 8 of a diameter toV tit lthe restricted" F mouth of a squeeze container 9.
Fig. 3 illustrates how 'the-operator may V'Very' conveniently apply the lotion from one end of the curl' to' the other with one hand while holding the collection tray 6 byits connected container 9 with the 'other hand. The forward llip of the tray and converging side w-alls enable that portion of the tray to be precisely positioned beneath thel entire curl being treated to thel end that the solution penetrates the interstices of the' lock or' curl and the indi-V vidual strands of hair, passes therethrough'and partrof it is collected, all without chance of Vany substantial amount of solution touching the Vscalp of the subject. This stop of distribution of the waving lotionV and collection of surplus is continued, progressing preferably upward from the neckline in order of the curls treated until most of the curls are thoroughly saturated.
Then, the collected waving lotion which is drained from'V the tray into the squeeze bottle `is applied to the remaining curls until it is fully consumed.
The foregoing step of application which is the firstv application of waving lotion to the curls, may be very quickly carried out as contrasted `with application of lotion in previous methods, requiring for an average operator, two to ve minutes.
After this step, the timing period is started, withallcurls thoroughly saturated with wavinglotionand with' waving lotion applied thereto for practical purposes at substantially the same time.y y
The period of setting or waving may be substantially" cutdown as contrasted with conventional methods here tofore utilized sinceV there is ya thoroughand almost simul tion from a squeeze bottle or applicator'of an eflieient,`V
conventional neutralizing solution. In this instance, the v application ofthe neutralizer is preferably' started-with the top crown curls and finished with the small curls at the'nape of the neck. This is continued until` each curl is treated on the top and alsopthe underside'withas'much neutralizar lotion as the curl will absorb. VThema short neutralizing period is provided for, such as five minutes, and thereafter the curlers are gently removed without pulling or stretching the hair; I prefer reapplioation of' the neutralizer to the unwound locks whereafter the haii' is thoroughly rinsedwith tepid Water vandv the he`ad`of Vhair then permanently wavedlis, ready for combingand setting.
My entire method may be carried o ut' by an'operator without the'use of rubber'gloves since'the hands never touch the waving lotion andV the; preconditioninglotion which facilitates the wrapping of thef 'hair is non-irritating and actually soothing vto the skin.
Withmy method, the cold wavinglotionwhich affects the hair structure is applied to .all the hair to be waved Y in wrapped or curled form Within a period of from two to /ve minutesl initial application of the waving lotion from a squeeze bottle or applicator to each curl, with simultaneous collection 'of excess waving lotion by use of the collector, but it includes also the subsequent application of the residue of waving lotion (previously drained from the curls through the intermediary of tray 6 and a collection container 9).
The curls which need somewhat longer processing such as the curls near the neckline, as has been'recitedy are rst treated with the coldwaving lotion before the other curls; Thus, a small degree-of additional treatment is` given these curls.
Completeprocessing of all the hair to be waved isl 'I'his'tinieVv period includes not only theY and processes for a predetermined, definite lperiod with` v the curls saturated,`.but` not dripping from thewaving lotion.
The curls are substantially uniformly treated, the hairy structure softened in the preformed wrapped shape and the'hair is then neutralized and thoroughly rinsed.
The resultant permanent wavesvvare excellent, have lasting qualities and are `free from chemicaldamage.
Whatis claimed is:
1'. The method Vof permanently waving human hairv Which'consists in first blocking the'portionof a head of hair Yto -be waved into locks` and wrapping they separate locks upon suitable curlerfrods and securing the'formed curls inthe wrapped relation `retained adjacent theV scalp,Y then V.for thefrst time by applicator operation, applying Aa liquid wavinglotion to the wrapped' locks and While ap'- plying said lotion, positioning a shallow collector medium below each curl successively to remove any`lotio'n which drips from vthe'lower portion of the curls While preventing.-
such vdripping lotion from penetrating to the scalp of the subject, reapplying byV applicator method, the excess col'- lected waving Vlotion to the curls to thoroughly saturate' the same While again collectingany drippage, allowing i pulling or stretching the -hair and thenrinsing the hair thoroughly.
2.. The method of permanently waving human hair* which consists in first blockingvra portion of a mois'tened head of hair into locks, and wrapping the separatelocksv upon'suitable curler rods and securing the formedjcurls in a lappedy relation adjacent the scalp, Vthen* for the first time by ejection from an applicator nozzle applyinga liquid waving lotionto the Wrapped locksland simultaneaV ously to such application to each individual-lockipositioning lashallow collector medium below each curl-sucvess'ively with saidmedium in contact with theV scalp'to remove any lotion which drips from the curls while pre# venting such dripping lotion from penetrating to the scalp of the subject, allowing the so treatedV curls to set With the lotion thereon for a predetermined timev period, andthereafter applying a chemical neutralizer to the Wrapped curls and after a short neutralizing period removingthe curlers from the locks and then rinsing -the hair.. Y
References Cited in thele of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,142,635 Eibner Jan. 3, 193sLEV 2,540,980 Den Beste T Feb.6, 1951 2,684,072 LewisV July 2o, 1954 2,709,442 .Wi11at --.May 31, 1955V FOREIGN PATENrSY 735,303 v cireaflnitaiuY Aug. 17, 1955