|Publication number||US2801083 A|
|Publication date||Jul 30, 1957|
|Filing date||Jan 7, 1953|
|Priority date||Jan 7, 1953|
|Publication number||US 2801083 A, US 2801083A, US-A-2801083, US2801083 A, US2801083A|
|Inventors||Leslie L Balassa|
|Original Assignee||Leslie L Balassa|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (8), Referenced by (31), Classifications (34)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
July 30, 1957 L. L. BALASSA MIXING DEVICE Filed Jan. 7, 1,955
4 Sheets-Sheet 1 July 30, 1957 1 L. BALASSA 2,801,083
MIXING DEVICE Filed Jan. 7, 1955 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 INI/ENTOR.
Leslie L .Balcgsscb July 30, 1957 L. 1 BALAssA 2,801,083
MIXING DEVICE Filed Jan. 7, 1953' 4 Sheets5heet 5 IN VEN TOR.
July 30, 1957 L. L. BALAssA 2,801,033
MIXING DEVICE Filed Jan. 7. '1953 4 sheets-sheet 4 llllllggmmlllll JNVENToR. LeSZeL-Bal'asgga United rates MDGNG DEVICE Leslie L. Balassa, Madison, N. J.
Application January 7, 1953, Serial No. 330,099
3 Claims. (Cl. 259-8) This invention relates to a mixing device which is capable of mixing, homogenizing, dispersing and pumping, depending on the use to which it is put. The device is adapted to shear various types of material mechanically and hydraulically, to mix liquid in a state of high turbulence and, when desired, under considerable hydraulic pressure.
The machine of this invention mixes, blends, homogenizes and disperses liquid in liquid, or solids in liquid, or both. The device is extremely convenient and may be made stationary or portable and may be used in many positions and locations where the previous devices could not be used. For example, the device may be employed in horizontal, vertical, or diagonal position, consistent with purpose for which it is employed.
The device of this invention is especially adapted for the preparation of emulsions and pigment dispersions, and is capable of handling many high viscosity materials, pasty materials, as well as some thixotropic materials.
The machine is adapted for the introduction of liquid or gaseous fluid at various locations and permits gradual or rapid blending or intimate dispersion of materials which may be separately introduced. Thus, certain difficult or normally unmanageable chemical reactions may be managed or controlled by the use of this machine, as described below.
`This machine may furthermore be utilized as a pump or to introduce materials into a reaction zone or chamber, thereby eliminating the need for separate pumps. The machine of the present invention may be built relatively inexpensively and is an eicient multi-purpose device which is particularly useful in the chemical, pharmaceutical, textile, paint and food industries, and more particularly in emulsion technology. It may be readily and easily dismantled and reassembled by unskilled labor for cleaning, transportation, adjustment, replacement and other desirable purposes.
Essentially, the machine comprises primarily a turbine rotor and a multiple unit turbine stator. Liquids of widely ditferent viscosities may be handled by simply changing the angle of the turbine rotor blades which may be easily and eiciently accomplished by inserting a new rotor, or as shown below, by simply replacing the blades. In operation, the machine may draw the liquid between the turbine rotor and stator and force it through jet openings in a direction parallel with the rotating shaft. Liquid or gaseous fluids may be introduced into the machine (or withdrawn, depending on the desired use) either through a hollow rotating shaft and through the turbine rotor, or through a hollow stationary member above the turbine rotor, or both. A predetermined proportion of liquid may be caused to flow between the rotor and stator parallel with the direction of the rotating shaft while the remaining portion of the liquid may be forced by paddles or other diversion means to ow in a different direction away 'from the rotating shaft. IThe diverted flow thus 2,801,083 Patented July 30, 1957 sion purposes, or to break down the thixotropic structure of materials in the vicinity of the mixer head. Where desired, a screen protects the rotor from damage by hard objects which might otherwise he drawn into the mixer head or operating chamber. The screen or other protective device may be so located that it can be readily dismantled and cleaned.
