US 2797906 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
July 2, 1957 E. P. AGHNlDr-:s 2,797,906
CONVERTIBLE AERATORS Filed Nov. 23, 1955 FIG. 7.
INVENTOR ELIE F? AGHNIDES www@ @MJ/Jam ATTORNEYS United States Patent Office 2,797,906 Patented July 2, 1957 CONVERTIBLE AERATGRS Elie ll. Aglmides, New York, N. Y.
Application November 23, 1953, Serial No. 393,587
6 Claims. (Cl. 261-76) This invention relates to aerators and more particularly to aerators for Water faucets or other outlets.
In my prior U. S. Patent 2,210,846, I illustrated a device for aerating water. The present invention is an improvement upon the basic principles of that patent and consists in certain modications of the device whereby the device may be selectively operated to produce either an aenated stream or a spray.
The advantage of the present invention will become immediately apparent when it is realized that while the coherent bubbly aerated stream of my said prior patent has great advantages in many situations, there are other situations in which a spray has greater advantages. The present invention enables one to select either stream.
lt is, therefore, the primary object of this invention to provide a device for selectively producing an aerated coherent stream or a spray.
It is a further object of the invention to provide a device which produces either an aerated stream or a spray, or a stream that has some characteristics of both of the streams.
It is a still furth-er object of this invention to provide a device for selectively producing an aerated coherent bubbly stream or a rain-like mist or spray.
In carrying out the foregoing objects, I provide an aerator with two paths that the water may take While flowing through the device. Means are provided to switch the water from one path to the other. When it flows in one path there are means in its path to produce a spray,
and when it flows through the other path the means in that path of the water produces an aerated stream.
This application is a continuation-in-part of my prior copending applications S. N. 135,645, filed December 29, 1949, entitled Fluid Mixing Device, and S. N. 319,710, filed November 10, 1952, now Patent No. 2,670,942, issued March 2, 1954, entitled Aerator.
In the drawings:
Figure 1 is a cross-sectional view of one form of the invention.
Figure 2 is a sectional View taken along line 2-2 of Figure 1.
Figure 3 is a cross-sectional view of another form of the invention.
Figure 4 is a cross-sectional view of still another form of the invention.
Figure 5 is a cross-sectional View of still another form of the invention.
Figure 6 is a sectional view taken along line 6-6 of Figure 5.
Figure 7 is a cross-sectional view of still another form of the invention.
Figure 8 is a cross-sectional View of still another form of the invention.
Figure 9 is a plan view of the lower perforated disc of Figure 8.
Figure 10 is a plan view of the upper perforated disc of Figure 8.
' Referring to Figure 1 the upper cap-shaped element 10 has internal threads 11 for attaching it to a faucet. A lower cap-shaped element 12 is connected by rods or bars 13 to the central conical body 14. The rods or bars 13 are part of and integral with a press-fit ring 13a which is carried by casing 12. The body 14 has vertical webs 15 the outer edges of which are threaded and cooperate with the threads on the inside of boss 16 which is of course integral with the upper cap 10. An upper perforated disc 17 is carried as part of the same unit as conical body 14. A ledge 18 on cap 10 has perforations which are out of line with those in disc 17 so that when the disc 17 moves downward until it is ilat upon the surface of ledge 18 the holes in 17 and 18 are out of line and a very small volume of water, if any, flows through said holes.
The operation of the device of Figure 1 is as follows. When the lower cap 12 is rotated to the positionshown, the water passes through the perforations in disc 17, then through the perforations in ledge 18 and then is directed upon the screens 19 in the form of high velocity streamlets. The result is a coherent jet containing numerous air bubbles all as described in my prior United States Patents 2,210,846 and 2,316,832. In this position water does not ow through the hole in boss 16 since the conical member 14 engages the lower end of boss 16, as shown in Figure l, and blocks all flow of water through the hole in the boss 16. However, if the lower cap 12 is rotated until the perforated disc 17 is lying directly on ledge 18, very little, if any, water passes through the perforations in 17 and 18 but ows through the opening in boss 16. The lower part of the cone 14 causes the water to fan out in the form of la diverging spray as it leaves the lower end of the device.
