US 2804337 A
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SPRAY NOZZLE Israel H. Marantz, Forest Hills, N. Y assignor to Columbia Cable & Electric Corporation, a corporation of New York Application February 28, 1955, Serial No. 491,151
3 Claims. (Cl. 29928.7)
It is noted that in nozzles of the type to spray particles of metal for example, which are heated by aninflammable gas to a highly plastic state almost reaching molten condition, the abrasive action caused by the movement of the particles through the nozzle will, after a long period of-use, wear away the walls of the passageway through which the particles are forced with resultant inoperativeness of the nozzle and need for replacement of the entire unit with resultant relatively high cost.
It is accordingly among the objects of the invention to provide an inexpensive spray nozzle that is neat, com
pact and sturdy, that has but few parts and whichis not of the main portion of the nozzle tip so that replacement costs will be reduced to a minimum.
Where to increase the output of a spray nozzle ,of the above type, the outlet is enlarged to increasethe diameter of the stream of particles expelled therefrom, as the particles in the core-of the stream will be substantially unaffected by the ignited inflammable gas associated with the stream of particles, such substantially unheated par-- ticles will notadhere to the article being sprayed with resultant inefficiency of the nozzle. I
Where the particles expelled from the nozzle are heated to the highly plastic condition-as 'soon' as they emerge from the nozzle, such particles may adhere to the nozzle with resultantclogging of the latter.
Y It is accordingly another object of the invention to provide a spraynozzle of the above type that will have a relatively high output yet with assuran cethat all oftheparticles expelled therefrom will be uniformly heated to the desired'condition forloptimurn adhesion to the object being sprayed and with assurance that the particles will not be heated sufiiciently immediately upon emergence from the nozzle to clog the latter.
This application is a continuation-in-part of copending application Serial No. 290,764, filed May 29, 1952, now abandoned.
According to the invention, these objects are accomplished by the arrangement and combination of elements hereinafter described and particularly recited in the claims.
In the accompanying drawings in which are shown one or more of various possible embodiments of the several features of the invention,
Fig. 1 is a longitudinal sectional view of the nozzle,
Fig. 2 is an end view of the nozzle,
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary longitudinal sectional view of another embodiment of the nozzles,
Fig. 4 is a longitudinal sectional view of still another embodiment of the nozzle, and
Fig. 5 is an exploded view of the embodiment of Fig. 4.
Referring now to the drawings, the spray nozzle shown in Fig. l desirably comprises a substantially cylindrical which desirably has an axial bore 12 extending therethrough. The rear end of bore 12 is desirably of enlarged diameter as at 13 and is internally threaded as at'14 to receive the threaded reduced end 15 of a handle 16.
The front end of the body portion 11 is desirably of reduced diameter as at 17 forming a beveled shoulder 18.
Affixed to such reduced end 17 is the nozzle tip 21 which desirably is substantially cylindrical as shown and has an axial bore 22 therethrough of enlarged diameter at its rear end 23, said enlarged diameter end of bore 22 being internally threaded as at 24 so that it may be screwed on the correspondingly externally threaded end 17 of the body portion 11. Desirably the nose of reduced end 17 has an outstanding annular flange 25 against which the shoulder 26 formed by the enlargement of bore 22 may abut, to provide a tight seal.
Means are desirably provided to propel a stream of particles through the aligned bores 12 and 22 in the body portion 11 and the tip 21 respectively. To this end the bore 12 desirably has a plug 31 afiixed thereinnear the enlarged portion 13 thereof, said plug 31 having a substantially conical nose 32 and desirably having an axial bore 33 therethrough of enlarged diameter as at 34at its rear end. Although the plug 31 may be atfixed in bore 12 in any suitable manner, in the embodiment herein shown, the plug 31 is externally threaded so that it may be screwed into the correspondingly threaded bore.