A present preferred embodiment of the invention is illustrated in the accompanying drawings in which:
Fig. 1 is an elevational View of the mixing device, with portions shown in cross-section;
Fig. 2 is a detailed cross-section of one embodiment of Y an operating mixing head;
obtained may oppose the direction of the original flow and may be utilized for counter-current grinding or abra- Fig. 3 is a cross-section of another embodiment of a mixing head;
Fig. 4 is a detailed elevation view of an arrangement of screen openings for the mixing head stator;
Fig. 5 is a detailed elevation view of a mixing head of the general type shown in Fig. 3;
Fig. 6A is a plan view of a protective screen;
Fig. 6-B is an elevation of the protective screen partly in cross-section; and
Fig. 7 is an elevational view of an embodiment of the turbine rotor.
The general arrangement of parts of the machine may be seen from Fig. 1 in which motor 1 has a shaft 2 connected by coupling 3 to rotor drive shaft 6 journalled in bearing 30 mounted in frame 4. Extending out of the frame 4 and held in place by set-screws 5 are four supporting rods, two (14 and 34) of which are shown in Fig. l as containing centrally extending conduits.
A liquid inlet housing 28 communicates with inlet pipe 31 for external introduction of liquid into the machine. One of the hollow xed supporting rods 34 serves the dual function of mechanically connecting the rotor housing 19 with the drive mechanism, and of furnishing a conduit between the inlet pipe 31 and housing 28 on the one hand, and the stator head 19 in the operating head. The path of ow of material thus is into inlet pipe 31, thence into entrance housing 28, then into aperture 33 communicating with the conduit in rod 34, thence via channel 35 indicated in dotted lines in Fig. l, and finally out the ver--V tical slot Sil in the roof of the stator head.
Another housing 42 surrounds supporting rod 14 and communicates with exit pipe 41. In similar manner to that just described, there is communication from the inlet pipe 41 into chamber or housing 42 then into aperture 71 and down inner conduit 72 in the rod 14, nally debouching into the stator chamber 19. It is to be understood that, while pipe 31 has been identied as an inlet pipe and pipe 41 as an exit pipe, their roles may be reversed or both may be used for inlet or outlet purposes, depending on the function which the machine is to serve for a particular application. Still referring to Fig. 1, the drive shaft 6 is also provided With a central conduit 32 which communicates via one or more holes 29 therein with the inlet chamber 23. Suitable packing means, not shown, may be provided to prevent leakage at the juncture between drive shaft 6 and housing 28. The lower end of the conduit 32 communicates with ports 25 in the rotor 18. If desired, the upper ports 29 of drive shaft 6 may be fitted to communicate with a diiferent housing than housing 28, for example a separate housing similar to housing 42, fitted with appropriate packing to permit rotation of the drive shaft 6.
Supporting frame S comprises a channel member 73 in which ledge blocks 9 and 10 may slide back and forth to accommodate the rim of `the container (indicated at in which the machine is to operate. The channel member 73 is adjustably mounted with respect to the supporting rods 14 and 34 by means of a pluralityV of wing nuts 11 fitted through a clamping member 75. The height or depth of: the operating head' may thus be vertically adjusted, as may the radial` position of theV machine Withinthe container.
A bafe plate 15, preferably circular in outline, or at least' t'ronfc'arrn-ingl with Vbut' not largerthan! they Vgeneral contour ofi the operating head, isesecuredt'sleeves Vi745- w-hich Vrnayaslideon the Verticalsupporting rods?V Control ofthe positionof the batlieplate 15is -eieeted Aby'adjirsb ingthe handle V26 which is connected 'to one of the sleevesV 76.1 Thevpo'sitionnia-ybe'xed'- bytightening Vwing Vnuit 27 against clamping member 78 on arm 79 supported by one of they vert-ical supportingrod'sff Thei adjustable bae plate serves to'. pmventvs'pattering YandtoAf exertpressure `in the-'event that'foani/-isbuiltI up during ytl3ernixi'r1,`.^proc':ess, thereby tending mechanically tolbreaie the/foam. vr`Also, inzthe case of `high-'speed or especiallyY low viscosity opera- 2,so1,oss Y Y a Fig. 4 showsa stator housing of a different coniiguration, including a main housing portion 92 and receptacles- 44 for screen support bars such as 46 shown in Fig. 1. Side screens 90 and 91, similar to the side screen V36 in Fig. 2 which protects the opening 36a, may be provided to extend continuously around the housing shown in Fig. 4. A modified housing is shown in Fig. 5, in which canopies 40 are shown in elevation as providing deflection v. means for the operating head. Grooves or notches 45 are tions, the height of the balerplate 1S maybe adjustedfor,l
interferingVv with a vortexYY-of fluid, thereby reducingLthe probabilities of overflow when this is desired. Y
jThe operatingl headof"` the Amixing device is supported by the verticalishafts14,34,and` two additional-'shafts lyingback ofV them. The parts ofrthe operating headare shown in their generallarrangementin Fig. l, wherein` Y the inlet or outlet pipes such as 31 orY 41 in direct commnnication, .and in different ways, with the operating head of. the .,machine.. As indicated `Vin Fig. 1, the lower terminusof the'conduit 7i) has an acutely upwardly positioned hand 35A which `permits exit of material at 50 into the statorA housing or operating head, similar to k.the enlarged view of exit SS'ash'oWnin Fig. 2.`
Referring to Fig. 2, it may be seen that open passages 81 permit communication between the interior of the stator head and the areaa-bove the stator head, except when .the baille plate a isfadjusted to its lowermost position vto,provide. a roof or .ceiling for the housing. In Fig. 2, the centraLshaft 6a `is provided with a central conduitV 32a terminating in openings 25u in the rotor 18a which is: provided with rotor: blades 80a.
