US 2796026 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
June 18, 1957 c. 1.. HOOKER, JR 2,796,026
ELECTRO-MAGNETIC PUMP Filed Jan. 31, 1955 2 Sheets-Sheet l NVENTOR OVIKLlS 4,9 00% ,JA.
BY F 3,19%
ATTORNEYS United Sttes PatentO ELECTRO-MAGNETIC PUMP Charles L. Hooker, In, El Cajon, Calif.
Application January 31, 1955, Serial No. 484,916 4 Claims. (Cl. 103-53) This invention relates to well pumping apparatus and more particularly to fluid pumps of the electro-magnetic type utilizing a reciprocating piston.
An object of this invention is to provide a reciprocating pump of the electro-magnetic type in which high pumping pressures are developed to permit the pumping of fluids from well casings of relatively small diameter of great depths and which can be readily adapted by only slight modifications of pump fluids within a wide range of discharge pressures and flow rates.
Another object of this invention is to provide an electro-magnetic pump which is simple, light, and durable in construction, compact in design, relatively inexpensive to manufacture, and capable of operating continuously in a highly efiicient manner, requires minimum maintenance, supervision, and repair and which may be readily combined as a stage pump with pumps of similar design.
Other objects and advantages of my invention in part will be obvious and in part pointed out hereinafter during the course of the following description.
My invention accordingly resides in the combination of elements, features of construction, and arrangements of parts, the scope of the application of all of which will be more fully set forth in the claims at the end of this specification.
For a more ready comprehension of my invention, reference is had to the' accompanying drawings, wherein:
Fig. 1 is a vertical sectional view of the invention with the operation parts at the upper position of the pump stroke.
Fig. 2 is an enlarged view of an upper portion of Fig. 1.
Fig. 2a is an enlarged view of the lower portion of Fig. 1 excluding approximately the portion shown in Fig. 2.
Fig. 3 is a sectional 'view taken substantially along line 3-3 of Fig. 2.
Fig. 4 illustrates diagrammatically an electrical operating circuit for the pump. V
. Like reference characters refer to like parts throughout the several views of the drawing. T
As more conducive to a clearer understanding of the invention, it may be noted that in the past, the electromagnetically operated piston-type pump has come into widespread commercial application particularly in the fields such as the oil industry where great drilling depths are frequently encountered. This type of pump lends itself to a compact design and can be constructed in such a manner that it will perform with efficiency in relatively small-diameter bored well holes. However, even the low capacity pumps used in the past in order to obtain the necessary discharge pressures for operating at a great depth have been complicated in design, bulky in size, and expensive to manufacture resulting in an unnecessary increase in drilling' and maintenance costs.
It is, therefore, an outstanding object of this invention to' provide'an electro-magnetic pump which is light and simple in construction having a minimum number of inexpensive, easily assembled parts which can be used in 2,795,026 Patented June 18, 1957 extremely deep, relatively small-diameter well holes and which is capable of pumping fluids in a highly efficient manner at the desired surface pressures and flow rates.
As specifically illustrative of the structure of my invention, attention is directed to Figs. 1-4 of the drawing. Figs. l-2a show a reciprocating pump including a cylindrical casing 10 of tubular form having a central bore 11. Annular recesses 12 and 13 are provided in the easing wall in which are positioned solenoid coils 14 and 15 respectively. These solenoid coils are of the conventional ring-shaped variety and are designed to fit snugly into their corresponding recesses as shown in Fig. 2. The casing 10 is separated at 10a into two sections to provide access to the solenoid 15 and internal portion of the casing. The two sections may be joined in any convenient manner and in the embodiment shown, the connection between the two sections is accomplished by a screw threaded construction.
Disposed within the casing bore 11 is a freely movable elongated cylindrical hammer 16. This hammer 16 is composed of a heavy metallic material such as iron while the material of the casing 10 is of a suitable non-magnetic material such as brass or a non-ferrous alloy. It will, therefore, be seen that when the solenoids are energized, movement will be imparted to the hammer by virtue of its acting as a solenoidal core so that it moves reciprocally along the casing bore 11.
In the lower portion of the casing 10, a cylindrical piston or plunger 17 is provided. This piston has an enlarged head portion 17a, which is fitted for reciprocating movement within a portion 11a of the casing bore 11 of enlarged diameter. The plunger is biased upwardly against the upper end of this portion by means of loading spring 18. I also provide sealing means for both ends of the plunger in the form of 0 rings 19 and 19.
A pair of outlet fluid passages 20, 21 are provided in the casing 10 on opposite sides of the bore and extend upwardly within the casing parallel to the casing axis. At the upper end of the casing, a capping member 22 is located and may be secured thereto by means of a screw threaded arrangement as shown in Fig. 2. A pair of opposed downward and outwardly extending fiuid passages 23, 24 are also provided in the cap which communicate at one end with passages and 21 respectively. The cap passages are so arranged to communicate with an inner bore 26 in the cap 22.
