US 2805554 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Sept. 10, 1957 E. SCHACHTSIEK ARRANGEMENT FOR COOLING TRANSPORTABLE GOODS Filed Feb. 10, 1955 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVEN TOR. ERWIN SCI-IACHTSIEK m W W A Sept. 10, 1957 E. SCHACHTSIEK 2,305,554
ARRANGEMENT FOR COOLING TRANSPORTABLE coon's Filed Feb. 10, 1955 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 IN VEN TOR.
ERwm 4 QSCHACHTSIEK' United States Patent ARRANGEMENT FOR COOLING TRANSPORTABLE GOODS Erwin Schaehtsiek, Garmisch, Germany Application February 10, 1955, Serial No. 487,431
2 Claims. (Cl. 62-1) It is known that cooled goods are kept cool when stored and especially when transported by bringing them, in insulated containers, protected from outer warmth, in touch with cold or cooling agents, e. g., water ice or Dry Ice, socalled CO2ice. In doing so, care is taken to prevent damage to the cooled goods through the cold or cooling agent. It is also known to store or transport cooled goods in insulated containers equipped with an interior system of cooling tubes which is, in turn, connected with an outer cooling tube system conducting cooling brine from a cooling plant, and which can be disconnected. It is further known to equip cooling containers, cars, and roomse. g. on ships-with independent cooling plants which are transported together with the transported container and can be connected to an outer source of energ It is also known to store or transport cooled goods in containers with thin walls which are suspended in, or placed in, other containers filled with Dry Ice.
It is known furthermore that a cooling etfect may easily be had by evaporation of liquids whose boiling point under atmospheric pressure is below a certain temperature. Ether, for example, has an atmospherical boiling point of 95 F., whereas, for example, the boiling point of sulphur dioxide is at l4 F. This cooling efiect is utilized, e. g., in the so-called cold-vapor machines.
The invention a ms at a new procedure for cooling, particularly of transportable cooled goods, which shows sub stantial progress as compared with the known cooling methods just listed. Cooling by means of water ice, for example, has the great disadvantage that good drainage for the melting ice water must always be provided, and special measures must be taken to prevent damage to the cooled goods through the water and the resulting high air humidity in the cooling room interior. Storage and transport of cooled goods in Dry Ice is expensive as production costs for Dry Ice are relatively high. Dry Ice, as is known, changes directly from solid to gaseous state when warmed; hence, its evaporation cannot be controlled and it requires particularly complicated and expensive containers. One special difficulty is the insulation of cooling rooms against CO2 vapors; it is entirely impossible with large containers. Transport containers with cooling tube systems which can be connected to an outer cooling system are expensive; furthermore, each connection and each disconnection of such containers requires time and labor. Transport containers with their own cooling plants are even more expensive.'
With the procedure of the present invention itis possible to eifect cooling of all known cooled goods in transportable containers simply, and cheaply.
The procedure for cooling, particularly of transportable cooled goods, under this invention consists in the following:
A liquid of low boiling point under atmospheric pressure, located in a suitable manner in, around, on, over, under, next to, or between the cooled goods, under pressure if required, is subjected to a continuous evaporation Patented Sept. 10, 1957 cooled goods, and the cooled goods, due to their charac' teristics, may be brought into direct contact with the cooling liquid, then the procedure of the invention in its most general form is to place both cooled goods and cooling liquid into one common container which is insulated against outside warmth and equipped with valve arrangements permitting evaporation of the cooling liquid outside of the container at any arbitrarily chosen moment, the cooling liquid drawing its evaporation heat from the goods and thus cooling them. This case, however, will be rather rare in actual application.
A preferable application of the invention procedure is that evaporation takes place in one or more separate evaporation containers located in, around, on, over, under; next to, or between a transport or packing container; that the vapors are conducted from there, after opening of the valvesif necessary via a regulating means and through a filter-into the open or, if the vapors are inflammable, to a burner. The procedure can be controlled in such a manner that evaporation is started immediately after completion of packing; at a specific time resulting from prevailing conditions; or immediately prior to or upon unpacking. This would depend on the kind of cooled goods and the desired cooling efiect.
T he invention consists furthermore in an arrangement for the application of the procedure covered by the in 'ention, consisting essentially of a container which receives the goods and the cooling liquid, preferably insulated against warmth, and of an outer form which is known per se, such as an overseas container, railroad container, cooling chest, barrel, tin can, drinking glass, vial, foil wrapping, or'the like, equipped with a means permitting arbitrary starting of the evaporation and control thereof as to time and amount. Such means could be, e. g., valves and particularly separate evaporation containers.