Theinlet'36 of bore 33 desirably is positioned adjacent a transverse passageway 37 extending through the wall of body portion 11 into the enlargement 13 of bore. 12. Aflixed in passageway 37 is a fitting 38 to which theoutlet 39 of a suitable gas regulating valve 41 may be afiixed, the inlet 42 of said valve desirably being con-,
51 thereof to develop an intense heat whereby the par- V groove 52 adjacent its rear end and a plurality of gas rod 11 which forms the body portion of the nozzle and outlet passageways 53 encompassing the axial bore 22 of the tip and converging at their outlet ends 55.
Encompassing the tip 21 is a sleeve 61 which desirabl has a plurality of radiating fins 62 to provide a large surface area for cooling of such tip, said sleeve 61 encompassing said annular groove 52 to form agas inlet chamber. Means are desirably provided to force a mixa ture of suitable highly inflammable gases into the groove 52. To this end the sleeve 61 has a lateral passageway 64 therethrough in communication at one end with said groove 52, the other end of said passageway having the end 65 of a tube 66 afiixed therein. The other end. 67 of tube 66 has a manifold 68 suitably affixed thereon so that a mixture of inflammable gases such as oxygen and acetylene may be forced through the bore 69 of tube 66.
As shown in Fig. l, the manifold 68 desirably comprises a circular block 71 having an axial extension 72 of reduced diameter. The block 71 desirably has two bores 73 and 74 leading thereinto, the inlet ends of which have fittings 75 and 76 secured therein respectively, to which sources of oxygen an acetylene gas may be connected respectively.
The axial extension 72 of the manifold desirably has a bore'81 therethrough, the inner end 82 of which is connected by passageway 83 to the bore 73 of the mania,
fold. Although themanifold may be afiixed totube 66 in any suitable manner, in the embodiment shown, a sleeve 86 encompassing tube 65 has its externally threaded end 87 screwed into the corresponding vthreadedbore-81.
Thus-whenthe sleeve is rotated in bore 81: and: abuts against an annular shoulder 84- formed ontube .66 the conical end 91 of bore 81 will be pressed tightly agamst' the conicalend 92 of tube 66- securely to retain the manifold affixed; tothe tube.
The conical -end-92=-of tube 66desir-ably has an-annular groove 95in its periphery which-coacts with a. corresponding annular-groove 96- inthe boreof manifold 68 to form an annular-gaschamber 97*, said-chamberbeing' in communication-withthe bore-69 of tube66-by meansofa pluralityof inclined. passageways 98 and being supplied w-ithgas from-bore-74 through apassageway 99.-
Means are; desirably provided to cool the tip- 21+ and to'prevent spreading of .thestream at particles emergingfrom the outlet 51 thereof. T o-this end, the-tip 21thas an annular groove 7 101 'therein which is encompassed by the sleeve 61 toform anair--chamber.- The tip -21 de-. sirabl y ha's a plurality of passageways 1o2-leading-fromt said groove 101 to the outer end ofthetip, said passage-- ways converging attheir outlets ends 105 which form-a ringencompassingsthe I outlets -55 of the passageways 53 A and the outletil of the tip."
In-order to supplytheair chamber'definedbyannulargroove -1, thesleeve 6-1=has a lateral passageway 106 therethrough in communication at one end with-groove- 101. The other end ofsaid-passageway-hasa fitting-10-7r therein-to which the. outlet of a suitable air regulating valve-108-may be afiixed, the inlet-1090f said valve desirably being-connectedto a source ofcompressedair (not shown);
In-theoperation ofthe nozzle shown in Figs. 1 and 2,
as compressed air is forced through'fitting 38'into the enlargedport-ion13 of bore 12, such air willpass through the bores 34 and 33ofplug 31-and emerges from the out1et-end-32 thereof as a high velocity jet. This jet will from the outlets 55' thereof as a circular stream encompassingthe stream of gas and particles. The inflammable gases may be ignited by any suitable means causing the particles to soften to a highly plastic, though not molten state. a
By reason of the converging passageways'102 con-' nected to annular groove 101; excessive spreading of the spray of particles and gas emerging from outlet-51' of tip21-is prevented. Thus the high velocity jets from the outlets 105 of passageways 102 will strikef the periphery of the stream of particles and air emerging from outlet 51" thereby substantially preventing spreading of such stream.
