US 2799307 A
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F. A. NICKOL 7 2,799,307
woon ARCH LAMINATING MACHINE AND METHOD 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 July 16, 1957 Filed April 8,. 1955 ATTORNEY July 16, 1957 F. A. NICKOL WOOD ARCH LAM'INATING MACHINE AND METHOD INVENTOR E 11 a 1 :0 Z
3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed April 8, 1955 ATTORNEY .July 16, 1957 NlcKQL 2,799,307
WOOD ARCH LAMINATING MACHINE METHOD Filed April 8. 1955 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 5 I mvmok' ickol ATTORNEY United States Patent G WOOD ARCH LAMINATING MACHINEAND METHGD Frank Nickel, Ledger, Mont.
Application April 8, 1955, Serial No. 500,224
7 Claims. (Cl. 144'-3ll9) This invention relates to a machine of simple construction capable of being readily utilized for fabricating laminated wood arches for various uses, as for example in constructing buildings.
More particularly, it is an aim of the present invention to provide a machine which may be'readily utilized at the location of a building being constructed for producing laminated wood arches for use therein, thereby eliminating the need for transporting large prefabricated wood arches.
A further object of the invention is to provide a machine of extremely simple construction which is capable of being operated by one man for fabricating the wood arches and which requires no special skill to operate.
A further object of the invention is to provide a machine which can be used for laminating wood arches. of different widths and thicknesses and having various numbers of plies.
Still another object of the invention is to provide a machine by means of which wood arches can be quickly laminated with a minimum of labor.
Various other objects and advantages of the. invention will hereinafter become more fully apparent from. the following description of the drawings, illustrating a presently preferred embodiment thereof, and wherein:
Figure l is a top plan view of the machine;
Figure 2 is a fragmentary top plan view of one end portion of the machine and on an enlarged scale, relative to Figure 1;
Figure 3 is a side elevational view of the end portion of the machine as seen in Figure 2, looking toward the inner side thereof;
Figure 4 is an enlarged cross sectional view, taken substantially along a plane as indicated by the line 4-4 of Figure 2;
Figure 5 is an enlarged fragmentary longitudinal sectional view, taken substantially along a plane as indicated by the line 55 of Figure 2;
Figure 6 is an enlarged fragmentary longitudinal sectional view, taken substantially along a plane as indicated by the line 6=6 of Figure 2 and with the arch forming material omitted;
Figure 7 is an enlarged cross sectional view, taken substantially along a plane as indicated by the line 7--7 of Figure 2 with the arch forming material omitted;
Figure 8 is an enlarged detail cross sectional view taken substantially along a plane as indicated by the line 8'-8 of Figure 1;
Figure 9 is an enlarged end elevational view looking toward the right-hand end of the machine as seen in Figure 1;
Figure 10 is an edge elevational view, on a reduced scale, of a laminated arch formed by the machine and after. removal therefrom, and
Figure 11 is a fragmentary plan view looking toward the inner side of a portion of one ply of the arch.
Referring more specifically to the drawings, the wood arch laminating machine in its entirety and comprising the invention is designated generally 12 and includes an arcuate frame, designated generally 13, constituting the form of the machine and which comprises slightly more than a semicircle. The frame 13 includes an inner form wall 14 and an outer reinforcing or bracing wall 15. The width and thickness of the Walls 14 and 15 may vary depending upon the size of the machine 12. For machines 12 of most sizes, said walls 14 and 15 may be formed of steel of one quarter inch thickness and approximately four inch width. The walls 14 and 15 are connected by a plurality of spacing members 16, each of which comprises a length of pipe or tube, the ends of which are suitably secured to adjacent faces of the walls 14 and 15. The connecting members 16 may be spaced different distances apart depending upon the size of the machine. The frame 13 is supported at a convenient elevation by a number of legs 17, upper ends of which are preferably secured in any suitable manner to certain of the connecting members 16 and the lower ends of which are adapted to rest on the ground or other suitable supporting surface, for supporting the frame 13 at a convenient elevation for use, as for example at an elevation of three or four feet above the surface on which the legs 17 rest.