In the modified form of Figure 3 the outer cap 30 has internal threads for connection to a water faucet. The lower end of cap 30 carries the threaded outlet 31 which by means of spokes 32 (which are similar to rods or bars 13 of Figure 2) is connected to the conical body 33 which closes the outlet of cylinder 34 in the position shown. Cylinder 34 is integral with and is carried by disc 35 which rests on a ledge 30a carried by cap 30. Disc 35 is press-fitted into the casing 30. An upper perforated disc 36 has holes 36a which are staggered as respects the holes in disc 35 so that when disc 36 is lowered and is resting on disc 35 the holes in disc 35 are all covered and little, if any, water flows therethrough. On the other hland holes 36b are located above the opening in cylinder 34 and when disc 36 is lowered the cone 33 is likewise lowered hence water may ow out the lower end of cylinder 34.
When the device of Figure 3 is in the position shown the lower end of cylinder 34 is closed and the water passes through orifices 36a and 36h, perforations in disc 35, and strikes the mixing screens 37. These screens nely break up the water and mix it with air to form a coherent jet of the type mentioned in my said prior Patents 2,210,846 and 2,316,832. The screen 3S aids in this mixing function. However, when the cap 31 is ro- 13a-ted to lower disc 36 onto disc 35 water flows through the cylindrical opening in member 34 and strikes the lower part of conical member 33. Hence, the water is slightly deflected and it thereafter strikes screen 38 which is of such mesh as compared to the volume and velocity of the water striking it that a mist-like spray is produced at the outlet.
Referring now to Figure 4 the upper cap 40 has internal threads for attaching it to a faucet. The lower cap 41 is threaded onto the outside of cap 40. The lower cap is connected by means of spokes 42 to a central cup 43 which when in its uppermost position (as `shown) blocks the outlet of cylindrical member 44 which is integral with disc 45 which is in turn integral with upper cap 40. The upper disc 46 has perforations 46a located above the opening in cylinder 44, and also has perforations 46h which are so staggered with respect to the perforations in disc 45 that when the disc 46 is lowered enough to rest on disc 45 no water .will ow through the perforations 4g6b or those in disc 45. When the cap 41 is lowered, the water liows through ycylinder 44 and out through perforations 49 in cup 43.
When the lower cap 41 of Figure 4 is rotated to the position shown, water enters perforations 46a and 46h, thence passes through `the perforations in disc 45 and thereafter impinges upon screens 47. Screens 47 and 48 finely break up the water and mix it with .air ,to form a coherent jet of aerated water as described in my vprior U. S. Patent 2,210,846 and 2,312,832. When, however, the lower cap 41 is lowered so much that disc 4.6 rests on disc 45, 4the water `passes through perforations 46a, cylilldlr 44, and perforations .49. Since water from perforations 49 does not strike screens 47 the aeration action mentioned in my prior patents will not occur. Instead the voutlet stream .will be a rain-like spray, due to the water streamlets from orifices 49 striking screen 48.
Figure illustrates another form of invention having an upper cap 50 to which lower cap 51 is threaded. There are two paths that the water may take through the device as follows: (1) it may go through perforationsV 52 in disc 53 onto screens 54 where it will be mixed with air to form a bubbly stream, or (2) it vmay pass through perforations 55 in disc 53 in which event it will strike .only screen 56 which is of such mesh as to convert the stream striking it into a rain-like spray. To switch between these two paths is a valve element 57 which may be rotated by handle 58. The element 57 has blades 59 which cover perforations 52 in one position of rotation and open them in another. When blades 59 cover perforations 52, the perforations 60 in element 57 are in alignment with perforations 55 Whereby streamlets are directed from perforations 55 directly upon screen 56. When blades 59 uncover perforations 52 the element 57 covers perforations 55 and hence the-only streamlets are those which pass from perforations 52 to screens 54. There is an intermediate position in which some water may flow through perforations 52 and 55 to give a hybrid having some characteristics of a spray and some of an aerated stream.
