US 2795938 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
June 1957 J. A. GALA ZZI 2,795,938
HEAT PUMP HOT WATER HEATER AND AIR CONDITIONER Filed Oct. 2'7, 1955 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 4/0634? @i/ alazzz" June 18, 1957 J. A. GALAZZI 5,
HEAT PUMP HOT WATER HEATER AND AIR CONDITIONER Filed Oct. 27, 1955 2 Sheets-Sheet JPACE K 37 jzznzow JOSE; @15 'fi'alazzz' HEAT PUMP nor WATER HEATER AND AIR CONDITIONER Joseph A. Galazzi, Evansville, Ind., assignor, by mesne assignments, to Whirlpool-Seeger Corporation, a corporation of Delaware Application October 27, 1955, Serial No. 543,054 3 Claims. (Cl. 62-4) This invention relates to heat pumps but more particularly it is directed to a combination water heater, dehumidifier and an air conditioning unit which operates on the heat pump principle.
The principle features of the heat pump are, of course, well knovm in the art since the heat pump elements, involving a combination of compressor, condenser, expansion valve and evaporator, are generally employed in a conventional refrigerating cycle. When employing the heat pump with a water heater such apparatus usually includes a water storage tank into which the condenser is positioned, while the evaporator is disposed so as to be in communication with a suitable source of heat, such as the air within an enclosure. In conventionaloperation of such apparatus, the compressor functions to withdraw gaseous refrigerant from the evaporator and to compress said refrigerant so as to further raise the heat content ten thereof. The heated refrigerant is then passed through the condenser where it isIiquefied, giving-up its superheat, if any, and its latent heat of condensation to the water in the tank. Thereafter the liquefied refrigerant is passed through an expansion device and into the evaporator where its temperature is reduced and it absorbs heat from the atmosphere, and from whence it is returned to the compressor for a repetition of the cycle.
A suitable source of heat for such apparatus may include the air of a room, or the basement of a home or of any other such comparable enclosure, in which case the apparatus may also function as a dehumidifier and an air conditioner with substantially little additional initial or operating costs.
The principle object of the present invention, therefore, is to provide an improved water heater, operating on the heat pump principle, which additionally functions to dehumidify and air condition atmosphere which provides one source of heat therefor.
Another object is to provide a water heater of the heat pump type having means associated therewith that is operative for releasing a portion of the water contents therefrom when the temperature of said water becomes excessive.
A further objectis to provide an improved combination dehumidifier, air conditioner and a water heater of the heat pump type which is readily connected into the air circulating duct system of a room or space being conditioned.
A still further object is to provide a water heater of the heat pump type of improved design and operating efiiciency.
A yet still further object is to provide a combined air conditioner, dehumidifier and water heater of the heat pump type which is continuously operable to provide demands for hot water even though the requirements for air conditioning are substantially negligible.
Other objects and advantages will be understood and will become more apparent from the following description when read in conjunction with the drawings in which: 7
Figure '1 is a vertical sectional view through a combina- 2,795,938 Patented June 18, 1957 ment therefor, that is incorporated in the proposed hot water heater; and
Figure 4 shows an arrangement wherein the present invention has been incorporated in the existing air duct system of a hot air furnace installation.
Referring now to the drawings, wherein there is illustrated "a preferred embodiment of the present invention, it will be noted that a water heater, indicated broadly by the reference numeral 10, includes an inner tank 11 and an outer tank 12 separated therefrom by suitable heat:
insulating material 13. The heater 10 may. be supportedon a suitable footing-like base or pedestal.14, while the top or upper end wall thereof may have a section, such 1 as 15, fashioned for removal to permit access to the interiorthereof. The bottom wall or floor of said heater tank is fashioned to provide a convexly curved or domelike interior wall portion 16, which shape permits cold water entering through an inlet pipe 17 to strike a battle 18 and be'directed outwardly and downwardly. toward the walls-of the tank 11 for purposes which will presently be more' apparent.
A housing or casing-like member 19, which, preferably, may be suspendably secured to the removable section 15 of the top wall of the inner tank 11, is dimensioned to contain a hermetically sealed motor-compressor unit 20 and, preferably, is fashioned from any suitable and good heat-conducting material, such as metal. Said housing may be filled with a heat-conducting fluid 21 which is a highly refined filtered light petroleum oil, water free and having a high dielectric strength, such, for instance, as any one of the well-known and commercially marketed transformer oils, and the housing is attached to the wall section 15 by a suitable conventional liquid-tight securing means that will prevent any interchange of the oil and water liquids.