In addition, as the air emerging from outlet 105is relatively cool, as the heated particles strike the article being sprayed, they will rapidly cool and congeal thereby preventing dripping of such plastic particlesfromthe article and ensuring adherence of such particles thereto.
9 It has been found that as the particles are forced through the bore22in the tip 21, the abrasive. action causedl by such moving particles, will, aftera long period of use, wear away the inner wall of the bore 22j. Suchwearing may cause the passageways 53 ,to be exposed to the bore 22- with resultant inoperativeness of the de!. vice as the flame caused by the gases would cause the particles to become plastic in the bore 22.with resultant congealing of such particles in such bore 22 and clogging thereof; However, by reason of the ease by which the relatively inexpensive tip 21'may be removed, it is a relatively simple matter to replace the latter without need the nozzle tip 21.
4' i for discarding the entire nozzle. Thus maintenance costs of such nozzle are relatively low;
The embodiment of the nozzle shown in Fig. 3 is designed to eliminate entirely the need for replacement of i This nozzle is substantially identical to that shown in Fig. 1 and corresponding parts have the same reference numerals primed. Thus, the nozzle shown in Fig. 3 has a metal tube 1101positi'oned in the bore 22 of the tip 21'. The tube 110 is of diameter such that it fits snugly in said bore, andidesirably has an outwardly.
extending annular flange 111 at the rear endthereof which may be clamped between the shoulder-26' of tip 21 and flange of body portion 11 thereby securely retaining the tube in position.
Desirably the end of-bore-22' in-tip 21' adjacent the nose 54 of said tip, is of enlarged diameter as at 112 forming an annular shoulder 113 through which the outlets 55 of passageways 53 extend, the end 114 of tube 110; which extends beyondsaid-shoulder-113; guiding the mixture of inflammable gases as they-emerge from the outlets 55 of the tip.
With the nozzle. shown in- Fig. 3, the operation of which is substantially identical to the-nozzle shown in and replace the worn tube.
Figs. 1 and 2, the abrasiveaction oftheparticles will wear-away only the tube 110. When this occurs, it is a relatively simplematter to removethe tip from the body portion 11 andthen-remove-the tube 110 from the tip As the tubes'110 are relatively inexpensive, it is apparent that the nozzle shown in Fig. 3 may-be used for long periods with only aminimum of maintenance cost.
In the embodiment shown in Figs. 4 and5, the nozzle tip 21' is substantially cylindrical being formed from a plurality 'of elements, illustratively five in number and designated respectively the base 121; intermediate elements 122, 123 and 124 and the nose element125which,
. when secured together as by screws 126, define a powder chamber 127,- an air chamber 128, a gas chamber 129' and a second air chamber 131;
The end 133 of the nozzle tip 21" has four concentric annular outlets 134, 1135, 136 and 137,in communication respectively withthe chambers 127'; 128; 129 and 131 through annular passageways 141, 142; 143 and 144.
intermediate element 122; the annular passageway.1 41- being defined -by saidrod 148and.the inner surface of sleeve 149: i
' The surface 152 of element 122 adjacent bore 151 is desirably concave and such concave'surface and the recess 147-in base 12 1 define the powder chamber 127. By reason of such concavity, when powder is forced under pressure into chamber 127 through threaded bores 153 and 154 in 'base 121, in the manner hereinafter described, it will. be deflected thereby into the passageway 141.
