US 2805993 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent 2,805,993 TEXTILE LUBRICANT AND PROCESS No Drawing. Application September 29, 1954,
Serial No. 459,199
5 Claims. or. 251-815 The invention relates to textile processing and more particularly to new and improved lubricants for textile fibers and the process of applying the same.
It is well-known that in the manufacture of yarns, fabrics, and knit goods from fibers, whether of vegetable, ammal, mineral or synthetic origin, oils or oil-containing compositions are generally employed to reduce interfiber friction and thus to facilitate certain operations. a
' The present invention is particularly concerned with the provision of an improved lubricant for use in'the mechanical operations involved in making yarns and threads from fibers.
The utilization of lubricants in'suchprocessing operations may be illustratedby a specific case, that of wool.
In' a conventional process for the manufacture of woolen cloth the scoured stock, either alone or blended with other fibrous'materials, is treated with an oil before it is subjected to any mechanical processing. Such oils should be of a non-resinifying type and preferably emulsifiable with water either in their own -right or through the addition of emulsifying agents 'to the oil or to the water. The oil may be applied in a water emulsion, in a solvent diluent or as the straight oil. The'method of application may be by spray nozzle, by sprinkling can, or by immersion of the stock in a bath containing the oil dispersed in water or solvent. The stock is then opened and further mixed with the oil by passing through a picker. The oiled fibers are next combed or carded to paral lelize them and to remove any foreign material. In the carding operation the fiber lubricant should fulfill the following basic functions (1) Reduce interfiber In the combing, Straightening, and parallelizing of fibers during the carding operation the oil facilitates the orderly rearrangement of the fibers by reducing interfiber friction. This is reflected in the higher quality of the end product of the carding operation, which is called roping. The roping will be more uniform and contain fewer broken fibers as a consequence of the lubricants action. Moreover, the combing action of the card will be more eflicient and the fibers parallelized to a greater degree in the roping.
(2) Lubricants, in general, reduce the loss during the carding operation of short, linty pieces of fiber to the fioor surrounding 'the carding machinery. This waste, besides reducing the potential daily production of the machine, is a nuisance and an economic loss since it must be swept up and reprocessed. V I v The next operation, spinning, is where the roping is drawn and twisted to form the yarn. During the drawing and twisting, the roping or yarn may break and must be retied before production resumes. Fiber lubricants reduce this breakage byz" a '1 (l) Producing a more uniform and cohesive roping in the carding operation which will inherently spin with fewer breaks. i i
2) Controllinginterfiber friction so that the drawing operation occurs with less breakage;
The'ya'rn is then weveninro' cloth/on" 16ems.- rulin messes Patented Sept. 10, 1957 scouring, dyeing and finishing are operations performed on the woven material before sale, but these operations are not lubricant-dependent except that if not removed by the scour the lubricant would interfere with the dyeing and finishing. The appearance of the finished material depends, of course, on the efliciency of the lubricant in that a well-lubricated fibrous stock results in a finished material free of slubs, knots, and other imperfections which can be caused by improper lubricants.
An object of the invention is to provide an improved lubricant for use in the processing of textile fibers.
Another object of the invention is to provide a textile fiber lubricating composition, the lubricity of which is superior to the organic liquid from which the composition was derived. I
Another object of the invention is to provide a textile lubricant and process of the application thereof which results in decreased breakage of yarn during such process- Another object of this invention is to provide a lubricating composition for textile fibers which reduces the waste in carding to a greater degree than does the organic liquid from which the composition is derived.
Other objects of this invention will be evident from the further description of the invention hereinbelow.
In accordance with the invention, an emulsion is provided in which the continuous phase is aqueous, and the discontinuous (or dispersed or emulsified) phase is a textile lubricating oil composition comprising one or more textile lubricating oils with or without emulsifiers and a minor proportion, generally from 5 to 10% by total weight of such oil composition, of an organophilic bentonite capable of dispersing with gel formation in organic liquids, all as more particularly hereinafter described and defined.