The discharge outlet of the motorcompressor 20 is connected to one end of a tubular condenser 22 which is coiled around the interior of the tank 11, while the opposite end of said condenser coil is connected to a refrigerant receiver 23 disposed in close proximity to the baffie 18 and the cold water inlet 17 at the bottom of said inner tank. Another conduit 24- connects the receiver 23 with an expansion valve 25 which is connected, in turn, by a conduit 26 to a finned evaporator coil 27 disposed above the top of the outer tank 12, while the opposite endof said evaporator coil is connected by a conduit 28 to the suction or inlet opening of the motor-compressor 20. A suitable refrigerant will, of course, be provided for the above refrigeration system.
A shallow pan-like container 29 disposed beneath the A transversely extending and centrally depressed or bowed bracket-like support member 30 is disposed so that the depressed portion thereof extends within the coil of the evaporator 27, while the opposite ends of said member overlie and are supported over the upper portions of said evaporator. If desired, of course, said .bracket could otherwise be, supported, as for instance on 'the upper Wall of the outer tank 12, without deviating from any teachings of the present invention. Said bracket, which provides a mount for a fan 31 and its directly coupled electric driving motor 311:, is positioned so that said fan projects into an air duct 32 mounted above and extending from said heater. The duct 32 connects at one end with a flange-like cover member 33, secured by suitable conventional means to the upper portion of the evaporator 27, and at the other end either with a wall or floor of the area or space being conditioned, or into an'air circulating duct which, in space being air-conditioned. As shown in Figure 1, the air duct 32 communicates with an opening 34 in a wall or floor 35 of a space or room, such as 36, being conditioned. into one of the ducts 37 of an of a conventional hot air furnace in turn, communicates with conditioned.
One wall of the duct 32 has an opening 39 therein that may be covered with a bafile or damper 40, which is conventionally hinged or pivotably mounted along an edge thereof on the inner surface of said duct, as shown generally at 41. Said damper is arranged and dimensioned so that in one position thereof it covers the opening 39 in said duct and directs air from the water heater into the space being conditioned, while in another position, as shown by the broken lines of Figures 1 and 4, it suspends and closes off the opening through said duct, thereby directing the flow of air coming from the said water heater out through the opening 39 instead of into either the room or space 36 being conditioned or the existing air duct system 37. Any suitable means may, of course, be used for controlling or actuating said damper but, as illustrated herein, the operation thereof is man ally accomplished.
A thermal responsive device, such as the conventional temperature responsive thermostat indicated at 41, is positioned within the inner tank 11, at a suitable location preferably near the bottom thereof, and is connected by an electrical conductor 42 to one terminal of the motorcompressor 20 and by conductor 43 to one terminal of a source of power supply 44. The opposite terminal of the power supply 44 is connected by conductor 45 with one terminal of the fan motor 31a, while the opposite terminal of said motor is connected by conductor 46 to the remaining terminal of motor-compressor 20. The thermostat 41 may also be connected by conductors 47 and 48 to a circuit interrupting control device 49 which is adapted, when so required, to short circuit or override the thermostat 41 and thus continue the water heater in existing air duct system 38, wherein said system, the room or space being operation even though the temperature of the water therein is otherwise adequate. This condition could be encountered, for instance, when the demand for cool air within the air-conditioned space remained unsatisfied after the thermostat 41 opened the circuit of the refrigeration system. In which case, continued operation of the cooling system would be required so as to reduce the temperature of such space to a point such that the control device 49 would not override the operation of the thermostat 41. The control device 49 may be either a manually operated switch or a conventional thermostat which is responsive to the temperature of the space in which the thermostatic or sensing element 49a is located, and when there is a space to be air conditioned said con trol, preferably, is located therewithin.
A pipe or conduit 50 which opens into the interior ofthe tank 11 also extends through the wall of the heater and connects to a conventional T-coupling 51 that is disposed externally of the heater, while a pipe 52 extending from one of the outlets of said coupling connects into the conventional or established piping system from whence hot water may be withdrawn by the user at will. The other outlet of said T-coupling is connected, by suitable means such as pipe 53, to a bleed-oft regulator or safety valve. device 54 which, in turn, may discharge,
turn, communicates with the.
In Figure 4 the duct 32 is shown as connectedby way of a pipe 55, into a sewage drain or other suitable disposal outlet. A thermostatic control, disposed so that its sensing or feeler element 56 is responsive to the temperature of the water within the heater, is arranged to release pressure within the tank by actuating the bleed-off valve 54 and bleeding or drawing olf a quantity of water therefrom whenever the temperature thereof exceed that for which the said control is set. Then as hot water is withdrawn from the tank additional cold makeup water may be introduced in quantities desired or required to maintain operation of the system. A condition such as might require the operation of the thermostatic controlled valve 54 may very likely follow as a result of long or continuous operation of the heater, in order to satisfy demands for cool air, without a corresponding or proportionate demand for the hot water being simultaneously heated within the tank.