- Thesleeve 149 extends through arecess 155 in element 122 and through a sleeve 156 screwed into a threaded axial' bore 157 in intermediate element 123; the annular passageway 142 being defined between said sleeves 149 and 156 and the air chamber 128 being defined by. the recess 155 and the adjacent surface 158'of element 123,
Thesleeve 156 extends through arecess 159 in element 123 and through a sleeve 161 illustratively formed integral with element 124 and aligned with' thebore 162 therethrough, the annular passageway. 143 being defined between said sleeves 156 and 161 and the gas chamber 129 being defined by the recess159 and the adjacent surface of element 124.
To provide a passageway "for air and gas into chambers 128 and 129, the elements 122 and 123 each has a radial bore 163 and 164 respectively extending into the asso-- ciated chamber.
Sleeve 161 which has a tapered outer surface, extends through the correspondingly tapered bore 166 of nose element 125, the passageway 144 being defined between the sleeve 161 and bore 166.
The portion of nose element 125 adjacent element 124 has a recess 167 which, when in juxtaposition with element 124 defines the air chamber 131. To provide a passageway into chamber 131 the nose element 125 has a radial bore 168 leading into chamber 131 and a fitting 169 is connected to said bore 168.
The dimensions of the rod 148, the sleeves 149, 156 and 161 and the nose element 125 are'so selected in the embodiment shown that the outlets 134, 135, 136 and 137 all lie in the same plane.
In the operation of the embodiment shown in Figs. 4 and 5, as compressed air is forced through fittings 38' of both body portions 11" in the manner described with respect to the embodiments of Figs. 1 and 2, a suction will be created at the end of passageways 45 adjacent the outlet end 32 of plug 31 to suck particles from the source of supply connected to fitting 46' and to force such particles. into powder chamber 127. The particles will be deflected by concave surface 152 and be forced through annular passageway 141 to be expelled from outlet 134.
A mixture of suitable highly inflammable gases is forced through bore 164 into chamber 129 and it will pass through annular passageway 143 to be expelled as an annular stream from annular outlet 136 encompassing the annular powder stream expelled from outlet 134. The gases may be mixed in a suitable manifold similar to that shown in Fig. 1 and designated by the numeral 68, and which is connected to bore 164.
A source of air under pressure is connected to bore 163 and to fitting 169 and such air will flow into the associated chamber 128 and 131, through annular passageways 142 and 144 to be expelled from annular outlets 1135 and 137.
When the sources of air, gas and powder particles are thus connected, the inflammable gases emerging from annular outlet 136 may be ignited by any suitable means causing the particles to soften to a highly plastic, though not molten state.
By reason of the relatively cool air emerging from annular outlet 135 which is between the powder stream and the stream of inflammable gases, such gases will not heat the particles sufiiciently to reduce them to highly plastic conditions until they are sufiiciently spaced from the nose of the nozzle tip to prevent clogging of the outlets therein.
As the annular stream of air expelled from annular outlet 137 is also relatively cool, the nozzle tip 21" will not get excessively hot and as the heated particles strike the article being sprayed, they will rapidly cool and congeal thereby preventing dripping of such plastic particles from the article and ensuring adherence of such particles thereto.
Furthermore, due to the fact that the stream of air expelled from outlet 137 is directed toward the stream of particles and gas, excessive spreading of such particle and gas streams is prevented so that a maximum amount of gas will be in juxtaposition to the particles for heating thereof. In addition, the stream of particles will be relatively concentrated so that substantially all of the particles will strike the article being sprayed with resultant elimination of waste.
By reason of the relatively large diameter of the annular outlet 134 from which the particles are expelled, even though the outlet is relatively narrow, the quantity of particles expelled is relatively great. As the thickness of the annular particle stream is relatively small, substantially all the particles in such stream will be uniformly heated by the gases with assurance that such "an annular outlet for expelling a stream of powder thereparticles will be reduced to the desired molten state for optimum adherence to the article being sprayed. In the event of wear of the rod 148 and sleeve 14 after long use of the nozzle tip, due to the abrasive action of the particles through passageway 141, as such rod and sleeve are removably mounted in the base 121 and the intermediate element 122 respectively, they may readily be replaced so that maintenance costs of the nozzle are relatively low.