. The Vouter housing 19a for thestator is held in place by screws 20a, 21a and the supportterminus 16a is provided with agvertically descending continuation 72a of the conduit within thesupporting rod 14a. As indicated in the embodiment:V shown in Fig. 1, a .ring 23a ts over the lower lip of.. the: housing. 19a and supports safety screen t 24a which may be Yprovided with reinforcing rods 46a.
A somewhat different arrangement is shown in Fig. 3 wherein other deflection arrangements are shown in the operatinghead., An integral ceiling 48b is provided and a pluralityof'lateral openings S5 are provided in the stator housing 39h. One or more of these lateral openings 85 may be provided, as shown in Fig. 3, with a canopy 40 supported by upstandingplates 42.` The vertical supports 14b and 34h areprovided with internal conduits 72b and b, respectively, which discharge at points 831; within theV housing, and preferably above the blades Stlb. In contrast to` the. inclined statorblades 80a as shown in Fig. 2, the stator bladeslbin Fig. 3 may be arranged horizontally and may be formed around a central annular portion 80cfwhich is removablevfrom the stator Vhead itself by unscrewingy the stator tip portion 80d from the stator shaft portion 89e. The other parts shown in Fig. 3 with reference numerals corresponding (except for the letter) to those in Fig. 2 refer torcorrespondi'ng elements in the Fig.Y 3'construction'.
provided for reinforcing rods such'as 46.
Fig. 6-A is a plan view,` of the mouth screen and rim, and Fig. 6-B is an elevation thereof, partly in crosssection, showing the rim 23C andthe screen 24e.
Fig. 7 shows a detail'ofthe rotor in which the drive shaft 6c is provided with an internal conduit 70C, rotor body 18C, blades 93 and exit ports 25e in the rotor tip 94.
Of course, one or more termini of the conduits within the supporting rods ordrive shaft may terminate verticallyY or in an acute upwardly extending directiong'as As shown in Figs'.V l( and 2;.the upf wardly terminating conduit has the effect of cooperating' Y with suction which would be created (by rotation ofv the'y rotor blades.) ata point where the inclined opening terminates at 50since the rotoris'constantly forcing the fluid necessity. dictates.
upwardly at considerable speed. The effect of Ythis'rnovementiisfto suck material introdnceddown-the center of Y the guide rod 34into the line of flow through'the channel 81. effect, of course, 'is enhanced whenthe Vbaille plate 15a` is raised; and does not function as a roofeorj ceiling for the operatingrhead.