Although anyone of many of the commercial bleeder valves or regulator devices presently manufactured and sold may be suitable for use with the proposed hot water heater, the particular embodiment selected for illustration is a standard Fulton Sylphon temperature regulator of the vapor pressure type. As is well-known in the art, in this type regulator, operation is accomplished by power developed from evaporation of a liquid contained in its feeler bulb. The regulator, as illustrated, includes a control valve, indicated generally by the reference numeral 54, which is suitably attached to a frame 57 that carries a bellows chamber 58 within which is disposed a Sylphon bellows 59. Said bellows is connected by a tube 60 with the sensing element or feeler bulb 56 which extends into the interior of the heater tank 11. A plungerlike stem 61 slides within the bore of a hollow threaded stud 62 and one end thereof abuts one end of the diaphragm or bellows 59. An adjusting spring 63 is positioned over said stem and stud and so arranged that one end of the spring engages the bellows, while the outer end thereof abuts an adjustment wheel 64 threadably mounted on said stud. The opposite end of the plunger stem 61 contacts one end of a valve stem 65 which likewise slides in the bore of said stud, while the opposite end of said valve stem carries a poppet valve 66 which engages or seats on the valve sea-t 67 and thus restricts the passage of fluids through said valve. A suitable thermostatic charge in the form of a liquid 68 is contained in the feeler bulb 56 and the power developed from vaporization of this liquid is applicable for actuation of the poppet valve 66. When the temperature within the tank 11 rises to a predetermined dangerous or objectionable level the thermostatic liquid charge with the bulb 56 begins to boil and, when so doing, gives off a vapor which creates a pressure that, in turn, motivates the bellows 59. Movement of the bellows compresses the spring 63 and the valve stem 65 follows the action thereof to unseat or displace the poppet 66 off the valve seat 67. When the said poppet valve is unseated the valve is opened and liquid is free to drain from the tank 11, by way of the pipes or conduits 53 and 55, into the sewer or other disposal means in order to relieve the pressure and temperature within said tank. As the temperature therewithin returns to a normal or predetermined level the thermostatic liquid charge stops boiling and the bellows then becomes free to move in the opposite direction so as to seat the poppet 66 and close the valve 54. Temperature limitations for actuation of the valve may be adjusted by means of the spring 63 and the adjustment wheel 64.
The operation of the proposed device, insofar as the refrigeration system is concerned, is generally conventional. The thermostat 41 is set to initiate operation of the refrigeration system, byenergizing the motor-compressor 20 and fan motor 31a, when the temperature of the water within the tank 11 falls below that for which said thermostat is set. When the motor-compressor op crates gaseous refrigerant is continuously withdrawn from the evaporator 26, compressed in said compressor,
and then passed into the condenser 22 where it is liquefied and it gives up its superheat and its latent heat ofcondensation to the water in the tank to raise the temperature thereof. Thereafter thev liquefied refrigerant is passed through the expansion valve 25 and into the evaporator 26, where the temperature of the refrigerant is reduced and the refrigerant absorbs heat from the atmosphere, after which it returns to the compressor for a repetition of the flow cycle. As air is drawn, by the fan 31, from the atmosphere around said heater and through and into heat exchange relation with the evaporator 26 the heat is absorbed therefrom, and said air after thus being cooled is then passed through the duct 32 past the damper' 40 and into the space being conditioned. This operation will then continue until interruptedby actuation of one of the thermostatic devices in the system. For instance, in the event the temperature of the water in the tank rises above that for which the thermostat 41 is operatively set said thermostat will operate to de-energize the motorcompressor circuit and thus shut down the flow of refrigerant through the system. If, on the other hand, the temperature of the air in the space 36 being cooled is above that for which the control 49 therein is set this latter control will immediately become operative to short circuit or override the thermostat 41 and, by so doing, will reenergize the circuit controlling the motor-compressor and thus effect continuance of the operaton of the refrigeration system.
Assuming now that the control 49 continues to override thermostat 41 for an appreciable length of time, in order to reduce the temperature of the space 36, while the demand for hot water is far below the ability of the heater to produce it under such conditions, the temperature of the water and the pressure within the tank 11 would, if uncontrolled, rise to excessive or dangerous levels. In order to prevent such a condition from continuing, the thermostat 56, which is set to operate at a selected temperature somewhat higher than that of thermostat 41, becomes operative and, operating through its associated actuating mechanism as previously described, opens the bleed-01f valve 54 to efiect a draw-ofi of a quantity of water from the heater tank into the drain or sewer 55, thereby permitting more cold water to be introduced into the tank by way of the inlet pipe 17. When the temperature and pressure within the tank are reduced and returned to the prescribed normal levels the thermostat 56 will again function to close off the bleed-off valve 54.
During winter operation, or at any other time when cooled air is not required in the space 36 being conditioned, the damper 40 may be positioned across the duct 32 so as to cut-off the flow of air therethrough. This leaves the opening 39 uncovered and thus the air circulated by the fan 31 is then discharged through this opening, after which it mingles and mixes with the remaining atmosphere of the space in which the heater is located. When such a unit is located in a basement it provides excellent dehumidification of the air therein, and the moisture thus removed from the air is collected in the pan 29 from whence it may be removed by suitable com ventional means.