Corresponding ends of the walls 14 and 15 are connected by a rigid plate or bar 18 constituting the righthand end of the frame 13, as seen'in Figure I. Said plate 18 extends inwardly from the inner form Wall 14 to provide a stop or abutment 19. As best seen in Figure 7, a metal strap 20 is secured to the bottom edge of the plate 18 and extends to beyond the inner edge of the. abutment 19. The inner end of the strap 20 is provided with an upwardly and outwardly inclined notch forming a hook 21, for a purpose which will hereinafter be described. A plurality of circumferentially spaced supporting bars 22 are each suitably secured to portions of the bottom edges of the walls 14 and 15 and have unsecured inner end portions which project inwardly from a bottom edge of the inner form wall 14.
At the other, left-hand end of the machine 12, as seen in Figure 1 and designated generally 23, the outer bracing wall 15 has a terminal portion 24 which extends toward and merges with the inner form wall 14. As clearly illustrated in Figure 2, said inner form wall 14 extends to beyond the terminal portion 24 of the outer wall 15 and is provided with an inwardly extending bottom flange 25 which extends to said last mentioned end thereof from a point spaced a substantial distance therefrom, as seen in Figure 2. Said last mentioned end of the inner wall 14 is provided with a laterally turned inwardly extending transverse wall portion 26 which in turn has an extension 27 which is .dis posed substantially parallel to a part of the wall 14 and which extends a short distance from the transverse wall 26.
An elongated supporting member 28 has an inner end disposed against and secured to the underside of the bottom wall 25 and projects therefrom to substantially beyond the transverse wall 26. A fluid pressure ram, designated generally 29, such as a hydraulic ram, has a cylinder 30 which is disposed longitudinally on and suitably secured to the supporting member 28. As seen in Figure l, a line 31 lead-ing from a suitable source of a hydraulic medium under pressure is connected with and opens into the outer or rear end of the cylinder 30 for pressurizing the rear portion of the cylinder 30 whereby the piston 32 which is contained therein, as seen in Figure 2, will be displaced toward the inner end 33 of the cylinder. LA piston rod 34 which is fixed to the piston 32 extends loosely through an opening 35 in the inner end 33 of the cylinder and through the transverse wall 26 and a guide or boss 36 which is mounted on said wall 26 and which provides a guide for the sliding movement of the rod 34. A ram head 37 is secured to the inner end of the piston rod 34. As best illustrated in Figure 7,' a major portion of the ram head 37 is disposed above the bottom Wall and inwardly with respect to a part of the wall 14 and is provided with an angular slot '38 in which portions of the walls 14 and 25 loosely fit. The head 37 has a detachable bottom section 39 connected thereto by fastenings 40 and which is disposed beneath the bottom 25 and enables application of the ram head 37 to or removal of the head from the walls 14 and 25.
The inner wall 14, beyond the Wall portion 24, is provided with a longitudinally extending slot 41, as best seen in Figure 6. A pressure block 42 is disposed on the inner side of the wall 14 and above the bottom wall 25. The pressure block 42 has a recessed central portion 43 in which is formed a longitudinal-1y extending slot 44 which is adapted to register with the slot 41. The bolt of a bolt and wing nut fastening 45 extends loosely through the slots 41 and 44 for slidably connecting the pressure block 42 to the wall 14. The fastening 45 is adapted to be tightened for clamping the pressure block 42 in different adjusted positions longitudinally of the wall 14, as will hereinafter be described.
An elongated clamp 46 of channel shape cross section is swingably connected as seen at 47 in Figure 4 to a portion of the upper edge of the outer wall 15, adjacent the end portion 24 thereof, for vertical swinging movement. One of the connecting members is disposed immediately beneath the clamp 46 and is designated 16a. Said connecting member 160: has a vertically extending threaded bore 48 for detachably receiving the threaded lower end of a rod 49 which extends loosely through an opening 50 in the bottom portion 51 of the clamp 46. A collar 52 is secured to the rod 49 and bears on the upper side of the bottom 51 for holding the clamp 46 in an operative position with a part of the bottom thereof bearing on the upper edge of a portion of the inner wall 14. The clamp 46, when thus disposed, as seen in Figure 4, extends inwardly over the bottom wall 25 and the bottom portion thereof which is disposed over the bottom 25 has a longitudinally extending slot 53. The rod 49 has a handle 54 at its upper end which extends transversely thereof, as best seen in Figure 5. A clamping block 55 is disposed beneath the slotted part of the bottom 51 and has an upstanding threaded stud 56 which sl-idably engages in the slot 53. A wing nut or the like 57 threadedly engages the stud 56 and bears on the upper side of the bottom 51 for supporting the clamping block 55 therebeneath and for clamping the block 55 in selected adjusted positions relative to the bottom 51.