As many changes could be made in the above construc- I companying drawings shall be interpreted as illustrative.
and not in a limiting sense.
Having thus described in my invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patentto the United States is:
1. A powder spray nozzle comprising a casing having from, and a second annular outlet encompassing said powder outlet for expelling a stream of inflammable gas in direction substantially parallel to the direction of such powder stream, and a third annular outlet encompassing said first and second annular outlets for expelling a stream of air toward said first two streams so as to strike said second stream at an angle of less than degrees with respect thereto. I i
2. A powder spray nozzle comprising a casing having an outlet for expelling a stream of powder therefrom, an annular outlet encompassing said powder outlet for ex pelling a stream of air in direction substantially parallel to the direction of such powder stream, a second annular outlet encompassing said first annular outlet for expelling a stream of inflammable gas in direction parallel to such air stream and a third annular outlet for expelling a stream of air.
3. The combination set forth in claim 2 in which said third annular outlet is designed to expel the stream of air therefrom toward said gas, air and powder streams so as to strike the latter at an angle of less than 90 degrees with respect thereto.
4. The combination set forth in claim 2 in which said powder outlet is in the form of an annulus and in which said third annular outlet is designed to expel the stream of air therefrom toward said gas, air and powder streams so as to strike the latter at an angle of less than 90 degrees with respect thereto.
5. The combination set forth in claim 2 in which three annular chambers are provided in said nozzle, each of said chambers having an inlet, three passageways in said nozzle provide communication between said chambers and said three annular outlets, the passageways providing communication to said first and second annular outlets extending parallel to the longitudinal axis of Said nozzle and the passageway providing communication to said third annular outlet tapering inwardly toward said third annular outlet from its associated chamber.
6. A powder spray nozzle comprising a nose element having an axial bore therethrough, a rod axially positioned in said bore and having its outer end aligned with the outer surface of said nose element, three spaced concentric annular members in said bore encompassing said rod, the outer ends of said annular members being aligned with the outer surface of said nose element, and defining four concentric annular outlets, and four chambers in said nozzle in communication respectively with said annular outlets, each of said chambers having an inlet.
7. The combination set forth in claim 6 in which each of said annular members is a sleeve, the innermost sleeve defining a passageway with respect to said rod extending parallel thereto, the intermediate sleeve defining a passageway with respect to the innermost sleeve 7 t extending p aral lel'to. saidrod, the outermostsleeveden pa sa ew y it e t aid; nt me i t e i lso ate dit rpaxa e i q aid est. hepi ter u faceofsaid jontermostsleeye, and th'ewa ll' of the borein said nose element defining a fourth passageway, said ou pas a e ays xo d n mmun cati p the s o i ed amb h ne mcstp c nd i enns t third'innermost and outermost outlets respegtiYclY said fourth passageway taperingjnwardly from its associated h mb r t iaissb iet di 1 th; f 1 8."T h"e combination set, forth in claim 7 in which said nozzle "has four elements in addition to said I nose element, saidjfonr elements I including a base element chamber in'communicationpwith the innermost outlet 'is between'the base element and-the-adjacent intermediate element, thechamber in communication ,with gthe second innermo st -o utiet is b,etween the intermediate element ad-,
h ent mediate n n t id' nterm d a jacent the, base, and; the, 2 adjacent intermediate element;
the chamber in communication with the, third innermostf outlet is between the last named intermediate element and the, third intermediate element and the chamber in com munication with said outermost. outlet is between the thirdintermediate element and the,nose element.
References-Cited in the file of this patent V UNITED STATES .PATENTS j I 1,930,373:
Stubenrauch Oct; 10, 1933-: 2,108,998 Schori; Eeb. 22;,19381 2,125,764 Benoit Aug.,2'; 19-38,, 2,181,082 Hammonetal. NOR/.1211," 1939 2,544,259 1951" Ducciniet a1; Mar. 6,