From the foregoing it should now be apparent that a novel combination dehumidifier, air conditioner and hot Water heater has been shown and described, and it is to be understood that changes may be made in the construction without departing from the spirit of the invention or the scope thereof as defined in the appended mlaims.
What is claimed is:
1. In a combined water heater, air conditioner, and dehumidifier of the floor mounted type, the combination of a water tank, heat insulation surrounding the watertank, and an external shell enclosing said heat insulation, a refrigeration system including a sealed motor compressor mounted in said Water tank and having its compressor outlet connected to a condenser submerged in the said tank, the said evaporator comprising helical coils arranged above the tank adjacent its outer edge, and having heat radiating fins, a bracket mounted on said evaporator, and carrying a motor driven fan centrally arranged in said evaporator to drive air upward, a cover for said evaporator having a central air conduit leading to a floor register, the air passing in at the sides of said evaporator and being directed upwardly through said register, a room thermostat arranged in the room, above the register, and connected in parallel with a second thermostat having its bulb located inside said tank, said fan being connected with said compressor to electrical circuits energized by either of said thermostats, whereby the compressor is operated when the temperature of the water demands heat or the temperature of the room demands cooling, and a damper located in said conduit below said register, for closing a side aperture in said conduit or for swinging up to close the bottom of said register to direct the cooled air outward below the floor or upward through said register at will.
2. In a combined water heater, air conditioner, and dehumidifier of the floor mounted type, the combination of a water tank, heat insulation surrounding the water tank, and an external shell enclosing said heat insulation, a refrigeration system including a sealed motor compressor mounted in said water tank and having its compressor outlet connected to a condenser submerged in the water of said tank, said condenser being connected to a restrictor, and said restrictor being in connection with an evaporator on the outside of said tank and located above said tank, the said evaporator comprising helical coils arranged above the tank adjacent its outer edge, and having heat radiating fins, a bracket mounted on said evaporator, and carrying a motor driven fan centrally arranged in said evaporator to drive a-ir upward, a cover for said evaporator having a central air conduit leading to a floor register, the air passing in at the sides of said evaporator and being directed upwardly through said register, a room thermostat arranged in the room, above the register, and connected in parallel with a second thermostat having its bulb located inside said tank, said fan being connected with said compressor to electrical circuits energized by either of said thermostats, whereby the compressor is operated when the temperature of the water demands heat or the temperature of the room demands cooling, and a damper located in said conduit below said register, for closing a side aperture in said conduit or for swinging up to close the bottom of said register to direct the cooled air outward below the floor or upward through said register at will, the said motor compressor being housed in a separate enclosing housing through which its conduits pass, and which is filled with a heat conducting and electrically insulating oil, for transmitting the heat from the motor compressor to the Water in the tank.
3. In a combined water heater, air conditioner, and dehumidifier of the floor mounted type, the combination of a water tank, heat insulation surrounding the water tank, and an external shell enclosing said heat insulation, a refrigeration system including a sealed motor compressor mounted in said water tank and having its compressor outlet connected to a condenser submerged in the water of said tank, said condenser being connected to a restrictor, and said restrictor being in connection with an evaporator on the outside of said tank and located above said tank, the said evaporator comprising helical coils arranged above the tank adjacent its outer edge, and having heat radiating fins, a bracket mounted on said evaporator, and carrying a motor driven fan centrally arranged in said evaporator to drive air upward, a cover for said evaporator having a central air conduit leading to a floor register, the air passing in at the sides of said the register, a second thermostat havingits bulb located inside saidtank and connected in parallelwith said first thermostat, said fan being connected with said cornpressor to electrical circuits energized by either of said thermostats, whereby the compressor is operated when the temperature of the water demands heat or the temperature of the room demands cooling, and a damper located in said conduit below'said register, for'c-losing a side aperture insaid conduit or for swinging up to close the bottom of said register to direct the cooled air outward below the floor or upward through said register at will, the said motor compressor being housed in a separate enclosing housing through which its conduits pass, and which is filled with a heat conducting and electrically insulating oil, for transmitting the heat from the motor compressorto thewaterin' thetank, a third thermostat located in said tank and controlling a thermostatic valve,
and pipe connections'comrnunicatingwith the top portion of'said tank and controlled by said valve, whereby the excessively he ated'water; which may be due to the operation of the system in response to the room temperature,
may be discharged through said pipes from the tank.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,125,842 Eggleston Aug. 2, 1938 2,632,306- Ruff Mar. 24, 1953 2,668,420 Hammell Feb. 9, 1954 2,7U2,994
Mar. 1, 1955