For further comprehension of the invention, and of the objects and advantages thereof, reference will be had to the following description and accompanying drawings, and to the appended claims in which the various novel features of the invention are more particularly set forth.
In the accompanying drawings forming a material part of this disclosure:
Fig. 1 is a transportable container constructed in accordance with the invention, said container being shown partly in side elevation and partly in longitudinal section.
Fig. 2 is a view similar to Fig. 1 showing a second form of container.
Fig. 3 is a side elevational view of a third form of the invention, parts being broken away and parts being shown in section.
Fig. 4 is a longitudinal section through a steel drum (beer barrel) modified according to the invention, comprising a fourth form of the invention.
Fig. 5 is a longitudinal section through a combined Thermos container and field-type burner formed according to the invention, comprising a fifth form.
Fig. 6 is a longitudinal section through a tin can constituting a sixth form of the device, modified in accordance with the invention, parts being shown in elevation.
Fig. 7 is a longitudinal section through another tin can, constituting a seventh form of the invention.
Fig. 8 is a longitudinal section showing an eighth form of the invention, in association with a drinking glass.
Fig. 9 is a longitudinal section showing a ninth form in association with a drinking glass. a a
Fig. .10 is a view partly in section and partly in' elevation showing. another modification of the invention applied to a package for creamy goods such as ice cream.
In Fig. 1, 1 is shown the heat-insulated wall of a normaL-known transport container, e. g., a railroad or overseas container, and 2 is the heat-insulated cover thereof. In application of the invention, a double-walled container 3 holding the cooling liquidA-if necessary under pressure-is placed in the container 1. Container 3 is placed to advantage along the walls of container 1 and is fitted with a valve 5 whose operating spindle 6 extends through a suitably placed opening in container 1. The spindle 6 may be equipped in any suitable manner with a three or four-cornered edge or the like, permitting it to be operated from the outside by means of a special key. An evaporator tube 7 leads from valve 5 through a suitably located opening in the cover 2 to the outside. The cooled goods 8 are located inside the double-walled container 3, practicably in layers. had by opening, at the desired moment for the cooling to start, valve 5 from outside without opening the container 1, so that the cooling liquid 4 evaporates via valve 5 and evaporator tube 7, drawing heat from the goods 8. By means of the valve 5, the cooling process may not only be started at any desired moment but may, by closing the valve more or less, also be suited to the cooling degree desired in each case. If no further cooling is required, the valve 5 is closed. Thus cooling may be adapted to prevailing conditions upon longer transportation of the cooled goods through dilferent temperature zones.
Fig. 2 shows a modified model of a transport container of the type shown in Fig. l, in which under application of the invention several containers 9 with cooling liquid are located vertically between the goods 8. In this model, too, the evaporator tubes 7 reach the outside through openings in the cover 2; in further development of the invention, the operating spindles for the valves 5 may be placed with this model in the evaporator tubes 7, so that the evaporator tubes are simultaneously guides for the insertion of keys for operation of the spindles.
Fig. 3 shows another form of the invention in which the containers 10 for the cooling liquid are located horizontally between the goods 8. In this model the evaporator tubes 7 reach the outside through openings in the container 1 on the side. Here again, the evaporator tubes may be utilized as guides for the insertion of the keys for operation of the valves 5.
While Figs. 1-3 show packing cases for solid, powdered, or packaged goods, Fig. 4 shows a packing case for liquid goods. The invention is there applied to a steel drum, known per se, a so-called beer drum. The invention is here applied so that a container 12 for the cooling liquid is welded into the steel drum 11; the connecting piece 13 between the drum wall 11 and the container 12 would, for practical purposes, contain the valve 14; the valve spindle 15 would reach the outside through the connecting piece 13 which is an evaporator tube. The cooling effect is initiated also in this model by opening valve 14 by means of a key fitting spindle 15, allowing the cooling liquid 16if required under pressureto evaporate from the container 12 via evaporator tube 13, drawing heatfrom the contents 17 of the drum. The drum 11 may be equipped with insulation (not shown in the drawings) to prevent influx of outside heat into the drum contents 17. In many cases, however, it will be possible to omit this insulation, especially if the cooling effect 'isto start only upon use of the contents, i. e. upon opening of the drum. In this case the valve 14 is opened upon opening. of'the drum, so that the quicker and there- The cooling effect is- 4. fore more intensive cooling process is continued throughout the emptying'of thedrum'.
