US 2807158 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
F. E. BEST .2,807,158
MULTIPLE SHEAR LINE LOCK WITH BREECH LOCK ASSEMBLY MEANS` Sept. 24, 1957 -Filed Deo. 14, 1954 lNvENToR United States Patent() MULTIPLE SHEAR LINE LOCK WITH BREECH LOCK ASSEMBLY MEANS Frank Ellison Best, Indianapolis, Ind. Application December 14, 1954, Serial No. 475,065 4 Claims. (Cl. 70 370) This invention relates to master-keyable pin-tumbler locks of the key-controlled assembly type in which primary lock mechanisms, referred to in the art as cores, can be assembled and disassembled relative to compleinenting secondary lock mechanisms by key means.
Such cores require two shear lines, one known as the control shear line between a body and a sleeve thereof, and the other known as the operating shear line between said sleeve and a key plug, the former controlling the assembly and disassembly of the said core relative to the secondary lock mechanism, while the latter operates the secondary lock mechanism.
The most important object of this invention is the provision of key-operable breech lock means, at the rear or inner end of the core, breech-locking said core into a breech plate in the secondary locking means.
This is accomplished by Hanging the rear end of the sleeve with an annular pattern of outwardly extending breech lock lugs cooperating with dowel pins integral with the said body and a mating breech lock plate on the secondary mechanism.
Another important object of this invention is to reduce the sleeve to a cylindrical member, as well as the core itself to a concentric cylinder.
Another object is to reduce the distance between the two said shear lines so as to be able frequently to use as few as two pin tumblers in a pin stack with only a single break therebetween that serves selectively with each of the said shear lines.
Another object of my invention is to dispense with the need of the ordinary core housing in many adaptations at a great saving in manufacturing costs.
Other objects are to make a smaller, more compact and rugged core, and one that is more eXibly adaptable to a wider range of secondary mechanisms.
Another object is to increase the master-keying flexibility and security of any system using said core as its unit. This is done by using pin tumblers of smaller diameter and placing them closer together so as to provide more pin stacks for a given length of core.
Another object is to improve the key plug retaining means by stronger and more rugged structure more easily applied.
Another important object is to increase the number of, adaptability of, and diversity of, direct throw means available between the core and its secondary mechanism.
Another important object is to provide a core mechanism that can be made on commercial machines with fewest and most ordinary operations to thus cut the cost of manufacture.
Other objects will appear as the description of my i11- vention unfolds in connection with the `accompanying drawings.
In the drawings:
Fig. l is a longitudinal cross section of a primary lock mechanism taken on line 1 1 of Fig. 2, showing an operating key and tumbler pins in relief with the tumbler pins lined up to provide an operating shear line and showing a fragment of one possible throw member with which the primary lock mechanism may cooperate.
Fig. 2 is a transverse cross section of the primary lock mechanism taken on line 2 2 of Fig. l and showing tumbler pins in relief.
Fig. 3 is a longitudinal section of the primary lock mechanism, taken on line 3 3 of Fig. 4 and showing a control key and tumbler pins in relief with the tumbler pins lined up on a control shear line and further showing another possible type of throw member.
Fig. 4 is a transverse sectional view through the throw member taken on line 4 4 of Fig. 3 and showing the breech lock mechanism in a locked position.
Fig. 5 is a view similar to Fig. 4 except that it is shown with the rear breech lock mechanism rotated intoran unlocked position through the use of a control key.
Fig. 6 is a fragmentary plan view of a breech plate showing the same in a position for superposing it over Fig. 5.
Fig. 7 is an isometric view of the primary lock mechanism showing the same assembled with a secondary lock mechanism which, in this instance, is a cabinet lock, one of many possible adaptations.
Fig. 8 is a view in cross section of the cabinet lock taken on line 8 8 of Fig. 9 and showing the primary lock mechanism in relief.
Fig. 9 is a cross section of the cabinet lock taken on line 9 9 of Fig. 8 and showing the bolt and breech lock mechanism in relief.
Fig. 10 is a detached isometric View of the secondary bolt member shown in the cabinet lock.
Fig. ll is a detached plan view of a key plug retainer used on the inner end of the key plug of the primary lock mechanism.
Like reference numerals designate like parts throughout j the several views.