The fibers, for which the lubricants of the present invention are useful, may be of vegetable origin such as cotton, linen, ramie, jute, hemp, sisal, and the like; animal fibers such as silk, and most particularly animal hair such as wool, camels hair, angora goat hair, and the like; inorganic fibers such as asbestos, glass, and metals; so-called semisynthetic fibers such as rayon, similar cellulose iderivatives, and alginates, and fibers made from proteins such as soya protein, zein, and the like; and synthetic fibers such as nylon, various polyester fibers such as polyethylene terephthalate (Dacron, Terylene, etc.), various acrylate fibers and others.
. The oily base to which the organophilic bentonitefis added may be a single oil or a mixture thereof, with or without emulsifying agents separately added as needed-in order to insure dispersibility of the oil composition in water. Suitable emulsifying agents are well-known; representative agents will be found 'set forth on pp. 411412 of the book Surface Active Agents by Schwarz and Perry, N. Y. 1949, and pp. 207-210 and 213-215 of the book Textilhilfsmittel by A. C-hwala, Vienna, 1939.
The types of oilsused are, of course, well-known. In general, non-drying oils aroused as otherwise a tendency towards gumming and rancidity'is present. Olive oil is widely used, although high in price, and other oils such as peanut, teaseed and coconut oils are used and also mineral and sulfonated'rnineral oils. The vegetable oils named may likewise be sulfonated, particularly where cotton is being processed. So-called synthetic lubricating oils such as various polyalkylene glycols, commercially available from the Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Company, may likewise be used. In the case of the sulfonated oils, no emulsifying agent need be added; but in the-case of some of the oils of feeble self-emulsification properties, either one of the innumerable emulsifying agerit's' available for such purposes may be added in small proportions, or a sufiicient amount of-one of the self-emulsifyingoils all as described in Hauser Patent No. 2,531,427. As set forth in that patent, a number of different clays may be used and indeed a number of different organic compounds may. be used in imparting the desired property to the clay mineral. Attention is particularly directed to the section of the cited Hauser patent beginning at line 44 of column 2 and ending at line 31 of column 3, for a general description of applicable organic onium compounds In the present specification and claims, the term organophilic bentonite will be used, and it will be understoodthat this is a comprehensive term for such compounds as are described and claimed in said Hauser Patent No. 2,531,427, regardless of whether bentonite itself or an equivalent mineral has been used. Such organophilic bentonites have an organic radical, form a gel in an organic liquid .to which the organic radical of the modified clay has an afiinity, and have a substantial gel characteristic therein. Two grams or such an organophilic bentonite will swell to at least 20 milliliters, in an excess, for example, 100 milliliters of the liquid, such as nitrobenzene.
Three such organophilicbentonites are commercially obtainable at the present'time. They are manufactured by the National Lead Company and are sold as Bentone 18, Bentone 18C, and Bentone 34. Bentone 18 is the reaction product of an octadecyl ammonium halide with a sodium type bentonite; Bentone 18C is the reaction product of a dodecylammonium halide with a sodium type bentonite; and Bentone 34 is the reaction product of a dimethyl dioctadecylammonium halide with a sodium type bentonite, in both cases the ratio of onium compound to clay being about equivalent of the former per 100 grams of the bentonite. They may be described respectively as octadecylammonium bentonite, dodecylammonium bentonite, and dimethyl dioctadecylammonium bentonite; and they belong to the generic group of organophilic organo-ammonium bentonites. We have found Bentone 18, Bentone 18C, and Bentone 34 to ,be effective in the present invention, and their use therein is particularly convenient since they are commercially obtainable.
The amount of the organophilic bentonite used in the lubricating composition may vary over wide limits depending upon the properties desired in the final composi-.
tion and may be as high as 25% by weight. However,
i we prefer to use smaller amounts, in the range 0.5 to 10%,
as in this range the improvements resulting from the addition of the organophilic bentonite are most apparent Without the composition losing the essential characteristics of the oil in which the organophilic bentonite is incorporated. Five percent is generally both effective and economical.
For rapidly accomplishing dispersion of the organ lophilic bentonite in the organic liquid lubricant it is .often advantageous to heat the mixture and pass it through a multiple-roll mill such as a paint mill although this is not necessary for some combinations.
In the emulsions formed the aqueous phase will generally predominate; in fact in the application of textile lubricants of this class generally, it is common to have from about 7 to 25% by volume of oil or oil composition in the total volume of emulsion. The exact proportion will depend upon the type of fiber being processed and the mechanical equipment being used but it will be found in general that the addition of theorganophilic bentonite to the oil composition in accordance with the invention will not substantially alter the range of emulsion strength used.