The fluid passages 20, 21 are connected to radial ducts 27, 28 respectively which communicate with the lower portion of the casing bore 11 beneath the piston 17. Valve seats 29, 30 are provided at end of the ducts adjacent the bore 11 and ball check valves 31, 32 are biased into valve seating engagement by means of springs 33, 34. Set screws 35, 36 are provided to close the outer ends of the ducts and to permit removal of the check valves when desired.
At the lower end of the casing 10, a cylindrical valve case 37 threaded on its outer periphery is positioned adjacent the lower end of bore 11 by means of an internally threaded valve support ring38. The valve case 37 is threaded into the support which is in turn attached to the casing 10 by means of a pair of threaded bolts 39. A gasket ring 40 is provided for insuring a fluid seal within the connection. A valve 41 with an outwardly tapering end 42 is movably supported within the case 37. The tapered surfaces of. the valve end are biased into seating engagement with a valve seat 43 in the case by means of a loading spring 44. Inlet holes 45 are also provided in the case 37 which communicate with the case inner bore 45.
Tosupport the pump, a stool 47 is provided adjacent the valve support ring 38 and secured thereto by the threaded bolts 39 inserted through flange 46a. As can be seen, these bolts serve to retain both the support ring and stool securely against the lower end of the pump casing. The stool has a foot 46 at its lower end which serves as a support for the pump against the bottom of the well hole. The stool is bored internally at 48 and a plurality of lateral passages 49' are provided which permit fluid communication between the well and the stool bore 48.
In the operation of the pump, the pump is assembled and an outlet pipe 50 is attached to the pump cap 22. A screw-threaded connection may be provided for this purpose or any other suitable arrangement as a means of attachment. The length of the pipe 50 may be chosen according to the Well depth or a plurality of pipe sections joined together may be employed. If it is desired, the stool 47 may be lowered independently to the bottom of the well followed by the pump. One purpose of the stool 47 is to support the weight of the pump and the weight of the outlet pipe. It also serves to withstand the downward force created when the hammer 16 strikes the piston 17.
The pump assembly with the desired lengths of pipes attached is then lowered. Each of the electro-magnets 14, 15 has one of its terminals connected to the pump casing 10. This may be done in any convenient manner and is not shown in Fig. 1. This connection provides a ground for each of the coils as shown in the circuit of Fig. 3. Lead wires 51, 52 are connected to the other terminal of coils 14, 15 respectively of suflicient length so that when the pump is lowered to the bottom of the well, the wires can be connected into the timing mechanism at the surface.
One type of timing arrangement for use with the pump is shown generally in Fig. 3. The lead wires 51, 52 terminate at contact points 53, 54 respectively. A springloaded movable contact arm 55 is moved into alternate contact making engagement with the coil contacts by means of a cam 56. The cam may be rotated either manually or by an electric motor. The contact arm 55 is connected to a suitable source of either A. C. or D. C. power 57, one side of which is grounded to complete the circuit through the solenoids 14, 15.
When the solenoids 14, 15 are deenergized, the hammer 16 rests in the lower portion of the bore 11 on the head portion 17a of the piston 17. The piston occupies the position of Fig. l by virtue of the upward biasing by its spring 18.
When the cam 56 is rotated to the position of Fig. 4, a circuit is completed through the solenoid 14. A magnetic field is thusly set up and this field acts on the hammer 16 to move it upwardly in the bore 11. As the cam continues to rotate, it moves the contact arm 55 breaking the circuit to the coil 14. The hammer, therefore, begins to drop of its own weight. Under the action of the cam 56, the arm 55 moves over engaging contact 54 and the solenoid 15 is now energized. The solenoid 15 is so arranged that its magnetic field acts on the hammer in the opposite direction from solenoid 14, and therefore, accelerates the downward movement of the hammer. It can, therefore, be seen that the downward movement of the hammer is atfected both by its own weight and the pulling force of solenoid 15.
The hammer 16 continues to move downwardly in the bore until it strikes the head 17a of the piston 17. The striking force is of such a magnitude that the piston is forced downwardly compressing the spring 18. The rotating cam now permits the contact arm 55 to move over under the action of its spring deenergizing the solenoid 15 and then closing the circuit to solenoid 14. Under the action previously the hammer 16 now moves upwardly again and the piston 17 is permitted to move upwardly under the loading action of the spring 18. The suction created by the piston draws the fluid from the Well through passages 49 in the stool into the valve case 37 through passages 45 and through the valve seat 43 into the lower portion of the casing bore 11 beneath the piston. The valve 41 is unseated against the action of spring 44 by the suction pressure. On the next downward stroke of the hammer the piston when struck moves downwardly as before. The lower portion of the bore beneath the piston is now filled with fluid and the piston therefore forces the well fluid through the two ball check valves 31, 32 in the casing. The valve 41 is now firmly seated due to the positive fluid pressure. The pump fluid is then forced upward through the outlet passages 20, 21 where it enters into the outlet pipe bore 26 through the cap passages 23, 24.