A metal strap 53, similar to the strap 20, is suitably secured to the underside of the bottom 25, as seen in Figure 4, and has an inner end portion extending inwardly therefrom which is provided with a hook 59, similar to the hook 21. The hooks 21 and 59 are connected by tie rod means, designated generally 60, including a pair of rods 61 and 62 having remote ends provided with eyes 63 which engage the hooks 21 and 59. The rods 61 and 62 have spaced apart adjacently disposed threaded ends 64 which engage in the ends of a turnbuckle 65, by means of which said rods may be drawn toward one another. The tie rod means is adjusted to prevent spreading of the frame 13 and so that the frame will form a semicircle between the end wall 18 and the pivoted clamp 46, as seen in Figure -1.
To utilize the machine 12 to form a laminated wood arch, assuming that the machine 12 is set up as illustrated in the drawings and that the turnbuckle 65 has been tightened so that the frame 13 forms a semicircle between the straps 21B and 58, strips of wood 66 are first placed around the inner side of the frame wall 14 in end-to-end relation. The strips of wood 66 may be of various lengths and widths, as for example of two inch, four inch or six inch widths and of lengths greater than the spacing be- 4 tween the supporting bars 22, as for example, approximately sixteen feet in length, so that each strip 66 will rest upon two of the. bars 22 with the exception of the strip that rests on the bottom or floor plate 25 and possibly one other of the strips located adjacent thereto. The strips 66 are preferably of about one inch in thickness. One of the strips 66 bears against the end wall or abutment .18, as seen in Figure 1. Each strip 66, intermediate of its ends, is bowed outwardly against the form wall 14 and is connected thereto by a hook member 67 which engages thereover and over the wall 14, as best illustrated in Figure 8. The end portions of the strips 66, by engagement with the wall and due to the tendency of the strips to straighten out, will also be bowed outwardly or toward the wall 14. The fastening 45 of the pressure block 42 is loosened and the pressure block is displaced toward the retracted ram head 37, as seen in Figure 1, so that the outer end of the end strip 66, which bears on'the floor plate 25, will abut against the inner end of the pressure block 42. With the strips 66 thus disposed in the machine 12, pressure is supplied to the outer end of the ram cylinder 30 to cause the ram head 37 to move from left to right as seen in Figures 2 and 3 for forcing the pressure block 42 in the same direction.
,When this occurs, pressure is exerted against the strips 66 and as said strips are disposed with their ends bowed outwardly and in abutting engagement with one another and with their intermediate portions sprung outwardly by the books 67, the pressure thus exerted against the strips 66 will cause said strips to yield outwardly and to assume positions in conforming engagement against the form wall 14, as illustrated in Figure 2. The hooks 67 have a sufficient loose engagement with the strips 66 to permit the strips to slide relative to said hooks or to permit the hooks to slide with the strips relative to the wall 14. After the strips 66 are disposed in conformable engagement against the inner side of the wall 14 and with their ends abutting one another and with the remote ends of the end strips 66 abutting the end wall pontion 19 and the inner end of the pressure block 42, the fastening 45 is tightened to hold the outer ply of the arch, composed of the strips 66 thus correctly positioned in the frame 13.