If in the cases discussed so far a cooling liquid is used which produces inflammable vapors upon evaporation, the evaporator tube may be connected, with a collection tube through which the vapors are removed and conducted to a burner, e. g. a kitchen burner or an absorption cooling plant. If ammonia is used as the cooling liquid and the gases are led directly into the open, an absorber, known per se, may be connected with the evaporator tubes 7 or 13.
Fig. 5 shows the invention applied to a combined cold- Thermos-bottle and field-type burner. An insulatedcontainer 18 houses a double container 19 whose partial wall 20 separates a space for the cooling liquid 22 from a space for the cooled goods 21. The cooling liquid may be under its own vapor pressure. The separating wall 20 should be a good heat conductor. Vapor passage through the evaporator tube 23 may be controlled by means of a valve 24 which is operated from outside. The evaporator tube 23 or its upper part ends into a gas burner 25 known per se. The edge of the container 18 is properly drawn up on the burner end'and equipped withribs 26 supporting a cooking vessel (not shown). The space for the cooled goods 21 is equipped with a tight cap 27', known per se, on one side. The space for the cooling liquid has an opening with a stopper 28 for replacing used cooling liquid. This application of the invention is valuable especially for tourists, as on tours and trips it is often desired to prepare warm meals and, on the other hand, cool drinks or other food. The outer form, resembling a Thermos bottle, of this application of the invention guarantees easy transportation and protection of the sensitive inner parts.
Fig. 6 shows a similar application of the invention, but constructed as a tin can not meant for repeated use. A closed tin can 29, known per se, is surrounded by an insulating mantle 30 which is supported by an outer metal" cover 31. The inside of the can is divided by a wall 32 into an upper space for the cooled goods 33 and a lower space for the cooling liquid 34 which may be under its own pressure. The top of'the upper space where thecooling liquid is located supports several upstanding soldered blind tubes 35W1th notches 36.- The outer cover 31 projects above the edge of the tin can 29 and above the top of the tubes 35'and is formed with a flanged top edge. This projecting part of the outer cover 31 preferably has perforations 37. With this application of the invention the cooling elfect is started when the blind tubes 35 are broken off at their notches, and the vapors of the cooling liquid 34 now emitted by the blind tubes 35 are lit. Then a container, e. g. another tin can-whose contents are to be heated, may be placed on the drawnup edge of the cover 31. Now, while cooking is in prog-- ress on top, the contents of the tin can 29 are cooled.
It is possible, of course, to let the vapors of the cooling liquid 34 escape into the open instead of lighting them.
Fig. 7 shows an application of the invention similar to Fig.6, but without the insulating mantle 30, omission of which would be possible in many cases when the cooled goods 33 are to be cooled only for a short period. In-' stead of using blind tubes 35 with notches 36, the part of the tin can 29 containing the cooling liquid 34-under its own' vapor pressure-may be closed simply by a smooth top which is opened by punching holes in it. How'- ever, in such simplified form the tin can 29 whose edges, if equipped with blind tubes 35, would also be pulled up over these tubes and equipped with openings 37, may not be used for cooking.
Fig. 8 shows application of the invention for 11626001 ing of beverages in drinking receptacles 38. A container 39 similar to'a beer warmer, containing the cooling liquid 40 under its own pressure is suspended in a beer glass, known per se. To facilitate refilling with cooling liquid 40, the container 39 has a removable top: 41 whichis" equipped with a valve 42, permitting when opened discharge of the vapors developed by the cooling liquid 40 via an evaporation tube 43. If the cooling liquid 40 develops inflammable vapors, they may be ignited at the evaporator tube 43 and the resulting small flame used to light cigarettes, etc.
Fig. 9 shows a simplified construction of such model in which a thin glass vial 44 containing the cooling agent 45, suitably under its own vapor pressure, is submerged in a glass 46. Breaking ofi of the vial head 47 causes the cooling agent 45 to evaporate, cooling the contents 48 of glass 46. Here, too, a flame may be lit for the lighting of cigarettes, etc., if inflammable vapors result.
Fig. shows a further application of the invention suited particularly for packing of creamy goods, e. g. ice cream. A pressure and shock-resistant container 49, for example, of sheet metal or plastic, contains the cooling agent 50, suitably under its own vapor pressure. The container 49 and the cooled goods 51 directly touching it are both wrapped in a thin packing material 52, e. g. a thin metal or plastic foil. To start the cooling effect, several holes are punched in foil 52 and container wall 49 at the side where Wall 49 and thin wrapping foil 52 are in contact, thus setting oif the evaporation process. In order to simplify such penetration, several thin or predented places may be provided in the wall 49. With this application it is suitable to store the pack 50 in a heat-insulated place to prevent the excessive influx of heat from the surroundings.