This completes one stroke of the pump. The same cycle described above is repeated continuously and a constant discharge from the outlet pipe 50 results. It will be seen that the timing mechanism can be adjusted to obtain the desired number of strokes per second. Thus, the rate of fluid discharge can be easily controlled limited only by the structural features of the pump. In order to prevent a buildup of any pressure in the bore 11 a small release valve 60 is provided in the casing 10.
In the practice of the invention, it has been found the use of a hammer one inch in diameter and 12 feet in length weighing approximately 30 pounds dropping 12 inches at a speed of 60 feet per second has a striking force of 40,000 pounds. With a piston one inch in diameter and a 5 inch stroke, suflicient pressure is developed to pump fluid out of a well 10,000 feet deep and have about 400 pounds of pressure at ground level. At a rate of two strokes per second, a pump with the above dimensions will pump about 2 /2 gallons per minute. It can be seen that the rate of discharge can also be increased by increasing the size of either the hammer or piston or both.
While I have shown the pump used as a single unit, it may nevertheless be used also in combination with a number of similar units as stage pumps. With the arrangement, when pumping from extremely deep wells is necessary the discharge from the pump at the well bottom can feed into the intake of another similar pump at a higher level. As many pumps as necessary may be interconnected in this manner to obtain the proper ground level discharge rate and pressure.
However, since the lowest pump is immersed in fluid and automatically cools the solenoids, it is necessary to provide cooling means for the solenoids of the pumps which are not below the liquid level. Any desired cooling means may be employed to cool the solenoids such as a water jacket or the like.
Thus it will be seen that the pump provided will pump fluids from wells of the smallest diameter ina highly efficient manner and is of such design that through selection of structural dimensions within a wide range, a large variety of flow and pressure characteristics can be obtained. It is an outstanding feature of the pump among others that it requires minimum maintenance, supervision and repair.
As many possible embodiments may be made of my invention and as many changes may be made in the embodiment hereinbefore set forth, it is to be understood that all matter herein whether described or illustrated is to be interpreted as illustrative and not as a limitation.
I claim as my invention:
1. A fluid pump having an inlet and outlet valve means comprising a separable two-part casing, each part having a central bore, said bores being aligned to form a continuous passage, a magnetic core reciprocable in the passage, a pair of spaced solenoids within one casing part and surrounding said bore for effecting reciprocation of said core; a pump plunger reciprocal within the bore of the other casing part, said plunger having a shoulder, a shoulder in the bore of said other casing part, a compression spring disposed intermediate said shoulders, said core being engageable with said plunger to effect actuation thereof upon reciprocation of said core, said casing parts being formed so as to effect a smooth continuous body for insertion in a well.
2. A fluid pump as set forth in claim 1, each of said casing parts having at least one longitudinal fluid passage comprising a bore radially spaced from said central bore, said fluid passage bores being in fluid conducting axial alignment, the fluid passage bore in said one casing part extending from end to end therethrough, the fluid passage bore in said other casing part being foreshortened adjacent the end of said other casing part so as not to extend therethrough, a radial bore in said other casing part adjacent said end and intersecting said fluid passage bore and extending therefrom to said central bore of said other casing part, and an outlet valve in said radial passage.
3. A fluid pump as set forth in claim 2, including a closure plate secured to said end of said other casing part, a valve passage in said plate axially aligned with the central bore in said other casing part, an intake valve in said passage; a pedestal secured to said closure plate comprising a body having a perforated intake area, including a bed plate secured to said body and constituting a vertical support means for said casing.
4. A fluid pump having an inlet and outlet valve means comprising a separable two-part casing, each part having a central bore, said bores being aligned to form a coritinuous passage, a magnetic core reciprocable in the passage, a pair of spaced solenoids within one casing part and surrounding said bore for effecting reciprocation of said core; a pump plunger reciprocal within the bore of the other casing part, said core being engageable with said plunger to effect actuation thereof upon reciprocation of said core by impact stress of said core on said plunger, including a closure plate secured to an end of said other casing part, a valve passage in said closure plate axially aligned with the central bore in said other casing part, an intake valve in said passage; a pedestal secured to said closure plate comprising a body having a perforated intake area, including a bed plate secured to said body and constituting a vertical support means for said casing.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 519,662 Carpenter May 8, 1894 1,866,136 Tice July 5, 1932 2,382,426 Kocher Aug. 14, 1945 2,473,726 Payne June 21, 1949 FOREIGN PATENTS 572,513 Great Britain Oct. 11, 1945