The pressure can then be released from the cylinder 30, preparatory to applying another ply to the machine 12. Before the second ply is applied, the hooks 67 are removed and a coating 68 of a bonding medium such as glue is applied to the concave inner side of the strips 66. Strips 69 forming the second ply of the arch are then applied in the same manner as previously described with reference to the strips 66, commencing at the abutment 19. However, the strip 69 which rests on the bottom or floor plate 25 does not engage against the inner end of the pressure block 42 but rather extends across the inner side of said pressure block and therebeyond, as the strips 69 are each slightly longer than the strips 66. Likewise, in applying the second ply, composed of the strips 69, the hooks 67 are not utilized. In lieu thereof, and as illustrated in Figure 3, a nail 70 is driven through each strip 69 substantially intermediate of its ends and is anchored in the strip 66 disposed outwardly thereof for holding the intermediate portion of each strip 69 against a strip 66. Pressure is then again supplied to the ram cylinder 30 to advance the ram head 37 toward the pressure block 42 and into engagement with the end of the strip 69 which extends beyond said pressure block toward the ram head. The strips 69 are thus displaced lengthwise within the frame 13 and are sprung outwardly so that each strip 69, from endto-end thereof, will conformably engage against the outer ply of the arch composed of the strips 66. As the strips 69 are thus displaced lengthwise, the temporary anchoring nails 76 will be readily drawn out of engagement with the strips 66 and may thereafter be removed.
The clamping bar 46 which was not employed in fabrieating the outer ply composed of the strips 66 is then swung counterclockwise about its pivot 47 to its position of Figure 4 with a part of its bottom 51 resting on the upper edge of the inner wall 14. The threaded rod end 49 is then engaged in the threaded bore 48 and tightened to cause the collar 52 to bear on the upper side of the bottom 51 to retain the clamp 46 in its position of Figure 4 and with the clampingblock 55 thereof bearing upon the upper edge of a part of the strip 69 which rests on the floor plate 25. The strips 69 are thus held clamped in the frame 13 while the glue or bonding medium 68 sets for securing said strips 69 to the strips 66.
After the strips 69 forming the second ply have thus been applied and clamped, a third ply composed of strips 71 are applied to the frame 13 on the inner side of the second ply and in the same manner as previously described in reference to applying the second ply,
including attaching each strip 71 intermediate of its ends by a nail 70 to strips 66 and 69. Before the strips 71 are applied, a coating 68 of the bonding medium is applied to the inner side of the strips 69. The strips 71 are I each slightly longer than the strips 69 so that the strip 71 which engages the floor plate extends toward the head 37 of the retracted ram 29 to beyond the strip 69 which had previously been pushed by the ram. After the strips 71 have had pressure applied thereto by the ram 29 to cause said strips to conformably engage against the coated inner surfaces of the strips 69 and before the ram pressure is released therefrom, the rod 49 is loosened slightly after which the nut 57 is loosened to permit the clamping block 55 to be slid from right to left as seen in Figure 4 to a position overlying the strip 71 which rests on the floor plate 25. The nut 57 is then tightened, after which the rod 49 is re-tightened for clamping the third ply composed of the strips 71 in the frame 13.
The aforementioned operation can be repeated until as many plies as desired have thus been fabricated. The completed arch 72 may be composed of as many as eight or ten such plies.
The thickness of the ends of the pressure block 42 correspond to the thickness of the strips 66 one of which abuts thereagainst. Thus, the strip 69 which rests on the floor plate will be disposed in abutting engagement with the inner side of the complementary strip 66 to end of said strip which bears against the pressure block 42.
After all of the plies forming the arch 72 have been secured together in the frame 13 and sufiicient time has elapsed to permit all of the layers of glue 68 to set, pressure on the ram 29 is released to back off the ram head 37. The rod 49 is disconnected from the threaded bore 48 so that the clamp 46 can be swung clockwise as seen in Figure 4 about its pivot 47 upwardly and outwardly with respect to the frame 13. As seen in Figure 3, a line or mark 73 is provided on the inner side of the wall 14 in alignment with the inner face of the abut.- ment 19. The fabricated plies forming the arch are marked off by a line which conforms or aligns with the mark or line 73, after which the fastening is loosened so that the pressure block 42 may be moved from right to left as seen in Figures 2 and 3, away from the adjacent strip 66. The arch is then removed from the frame 13. To enable this to be more readily accomplished, the turnbuckle 65 may be loosened for spreading or opening of the machine 12. Thereafter, the irregular end of the arch 72 is cut off along the line, not shown, marked by the line 73 to form one end of the completed arch, the other end of which is correctly formed by the ply ends which abut the wall portion 19.
The arch 72 as thus fabricated is ready to be erected in and as a part of a building.
