US 2805045 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
p 1957 J. s. GOQDWIN ,0
WELL DR'ILLING BIT Filed Jun a, 1953 Arrow/Ev.
United States Patent WELL DRILLING BIT John S. Goodwin, Whittier, Califl, assignor to Globe Oil Tools Company, Los Nietos, Calif., a corporation of California Application June 8, 1953, Serial No. 360,230
Claims. (Cl. 255314) This invention has to do with a well drilling bit and it is a general object of the invention to provide a simple, practical, improved formation cutting structure by combined mechanical and hydraulic means.
'weu drilling bits used incidental to carrying out the rotary method of drilling, have been carried by drillirig strings through which fluid is circulated.
For a very long time fluid circulation was employed primarily to circulate or flush the cuttings and more rece'ntly, the volume and pressure of the fluid circulated has been increased to the end that it has some action upon'the formation being drilled and'thus supplements the mechanical drilling action.
In drilling with the rotary method and employing the usual type of well drilling bit, there is often a marked tendency for the bit to deviate from a truly vertical course or from a predetermined course, and as a result of this, various constructions, methods, and devices have been proposed and tried with a view of eliminating or minimizing this tendency.
It is a general object of this invention to provide a well drilling bit serviceable to drill by mechanical and also hydraulic means, and which is such as to operate effectively and with a minimum tendency to deviate or deflect from a predetermined course.
Another object of this invention is to provide a well drilling bit of the general character referred to which involves but two rotary cutters, preferably located diametrically opposite each other and each serving to act on the bottom of the bore as well as on the side, to the end that a hole is bored mechanically to be of the desired size, and including nozzles serviceable to direct jets of fluid, one at the bottom of the bore to aid or supplement the action of the cutters, and the other at the side of the bore at a point above thebottom thereof to wash the wall of the bore and 'to have a stabilizing elfect;
-It.is another object of this invention to provide a bit of the general character referred to wherein the cutters provided to effect mechanical cutting are so combined with and related to the nozzles of the hydraulic means as to present a structure which, as a whole, is simple and inexpensive of manufacture and highly effective and dependable in action. 7
The various objects and features of my invention will be fully understood from the following detailed descrip tion of a typical preferred form and application of my invention, throughout which description reference is made to the accompanying drawings, in which: v
Fig. 1 is a view illustrating the bit of the present invention in a well bore. Fig. 2 is an enlarged side elevation of the bit showing a view as indicated by line 2-2 on Fig. 1. Fig. 3 is a vertical sectional view of the bit, being of'a view taken as indicated by line 3-3 on Fig. 2, and Fig. 4 is a side elevation of the bit taken as indicated by line 4-4 on Fig. 3.
The bit provided by the present invention is adapted to be employed in carrying out the rotary method of Patented Sept. 3, 195'? '2 drilling, andrin the Fig. 1 of the drawings, it is shown carried by a drilling string S to be operated thereby. The drilling string S is tubular and in accordance with conventional practice is supplied at the upper end of the well with fluid under pressure. In Fig. 1 the bit, as
7 provided by the invention, is shown on the l'o wer' end of the drilling string and is indicated as being operated to establish or drill a suitable well bore 10.
The bit includes generally a body A, a plurality of cutters B carried by the body and a plurality of nozzles C on or carried by the body adapted to handle fluid supplied to the bit by the string S. V c
The body A of the bit includes generally a main or middle portion 10 having a central opening or cavity 11. A coupling pin 12 projectsup from the body and is shown as a conventional coupling element in the nature of a threaded pin engaging with the lower end of the string S or a suitable part provided thereon to carry the bit. The pin 12 is tubular in form and has a central fiowp-assage 13 that opens into the cavity 11in the main portion 10 of the body.
Legs 14 are provided on and depend from the main portions 10 of the body and, in the preferred construction illustrated, there are two like legs located at opposite side portions of the body so that they are diametrically opposite each other. The legs have their lower inner portions finished so that they have suitably pitched faces 16 to which the cutters B are mounted. The faces16' of the legs, as shown in the drawings, are pitched so that each elitend's downwardly and outwardly. As a result of this pitching or inclination of the faces 16 and because of the legs beingdiametrically opposite each other, the
faees downwardly diverge as clearly illustrated in Figs;
2 and 4'of the drawings. The cutters Bare carried by the legs 14 at the faces 16 thereof and, in the case i1- lustrated, they are frusto conical, one carried on'each face 16. The cutters are rotatably mounted on the legs at the faces 16 and, in practice, any suitable construction can be employed to suitably support the cutters on the legs. drawings since such a feature of a bit is old and well understood in the art. For purpose of example it is to be understood that thecutters may be mounted as, for instance, by a cutter mounting means such as is illustrated in Patent No. 2,470,695, issued May 17, 1949.