Figure 7 illustrates a cap 70 having internal threads adapted for connection to aV faucet. Cap 70 has a cylindrical hollow boss 71 having external threads. The lower cap 72 carries central cup 73 which has perforationg in the bottom thereof and internal threads which mesh with the threads on the outside of boss 71. Cup 73 carries post 74 which in turn carries valve element 75. The latter is open at its top and carries a flange having perforations 76 therein. An upper perforated polyethylene disc 77 rests on ledge 78 and is held firmly against that ledge by the faucet, when the cap 70 is screwed onto the faucet. The perforations in disc 77 are out of line with the main central opening in Valve element A75 so that when the valve element 75 is moved upward ,its central opening will be closed by disc 77. I n that case water will pass through the perforations in disc 77, l,thence through perforations 76, thence through perforations 70a in cap 70, and will impinge upon screens 79 to produce a4 bubbly coherent screen. When cap 72 is rotated until the central opening in valve element 75 is open yand the perforations V76 are closed by the cap 70, the water passing through the perforations in disc 77 will enter the central opening in valve element 75 and will pass out ofthe perforations in the bottom of cup 73. Since the bottom of this cup is somewhat curved the spray emanating therefrom will be in the form of diverging streamlets.
In the device o f Figure 8 the perforated discs 81 and 82 have rows of holes respectively as shown in Figures 9 and l0. The upstream perforated disc 81 can be rotated by means of handle 83 to three different positions; first the outer or peripheral row of holes 84 only open. This gives a spray (like an ordinary shower) if a screen 85 is not placed in its path, and a diverging stream of droplets if a screen 85 is placed in its path. In the second position the central holes 86 only would be open. The water from these holes strikes the aerating screens 90. This gives a coherent bubbly jet type of discharge from the orifice 87. In the third position, holes 8S in the periphery and holes 89 in the center would all be open so as to obtain two different kinds of streams simultaneously. Air may enter through ducts A. It is understood that Figures 9 and 10 show only one cooperating group of holes and that other similar groups may be added.
It is noted that in all forms of the invention there is an air inlet A corresponding to air inlet 38 of my U. S. Patent 2,210,846 and air inlet 25 of my U. S. Patent 2,316,832. Also when the device is used to produce aerated water in the form of a coherent jet having small bubbles disseminated throughout the jet, each form of my device has an upstream diaphragm corresponding to diaphragm 36 of my U. S. Patent 2,210,846 and diaphragms 23 and 24 of my U. S. Patent 2,316,832. In my present disclosure these diaphragms are designated by reference numbers 17, 18, 35, 36, 45, 46, 53, 77, 70a, and 81. The size and number of holes in these diaphragms are so related to the number of and mesh of the screens that the coherent jet of said earlier Patents 2,210,846 and 2,316,832 is produced. It follows that each form of my present disclosure has screens complementary to screens 40 and 42 of my U. S. Patent 2,210,846 and screens 26, 27 and 28 of my U. S. Patent 2,316,832. The screens in the present case which are complementary to those of the prior patents are designated by reference numbers 19, 37-8, 47--8, 54-6, 79 and 90. l
In all forms of the invention there is one position in which a pure coherent aerated bubbly jet is produced. There is another position in which a pure spray is produced. However, in each case there is an intermediate position in which the water is divided between its two paths whereby the output is a hybrid having some characteristics of an aerated stream and some of a spray. The term spray used herein above and in the claims includes not only sprays of the type produced by the ordinary shower head but also rain-type sprays, as well as all other sprays. In each form of the invention a rain-type of spray may be produced if a screen of proper mesh is placed in the path' of the streamlets constituting spray. Those skilled in the art are aware of the way to determine the proper screen mesh to produce a rainlike spray.