The primary lock mechanism shown in Figs. 1 to 5 inclusive and Fig. 11 comprises four main parts, namely, a core body 21, a sleeve 22, a key plug 23 and a key plug retainer 35. The core body 21 houses the sleeve 22 which in turn houses the key plug 23. Pin holes 24 in the core body and sleeve and key plug receive and hold outer tumbler pin parts 25 and inner taper tipped tumbler pin parts 26. The tumbler pin parts 26 contact the key bit 27 of either a control key 28 or an operating key 29. Springs 30 held in place by core caps 31 press the tumbler pins down onto the key bit 27. If a correct key is inserted in a keyway 32 of the key plug 23 the tumbler pins will line up either on the operating shear line 33, as shown in Fig. 1, or on the control shear line 34, as shown in Fig. 3.
A key plug retainer member 35 is secured to the inner end of the key plug 23. The key plug retainer 35 has a normally upright medially positioned rectangular slot 45, Fig. l1, to receive a throw bar. Two lands or strips of metal 19 separate the slot 45 from two symmertically positioned stake receiving slots 18. The inner end of the key plug 23 is provided with two integral stakes or studs 36 and the key plug retainer 35 is attached to the key plug 23 by riveting the studs 36 of the plug 23 outwardly over adjacent parts of the retainer 35, as indicated by 37 in Figs. 4 and 5. The lands 19 prevent bending the key plug studs 36 inwardly in the process of riveting the outer portions of these studs over the retainer 35.
The key plug 23 has a shoulder 17 on its outer end which overlaps the outer end of the sleeve 22 and also overlaps part of the core body 21. This shoulder or ange 17 is positioned within a suitable recess 20 in the end of the core body 21. The inner end of the sleeve has an outwardly extending flange 16 which overlaps a portion of the inner end of the core body 21. The key plug retainer 35 and anges 16 and 17 cooperate in preventing relative longitudinal displacement of the core body 21, sleeve 22 and key plug 23.
Ejector holes 38 in the core body 21 and sleeve 22 make it possible to re-combinate the primary mechanism by permitting a tool of small diameter to be inserted through these holes to press the pins 2S and 26 and springs 30 and caps 31 upwardly and out of the parts 21, 22 and 23. The plug 23 acts as a key stop with the key shaft 39 fitting into a cross slot 40 in the outer end of the key plug 23. This cross slot 40 acts as a drive slot and takes the torsional load between the key and the key plug and reduces the danger of the key bit being sheared off.
The sleeve 22 carries breech lock lugs 41 and 50. These lugs 41 and 50 are spaced apart and extend outwardly from the sleeve flange 16 andare dimensioned and positioned so as to allow them to pass between inwardly directed segments and through slots 42 which are arranged around a sleeve receiving opening 14 in a breech plate 44. The breech plate 44 is usually part of a secondary lock housing but obviously it could be'npart of a different mechanism. The breech plate 44 has at least one and preferably two larger notches 48 which extend outwardly far enoughV so as to overlap part of the end of the core body 21 and will receive and fit over studs 47 on the inner end of said core body.
The contour of the part of the breech plate 44 bordering or extending around the opening 14 is the same in all instances but the secondary mechanism with which the breech plate is assembled or associated may vary widely, depending on requirements. The torque take-off means shown in Fig. 1 is a throw member or bar 60 of rectangular cross section which may be an attached partof a secondary lock mechanism capable of operating a secondary bolt. The end portion of this throw member 60 simply fits into and is received within the slot 45, and possibly within an adjacent slot 61 in the key plug 23, when the primary lock mechanism is applied to the secondary lock mechanism. Another throw member or bar 62, also rectangular in cross section, is constructed so that it will be withdrawnfrom thev secondary mechanism when the primary lock mechanism is dis-assembled therefrom. This throw bar 62 has a lug 63 on the outer end thereof which enters the slot 61 in the inner end of the key plug and engages with the key plug retainer 35 like a hook. A corner 64 of the bar 62 is rounded off and a notch 65 is provided in said bar adjacent the lug 63 so that the throw bar 62 may be applied to and detached from the primary lock mechanism by tilting the extended end of the bar upwardly from the position in which it is shown in Fig. 3. torque take-ott or throw means an eccentric throw pin 46 is provided on the key plug retainer 35 and may operate as hereinafter described to move a secondary bolt.