After the organophilic bentonite is added to the oil composition, particularly as described hereinabove, the
-oil composition containing the organophilic bentonite is a more of the self-emulsifiable sulfonated mineral oil so that the final lubricating composition contained 5 parts dimethyl dioctadecyl ammonium bentonite in 95 parts self-emulsifiable mineral oil.
This lubricating composition was stirred into warm water (100160 F.) to form an emulsion and three different concentrations of oil in the emulsion made up.
The proportions of water to oil in the three emulsions were respectively 14 to 1, 7 to 1, and 3 to 1. Good dispersion of the lubricating composition in the water was obtained at all ratios, These emulsions were sprayed on 35 pound lots of scoured wool which were of the type, Texas six months clip wool. The application of emulsion was regulated so that the amount of lubricating composition applied to the stock was 1.5% (14 to 1 water oil ratio), 3.5% (7 to 1), and 7.0% (3 to 1). In each case about 20% water was applied to the wool along with thelubricating composition. As a control, lots of wool of the same type were oiled with the selfemulsifiable sulfonated mineral oil to which no organophilic bentonite had been added. The lubricant and water were applied in the same concentrations namely 1.5%, 3.5% and 7.0% oil and in each case about 20% water. All percentages were based on the dry weight of the scoured wool. The proportions of oil and water need not be limited to these ratios.
The superiority of the lubricating composition containing the organophilic bentonite in the amount 5 parts per 100 parts of composition over the straight oil is apparent from the waste data obtained on running the 6 lots through the carding machine. All lots were run under exactly the same conditions and for the same period of time. These waste figures are presented in Table I below and represent the waste in pounds collected on sheets of paper located at selected points under the machine. Duration of the test was minutes.
TABLE I Carding waste Carding Waste in Pounds A B Lubricant Composition Applied Parts/100 Parts Wool parts Ratio,
7 Straight Lub., 5 A/B Lubricant parts or- (Control) ganophilic bentonite It is seen that in every case the waste figure is greater for the straight oil than for the oil containing ,5 parts organophilic bentonite per parts of lubricating comtonite is present averages about 20% lower than the control except at the high lubricant levels. This is a significant reduction in waste, particularly where carding is carried out on a large scale. a a
Further proof of the improved performance of the Inbricant composition containing the organophilic bentonite was found upon measuring the number jof breaks encountered in spinning 100 yards of yarn from each lot of wool. Spinning conditions were identical'for all lots TABLE II Breaks in spinning Breaks Per 1,000 Yards Spun Lubricant Composition Applied-Parts/IOO Parts Wool 95 Parts Straight Lubricant, Lubricant Parts Bentonlte (organophilic) At low lubricant levels the lubricant composition containing the bentonite compounds shows a real advantage over the control in the spinning breaks per 100 yards spun. At medium and higher levels the difierences in breaks are less significant.
Example II.Eighteen parts by weight of the same dimethyl dioctadecyl ammonium bentonite were added to 82 parts by weight of a self-emulsifiable sulfonated mineral oil and the mixture was roller-milled twice to disperse the bentonite compound colloidally. This mixture was then let down with more of the self-emulsifiable mineral oil so that the final lubricating composition contained parts dimethyl dioctadecylammonium bentonite in 90 parts self-emulsifiable sulfonated mineral oil.
This lubricating composition was stirred into warm water (100160 F.) to form an emulsion and three difierent concentrations of oil in the emulsion made up. The proportions of water to oil in the three emulsions were respectively 14 to 1, 7 to l, 3 to 1. The wool and method of application of the emulsion are identical as in Example I. The amount of lubricating composition applied to the stock was 1.5%, 3.5%, and 7.0% Twenty percent water was applied to each lot along with the lubricant. As a control similar lots of wool were oiled with the self-emulsifiable sulfonated mineral oil to which no organophilic bentonite had been added. Oil and water were applied at the same levels namely 1.5%, 3.5% and 7.0% lubricants and 20% water. The proportion of oil and water need not be limited to these ratios.
The superiority of the lubricating composition containing the bentonite compound in the amount 10 parts per 100 parts of composition over the straight oil is apparent from the waste data obtained on running the comparable lots through the carding machine. All lots were run under the same machine conditions and for the same time. The waste figures appear in Table III.