The provisionrfor introducing material Ydown 10ne 4.or more of the vertical shafts or conduits herein'described permits ilexibilityv in kmixing operationsl For example, l1qu1d or commlnuted material may be introduced downY the kcenter shaft andV initially VdispersedY by centrifugal f force out through the ports of the rotor into'the sur- Y rounding medium.k Chemical Vreactions, which would otherwise be extremely diicult to control'or to-eifect may thus be facilitated. duced via one or more ofV the conduits intothe mixing chamber. Foaming or aerating may'thus be accomplished? forV example, air may thus be introduced to foam liquids? such as rubber latex, and the conditions of mixture may be accurately and carefully controlled. bubbled into a liquid, with or without the presence of emulsifying agents, often initially form large bubbles which it isY desired to shear into smaller'A bubbles: the
present apparatus is particularly adapted to shear such larger bubbles Vby virtue of the rapidly rotating blades Within the mixing chamber Within theV stator. The degree and the effect of the sub-division of the materials cut or paddled by the blades ofthe rotor may be controlled by adjusting the speed or the angularity or posi-` tion of the blades. e
As may be understood from the'foregong Vdescription and from the drawing, further exibility of operation can be obtained by selecting the particular type of stator head, and as shown in Fig. 2 the height of thebale plate may be adjusted to exert a direct effect uponthe ow ofV iluid within the stator head. When the baifleplate is in its lowermost position, the mixed material leaves the mixing chamber through the lower screen or the side ports, rather than through the openings in the topv of theV stator.
However, as the bale plate is raised, exit is permitted l through the apertures Vin the ceiling ofl thestator. When it is Ydesired to use the machine as a pump, the pressure created Within the operating headis sufficiently high to drive. the uid up one or more of the conduits. Of course, one or more of the conduits may be shut oil? or partly shut on when desired. The machine may also be, arranged to receive one or more ingredients to be mixed at the inlet pipe, under pressure, and simultaneously to feed out mixed material'via the exit pipe.
While certain present'preferredY embodiments of the.
invention have been shown and described herein, it is to If desired, Vgas maybe introl'f Gases thus asonoaa be understood that departures therefrom may be made Within the spirit of this invention and as defined in the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
1. A mixing device for mixing material within a container, comprising a mixing head for operation Within a container, said mixing head comprising a stator shell and a rotor having a blade within said stator shell, remote drive means for said rotor, a hollow shaft connecting said drive means to said rotor, said hollow shaft having an opening within said shell and an opening remote from said shell, and a conduit for conducting uid and having an opening within said shell and an opening remote from said shell, said shell having port openings in its side walls and deflecting plates adjacent said port openings.
2. A mixing device for mixing material Within a container, comprising a mixing head for operation within a container, said mixing head comprising a stator shell and a rotor having a blade Within said stator shell, remote drive means for said rotor, a hollow shaft connecting said drive means to said rotor, said hollow shaft having an Opening within said shell and an opening remote from said shell, and a conduit for conducting fluid and having an opening within said shell and an opening remote from said shell, said shell having an opening in its top, a baille cover for said top opening of said shell, said bale cover being vertically movable between the shell opening and the remote opening of said hollow shaft.
3. A mixing device for mixing material within a con` tainer, comprising a mixing head for operation Within a container, said mixing head comprising a stator shell and a rotor having a blade within said stator shell, remote drive means for said rotor, a hollow shaft connecting said drive means to said rotor, said hollow shaft having an opening within said shell and an opening remote from said shell, and a conduit for conducting fluid and having an opening within said shell and an opening remote from said shell, said shell having an opening in its top, a bathe cover for said top opening of said shell, said bale cover being vertically movable between the shell opening and the remote opening of said hollow shaft and means remote from said mixing head for adjusting the position of said bae cover relative to said top opening of said shell.
References Cited in the le of this patent UNlTED STATES PATENTS 588,663 Smith Aug. 24, 1897 1,345,596 Hovland July 6, 1920 1,399,367 Senter Dec. 6, 1921 2,038,221 Kagi Apr. 21, 1936 2,460,757 Kurz Feb. 1, 1949 2,578,805 Johnson Dec. 18, 1951 FOREIGN PATENTS 338,440 Great Britain NOV. 20, 1930 486,215 Germany Nov. 14, 1929
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|U.S. Classification||366/76.1, 366/169.1, 261/93|
|International Classification||B01F7/16, B01F7/18, B01F15/02, B01F3/04, B01F7/00, B01F15/00|
|Cooperative Classification||B01F3/04539, B01F7/18, B01F3/04609, B01F15/0272, B01F15/00987, B01F15/027, B01F7/1685, B01F3/04836, B01F15/00012, B01F2003/04546, B01F7/168, B01F2003/04645, B01F2003/04673, B01F7/00291, B01F2003/04553|
|European Classification||B01F3/04C9A, B01F15/00V8, B01F15/00F2, B01F7/16P3, B01F3/04C5G2, B01F15/02C5, B01F7/16P2, B01F7/18, B01F3/04C5B, B01F15/02C4|