In the particular case illustrated the teeth on the con.- ical cutters B are circumferentially spaced and are in' rows extending around the cutters, and'the teeth of the two cutters are lapped or meshed, as clearly illustrated in the drawings. The cutters are mounted on the legs to have portions projecting outward somewhat therefrom" and so that they have portions so that they depend a substruction is'provided with a plurality of fluid handling nozzles, and these are formed on'or as a partpof the'body A of the bit. Though the nozzles are preferably integrally formed with the body, they'will be referred :to .and distinguished as parts separate from or the considered inde pendent of the body. In the preferred carrying out of the invention there is at least one nozzle C that discharges downwardly and which will be referred to as a bottom nozzle 20, and there is at least one nozzle opening laterally and which will be referred to as a side nozzle 21.
a The bottom nozzle 20 is locatedonflarid depends somewhat from the main or middle portion 10 of body A and is located midway between the legs 14 and-is spaced'f'rom or radially outward relative to, :the. central longitudinal =No detail of such constructionis shown in the axis of the bit to be displaced 90 from the legs. In the preferred construction the bottom nozzle 20 is located so that its lower or discharge end is located closer to the outer peripheral portion of the bit than to the central axis thereof, as clearly shown in'Fig. 3 of the drawings. The nozzle 20, as shown in the drawings, includes -a boss-like part or projection 22 on the body depending therefrom midway between the legs 14 and located at the outer peripheral portion of the body. The part 22 depends down between the cutters carried by thelegs and it has an opening through itdefining a flow passage 23 that is in communication with and which is supplied with fluid from the cavity 11. At the lower end of part 22, forming nozzle 20,- there is a flow directing or jet opening 24 considerably smaller in diameter than the passage 23' so that fluid passedthereby and issuing therefrom discharges in the form of a concentrated jet. It is preferred to provide the-discharge end or opening of the bottom nozzle 20 with a bushing 25 of hard metal so that it is wear-resisting. In the case illustrated, the bushing 25 is of limited size and is fixed in the part 22 to be rigid therewith.
The-side nozzle 21 includes a boss-like part or projection 30 on'the middle portion of body A. The part 30, forming nozzle 21, projects laterally or from one side of the body portion 10 and the lowermostportion thereof. The part 30 forms or establishes a flowj passage 32 extending, laterally from the cavity 11, and it has a reduced discharge opening 33 directed laterally of the bit and is such as to deliver a stream or jet of fluid at high velocity. The discharge of nozzle 21, like that of the nozzle 20, is preferably provided by a hard Wear-taking bushing 34.
i The side nozzle 21 is preferably located or confined to the lower end portion of the part 10 of the body A so that it projects somewhat laterally therefrom but does not depend therefrom at a point displaced 90 from the legs; As a result of this construction of the side nozzle 21, it opens or discharges at a point above the cutters B and is directed toward or against the side wall of the well bore 10 as the bit operates.
In, accordance with the broader aspects of the' present invention, it is contemplated that the bottom nozzle 20 be .sodisposed as todirect a high velocity jet of fluid downward and onto the bottom of the well bore whereas the side nozzle 21 is disposed to direct a high velocity jet of fluid laterally and so that it impinges upon the side wall 10 of the bore. It is not necessary that the nozzle 20 be directed straight down or so that it is parallel with the longitudinal axis of the bit but, in practice, it can be inclined somewhat from such a position; in fact, in the drawings it is shown inclined to direct a jet somewhat outward as well as downward. In the case of the side nozzle 21, it need not direct a jet straight out from the side of the bit but it is intended that it direct a jet in a general lateral direction. In the particular case illustrated, the side nozzle 21 is located to direct a jet straight out from the side of the body.