In the following, the invention is further explained by means of two specific examples.
Example N0. 1
A sheet metal can similar to a tin can (Figs. 6 and 7) contains an alcoholic or non-alcoholic beverage, or the like. The liquid to be used, e. g. butane (C4H1o) whose vapor pressure is 3.02 ata. at 86 F., is located below or vertically in the middle, in a separate part of the container. Upon opening a valve provided at this part of the container or otherwise starting the boiling process of the liquid butane at l ata. (boiling point at 1 ata.: 31 F.), the heat required for evaporation is drawn from the beverageespecially if the can is insulated on the outside--thus reducing its temperature to the desired degree.
In order to cool one kilo of the beverage from. 104 F. to 41 F.if its specific temperature is the same as that of waterkcal. are required, plus the amount of heat required for the liquid butane itself, equaling a total of 0.3665 kg. liquid butane. An additional 4 to 5 percent would be required for heat influx, depending on the insulation.
If the desired temperature is reached or all liquid butane has evaporated, the tin is inverted and opened for consumption. Food and the like is cooled in the same way; the required amount of liquid butane is changed, however, depending on the specific temperature of these foods.
Example No. 2
A sheet metal or plastic container holds the goods to be frozen in preserved form, while the cooling agent is housed in a separate container. The evaporating liquid to be used, e. g. isobutane boils at 8 F. at 1 ata. In order to cool 1 kilo of ice cream from 86 F. to 10 F., a total of 1,005 kg. liquid isobutane is required. Upon reaching the desired temperature, the can is inverted and opened for consumption.
Main application possibilities for the cooling process covered by the invention are cooling of all kinds of alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages, e. g. fruit syrup, fruit juices, lemonades, soda, milk, cream, and their mix drinks; also hors doeuvres, desserts or other cold foods; water ice, ice cream and food cream; and other foods.
ing is possible through the relatively simple application of the invention.
While I have illustrated and described the preferred embodiments of my invention, it is to be understood that I do not limit myself to the precise constructions herein disclosed and that various changes and modifications may be made with-in the scope of the invention as defined in the appended claims.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim as new, and desire to secure 'by United States Letters Patent 1. Portable apparatus of the kind described comprising a sealed cylindrical container having top and bottom walls and a partition wall midway its ends dividing the interior of the container into an upper space for holding an evaporable cooling liquid and into a lower space for holding goods to be cooled, said top wall having spaced openings therein, a tubular cover surrounding said cylindrical container and being spaced therefrom, temperature insulation material interposed in the space between said container and tubular cover, and upstanding frangible tubes mounted on said top Wall around the openings therein, said frangible tubes having closed rounded top ends with notches beneath said rounded top ends to facilitate breaking off of said rounded ends, said tubular cover extending above the top rounded ends of said frangible tubes, said extension being provide with spaced radial perforations and being provided with an inwardly extending flange for seating a container thereover containing goods to be heated.
2. Cooling apparatus of the class described, comprising, in combination with a first container having a goodsreceiving space, at least one second container adjacent said space, an evaporable liquid in the second container adapted to cool said space on evaporation of the liquid, and means for opening the second container to atmosphere to initiate evaporation of said liquid, the first container being formed open at one end, the second container seating in and closing the open end of the first container, said means including a plurality of tubes extending from the second container in said end of the first container, said tubes being normally sealed and being of frangible characteristics, whereby to communicate the interior of the second container with atmosphere on breaking of the tubes, the first container at said open end thereof rising above the tubes and being adapted to support a cooking vessel above said tubes, the portion of the first container rising above the tubes being formed with outlet ports for hot products of combustion resulting from ignition of the vapors emanating from the tubes.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,027,382 Justheim Jan. 14, 1936 2,396,887 Schlumbohm Mar. 19, 1946 2,460,765 Palaith Feb. 1, 1949 2,475,755 Pearson July 12, 1949 2,487,821 McCandless et a1. Nov. 13, 1949 2,496,816 Schlum-bohm Feb. 7, 1950 2,556,893 Zwieback et al. June 12, 1951 2,744,809 Falligant May 8, 1956 2,757,517 Goldberg Aug. 7, 1956 FOREIGN PATENTS 226,201 Switzerland June 10, 1942 469,753 Great Britain Sept. 2, 1937