TABLE HI Garding Waste in Pounds A B Lubricant Composition App1ied Parts/100 Parts Wool 90 Parts Ratio,
Straight Lubricant, A/B Lubricant 10 Parts organophilic bentonite As in Example I, the lubricant composition containing 10 parts organophilic bentonite per 100 parts of lubricating composition ofiers a significant reduction in carding waste.
In the breaks in spinning test, the lubricant composi- 75 mi mhfaining 16% philic bentonite again was Superior to the control. Table IV givesthese results.
TABLE IV Breaks Per 1,000 Yards 7 p Lubricant Composition Applied-Parts/IOO Parts Wool Parts Straight Lubricant,
Lubricant 10 Parts (Control) Organophilic bentonite At all levels of lubricant addition to the wool, it will be observed that the lubricant containing the bentonite compound is markedly superior to the control in preventing breaks in spinning.
Example IlI.ll0 parts olive oil and parts white mineral oil were blended together and 18 parts of lauryl ammonium bentonite (as commercial Bentone 18C) and 5 parts of water were added and mixed by agitation with a high speed propeller type agitator. parts of sodium alkylaryl sulphonate (L. Sonneborn Sons Petronate) were added and the stirring continued. This mixture was then emulsified with 3600 parts of hot water using the same propeller agitator. The resulting emulsion was used in spinning and carding operations on angora goat hair.
Example IV.A sample of attapulgite, taken from near Quincy, Florida, was freed from non-clay impurities by subjecting a 17% suspension of the clay dispersed with tetrasodiurn pyrophosphate to high speed agitation by centrifugation. A portion of the suspension containing 62.5 parts of the purified attapulgite clay on the dry basis was reacted with a dilute aqueous dispersion of 10 parts of triphenyllauryl phosphonium bromide and the product filtered, Washed, dried and ground. 12 parts by weight of this reacted product were incorporated by milling on a 3 roll paint mill into 100 parts of a sulfonated petroleum oil (Socony-Vacuum Oil Co. Wool- Rex). 8 parts of this oily mixture were emulsified into 92 parts of water by means of a high speed propeller type agitator and the resulting emulsion was used as a fiber lubricant in the spinning of cotton.
xample V.-7.5 parts of lauryl ammonium bentonite (as commercial Bentone 18C) were stirred into 92.5 parts of di-Z ethylhexyl ester of adipic acid (Carbide and Carbons Ucon brand adipate 465) and 50 parts of sodium alkylaryl sulfonate (L. Sonneborn Sons Petronate) added and this mixture was emulsified with 1500 parts of hot water. used in spinning operations on long fibered wool.
While in describing the invention specific examples and specific compounds have been mentioned, it is to be understood that the invention is a broad one and should be so construed as regards the specification and the claims hereunto appended.
Having described the invention we claim:
1. The process of lubricating a textile fiber during the forming thereof into a yarn, which includes the step of bringing the fiber into contact with an emulsion having a continuous phase of water and a dispersed phase of an oil-organophilic bentonite mixture containing from 0.5% to 25% by weight of an organophilic bentonite.
2. The process of lubricating a textile fiber during the forming thereof into a yarn, which includes the step of bringing the fiber into contact with an emulsion having a continuous phase of water and a dispersed phase of an oil containing from 0.5% to 25% by weight of an organophilic organo-ammonium bentonite.
3. The process of lubricating a textile fiber during. the forming thereof into a yarn, which includes the step The resulting stable emulsion was of bringing the fiber into contact with an emulsion having a'continuo'us; phaseiof Waterthnd a dispersed phase of an oil containing from 0.5% to 25% by weight of octadecyl ammonium bentonite.
4. The process of lubricating a textile fiber during the forming thereof into a yarn, which includes the step of bringing the fiber into contact with an emulsion having a continuous phase of water and a dispersed phase of an oil containing from 0.5% to 25% by weight of dodecyl 'ammonium bentonite,
5. The processof lubricating a textile fiber 'during of an oil containing from Q.S to 25% by'weight of 5 dimethyl dioctadecyl ammonium bentonite.
ReferencesfCited in the fiie of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 10 2,628,197 Killingsworth Feb. 1 1953