I claim to have invented:
l. A device for producing either an aerated stream of water or a spray comprising a conduit adapted to be attached to the end of a faucet and defining a chamber having substantially the same lateral dimensions as those of the faucet, relatively vertically movable first and second elements both interposed across said chamber and the second element being a dual path foraminous diaphragm downstream of the first, the second element having means located near the axis of the chamber and dividing any water entering the means into a spray and discharging the water from the device as a spray, the second element also having apertures located farther from said axis than the first-named means and forming any water entering them into jet-like high velocity streamlets, said conduithaving air inlet openings for feeding atmospheric air into the space throughl which said streamlets pass, mixing means located in the path of said streamlets to break up the water and mix it with aix' toform a coherent bubbly jet, said first and second elements. being @assured @ed arranged ,S0 that in 011e gramos relative position thereof the Water entering the conduit is primarily directed through said first-named means and in another relative position the water is primarily directed through said apertures, and means for moving at least one of said elements to place the elements in either of said relative positions or in an intermediate position wherein water flows through both said firstnamed means and said apertures.
2. A device for producing either an aerated jet or a spray comprising a cylindrical element having an upstream end adapted to be inserted over the outside of a faucet and having an open mixing chamber whose outer diameter is substantially equal to the outside diameter of the faucet, dual path foraminous diaphragm means located in the cylindrical element to define two separate concentric paths through which water from the faucet may iiow through the element, said means having jet producing orifices in the outer of the two paths to form high velocity streamlets, said element defining air inlet holes leading to said outer path, mixing means located below the air inlet holes and in the path of said streamlets for finely dividing the water and mixing it with air to form a coherent bubbly jet, said first-named means forming the water passingv through the central path into a spray and including means for switching the water from the faucet into either of said two paths or into both of said paths simultaneously.
3. A device for producing either an aerated bubbly stream or a spray, a cylindrical member having an upstream end arranged to be connected to a faucet, a ledge within said body member, a foraminous diaphragm resting on said ledge, the bottom of said cylindrical member having a plurality of apertures therein and a relatively large central cylindrical opening dened by a depending cylindrical wall threaded on one side thereof, an inner diaphragm within said cylindrical member between said first named diaphragm and said bottom and provided with a central upstanding valving boss around said central cylindrical opening, said boss being arranged to bear against said diaphragm to block iiuid flow through said central cylindrical opening and further arranged to be lowered and open said central cylindrical opening to fluid ow, said inner diaphragm having a series of holes out of alignment with the holes in said bottom whereby when said inner diaphragm is raised ow occurs through said inner diaphragm and said bottom and when said inner diaphragm is lowered iiow occurs centrally through said central cylindrical opening, a lower body member threaded to said depending cylindrical wall and having means acting on said inner diaphragm to move it from one uid control position to another, said lower body member having central spray producing means cooperating with said central cylindrical opening and screen members cooperating with saidV bottom to produce an aerated bubbly stream, and means to admit air to the assembly above said screen members.
4. The combination set forth in claim 3, said means acting on said inner diaphragm comprising a central upstanding element connecting said cylindrical member and said lower body member.
5. The combination set forth in claim 4, said central spray producing means comprising a foraminous curved member surrounded by said screen members and separated therefrom by an inner circular wall forming part of said lower body member.
6. The combination set forth in claim 5, said central upstanding element being mounted. in the center of said central spray producing means.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNTED STATES PATENTS 2,210,846 Aghnides Aug. 6, 1940 2,316,832 Aghnides Apr. 20, 1943 2,333,767 Davis Nov. 9, 1943 2,359,455 Williamson Oct. 3, 1944 2,388,508 Timpson Nov. 6, 1945 2,395,227 Lewis et al Feb. 19, 1946 2,447,123 iones Aug. 17, 1948 2,487,023 Lehmann Nov. l, 1949 2,603,469 Bedford et al. July 15, 1952