Under actual operating conditions 'say, for instance, when a bit, such as is shown in the drawings, is being employed to drill a well bore, the fluid discharged through the bit can be introduced thereto through the string S at a high pressure It has been found in practice, that if, as the bit is rotated in the manner common to the usual rotary bit of this general character fluid delivered to the upper end of the well string S at about 800-2000 lbs. per square inch will result in an effective jet being delivered by the nozzle 21 against the bottom of the well bore while an effective jet is delivered by the nozzle 21 against the side wall of the well bore. It has been" found that in actual operation the jet action gained by the construction of the present invention materially adds or supplements the mechanical drilling gained by the action of the cutters B and at the same time results in a wellbore that is stabilized or which has little orno tendency to deviate from a predetermined course. In wells which have a tendency to deviate from the vertical it has been found that a bit of this construction will straighten the hole and bring it back to vertical. Asthe bit is rotated, the cutters B grind or cut away at the bottom of the well bore and mechanically establish a hole of the desired size while at the same time the high velocity jets of fluid eifectively flush the cuttings out or away from the bit, act upon the bottom of the well bore and also against the side wall thereof.
Having described only a typical preferred form and application of my invention, I do not wish to be limited or restricted to the specific details herein set forth, but wish to reserve to myself any variations or modifications that may appear to those skilled in the art and fall within the scope of the following claims.
Having described my invention, I claim: 1. A well drilling bit including, a body adapted to rej ceive fluid,..a pair of oppositely faced cutters mounted on the body and depending thereforrn, a pair of nozzles on the body adapted to handle fluid from the body, the nozzles being diametrically opposite each other and one disposed to discharge downwardly from the body at the periphery thereof and the other disposed to discharge laterally from the body at the periphery thereof, the cutters being located diametrically opposite each other from the central vertical axis of the bit and the nozzles being located about said axis in positions rotatively displaced 90 from the cutters.
2. A well drilling bit including, a body adapted to receive fluid, a pair of oppositely faced cutters mounted on the body and dependingtherefrom, a pair of nozzles on the body adapted to handle fluid from the body, the nozzles being diametrically opposite each other and one spaced laterally of the axis of the bit and between the cutters and disposed to discharge downwardly from the periphery of the'body and the other being located above the cutters and disposed to discharge laterally from the periphery of the body, the nozzles being rotatively displaced 90 from the cutters. t
3. 7 A well drilling bit including, a body having a middle portion with a cavity therein, a tubular stem projecting up from the middle portion and adapted to pass fluid to the cavity, and legs depending from and at the outside of the middle portion diametrically opposite each other, a pair of oppositely faced roller cutters one carried byeach leg, a nozzle at one side portion of the body spaced laterally of the'axis of the bit and between the legs and in communication with the cavity and adapted to discharge downwardly from the peripheral portion of the bit, and a nozzle on the bodydiametrically opposite the first mentioned nozzle and adapted to discharge laterally from the periphery of the bit, the nozzles being rotatively displaced from the cutters.
4. A well drilling bit including, a body having a middle portion witha cavity therein, a tubular stem projecting up from the middle portion aud'adapted to pass fluid to the cavity, and legs depending from and at the outside of the middle portion diametrically opposite each other, a pair of oppositely faced roller cutters one carried by each leg,'a nozzle at one side portion of the body spaced laterally of the axis of the bit and extending down between the legs and in communication with the cavity and adapted to discharge downwardly from the peripheral portion. of the bit, and a nozzle on the body diametrically opposite the first mentioned nozzle, spaced above the cut-. ters and adapted to discharge laterally from the periphery of the bit, the nozzles being rotatively displaced 90 from the cutters. Y r 7 5. A-well drilling bit including, a body having a middle portion with a cavity therein, a tubular-stern projecting up from the middle portion and adapted'to pass fluid to the cavity, and legs depending from and at the outsideof the middle portion diametrically opposite each Other, a pair of oppositely faced roller cutters one carriedby each 2,805,045 5 6 leg, a nozzle at one side portion of the body spaced References Cited in the file of this patent laterally Of the axis Of i116 bit and extending dOWn 36- UNITED STATES PATENTS tween the legs and in communication with the cavity and p d to discharge downwardly from the peripheral 23,416 ar Oct. 16, 1951 p n of the bit, and a nozzle on the body diametrically 5 1,859,490 t s n May 24, 1932 opposite the first mentioned nozzle, spaced above the cut- 2,058,750 Wflhams at 1936 ters and adapted to discharge laterally from the eri he 2:064:255 Garfield D 15, 1936 of the bit, the nozzles being rotatively displaced 90 fr m 2,108,955 hn Feb. 22, 19 3 the cutters, each nozzle having a jet forming tip with a 2,293,259 on Aug. 18, 1942 weal. resisting bushing flmrem 10 2,710,170 Livingston et a1. June 7, 1955