It will be understood that the machine 12 may be made in various sizes for producing arches 72 of different lengths, widths and thicknesses.
Various modifications and changes are contemplated and may obviously be resorted to, without departing from the function or scope of the invention as hereinafter defined by the appended claims.
I claimas my invention:
1. A woodarch laminating machine comprising a frame including an arcuate form wall, means supporting said frame in substantially a horizontal plane with said form wall disposed in substantially a vertical plane, said frame including an end wall having a portion extending inwardly from an end of said form wall and against which ends of complementary strips of wood forming arch plies are adapted to abut, said frame having spaced supporting members extending inwardly from a bottom edge of the formwalland on which bottom edges of the arch forming strips are adapted to rest, a floor plate projecting inwardly from the bottom edge of the form wall and extending lengthwise of the other end of the frame, ram means, supporting means connected to said frame and supporting the ram means beyond the last mentioned end of the frame, said ram means including a head having a part slidably disposed lengthwise of the floor plate and disposed thereabove and inwardly with respect to an adjacent part of said form wall and adapted to successively engage complementary ends of complementary strips forming different plies of the arch for successively displacing each ply of the arch circumferentially of the frame in a direction toward said inwardly extending portion of the end wall for causing each arch ply to be bowed outwardly into a position substantially concentric to said form wall and for causing an outermost arch ply to conformably engage against the inner side of said form wall, and anchoring means adjustably supported on the frame adjacent said floor plate for holding the arch plies under tension in the frame after the endwise pressure exerted thereagainst by said ram means is removed.
2. A machine as in claim 1, said anchoring means including a block slidably disposed against a portion of the inner side of said form wall and having an inner end adapted to abut an end of the outer ply and an outer end adapted to be engaged by the ram head and to be displaced lengthwise of the frame thereby for causing said outer ply to conformably engage against the inner side of the form wall, and means for adjustably clamping said block to the form wall for anchoring the end of the outer ply engaged by the block.
3. A machine as in claim 2, an elongated clamping bar forming a part of said anchoring means pivotally connected to the frame for vertical swinging movement transversely of a part of the form wall, said bar having a portion extending across a part of the upper edge of the form wall and overlying a part of the floor plate in an operative position thereof, fastening means retaining said bar in an operative position, a clamping block adjustably supported by and disposed beneath said bar for engagement with upper edges of inner plies of the arch for clamping portions of said inner plies between said block and a part of the floor plate.
4. A machine as in claim 3, and a plurality of hook members adapted to engage over intermediate portions of each strip of the outer ply and over parts of the form wall for holding the intermediate portions of said outer ply strips against the inner side of the form wall when endwise pressure is applied to the strips for causing the strips to spring outwardly into conformable engagement with the inner side of the form wall.
5. A machine as in claim 1, said frame defining an arc in excess of a semicircle.
6. A machine as in claim 1, said frame including an outer reinforcing wall disposed concentrically around and spaced outwardly from a substantial portion of said form wall, and circumferentially spaced rigid spacing elements having inner ends secured to the outer side of said form wall and outer ends secured to the inner side of said reinforcing wall.
7. The method of fabricating a laminated wood arch comprising positioning a number of wood strips in abutand while the intermediate portions of each strip is held sprung outwardly for causing each of the strips to conformably engage against a concave side of a form wall, the step of temporarily clamping the end strip to which the pressure was applied for holding the strips forming an arch ply in an arcuate form and in conformable engagement with the form wall, the step of applying an adhesive coating to the inner side of the arch ply, and the repetition of the previously recited steps for forming additional inner plies of the arch each bonded to the ply disposed immediately on the outer side thereof by the previously applied adhesive coating of said next outer ply including 8 the step of temporarily clamping the end strip to which the pressure was applied for holding the strips constituting the last formed inner ply in an arcuate form and 'in conformable engagement with the adhesively coated inner side of the next outer ply until the inner ply is securely bonded to said next outer ply; to form a laminated arch comprising a plurality of concentric plies each consisting of a plurality of individual sections disposed in end-to-end relation to one another.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,330,804 Haskell Feb. 17, 1920 1,461,471 Bancroft July 10, 1923 2,392,079 Andreef Jan. 1, 1946 2,662,564 Payzant Dec. 15, 1953