The studs or dowel pins 47, which are preferably integrally formed on the inner end of the core body 21, are beveled to facilitate their insertion into the larger notches 48 of the breech plate 44. Breech lugs 50 on the sleeve 22 are positioned on opposite sides of the dowel pins 47 and restrict rotary movement of the sleeve 22 to the amount allowed by the space 51 between each pair of lugs 50.
Figs. 4 and 5 show two extreme rotated Vpositions of the sleeve 22 and Fig. 5 shows the lugs 41 and 50 of said sleeve 22 correctly positioned for assembly with the breech plate 44 of Fig. 6. The lugs 41 and 50 are moved into the Fig. 5 position by inserting the control key 28 and rotatively moving the sleeve 22 and plug 23 counter-clockwise, as respects the showing in Fig. 5, until stopped by engagement of the lugs 50 with the dowel pins 47. After the lugs 41 and 50 have been passed through the breech plate slots 42 the control key 28 is rotatively moved in the opposite direction back to a starting position. This moves the lugs 41 and 50 out of registration with the notches 42 and into alignment with the segments 15. The control As illustrative of a third type of key 28 may then be withdrawn leaving the lugs 41 and locked in engagement with the segments 15. In this position the dowel pins 47 are seated in the openings 48 of the breech plate 44 and the primary lock mechanism is firmly and immovably locked to the breech plate.
Figs. 7 to 10 inclusive illustrate an adaptation of this primary lock mechanism to a secondary lock mechanism in the form of a cabinet lock which comprises a housing 43 having, as its front wall, the breech plate 44. This cabinet lock has a bolt 52 which is guided between two tubular guide and spacer members 53 and is slidable in an opening 55 in an edge of the housing 43. Hollow rivets 57 extend through the tubular spacer members 53 and secure the breech plate 44 to the housing 43. The inner part of the bolt 52 is preferably thinner than the outer or locking portion of said bolt and this thinner bolt part may have short legs 58 which extend transversely from the inner end portion thereof and contact the breech plate 44. This conveniently supports the thinner portion of the bolt 52 in spaced relation from the breech plate 44 and provides clearance for the parts of the primary lock mechanism which protrude through the breech plate 44 into the secondary lock housing 43.
An approximately J-shaped slot 56 in the thinner part i of the bolt 52 receives the throw pin 46 of key plug retainer 35. A notch 59 in the wall of the J slot 56 prevents rotary movement of the primary lock mechanism, including throw pin 46, in the wrong direction, namely clockwise as respects the showing in Fig. 9. This obviates confusion on the part of persons operating the lock. The primary lock parts are always in the position in which they are shown in Fig. 9 when. the key plug 23 is locked against rotation. If the bolt 52 is in an outwardly projected position, as in Fig. 9, then inserting an operating key 29 in the primary lock mechanism and moving the throw pin 46 three hundred sixty degrees counter-clockwise will retract the bolt 52 and leave it locked in the retracted position with the throw pin 46 in the shorter arm of the J shaped slot 56. From this retracted position of the bolt 52 movement of the throw pin 46 three hundred sixty degrees in a clockwise direction will return the bolt 52 to the locking position in which it is shown in Fig. 9 and leave it locked in this position.
Obviously changes in this invention may be made within the scope and spirit of the appended claims.
Having described my invention what I claim as new and desire to protect by Letters Patent is:
1. In a lock having at least two shear lines, primary lock mechanism including a rotatively movable key operated sleeve; secondary lock means including a breech plate having a sleeve-receiving opening therein, the annular part of the breech plate extending around the sleeve-receiving opening, having inwardly directed spaced apart segments with notches therebetween; and outwardly extending spaced apart breech lock lugs on the inner end portion of said ysleeve interitting and releasably engaging with the notched and segmented portion of said breech plate and locking said primary lock mechanism and said secondary lock means together.
2. In a lock, a core body having at least one `dowel pin protruding from its inner end; a sleev rotatively movable in said core body; a key plug rotatable in said sleeve; tumblerv pins interconnecting .said key plug and sleeve and core body providing two shear lines aligned by dierent key combinations; a breech plate extending across the inner end of said key plug and sleeve and core body, said breech plate having therein a sleeve-receiving opening, the annular part of the breech plate extending around said sleeve-receiving opening having spaced apart inwardly directed segments with notches therebetween, at least one of said notches overlapping the inner end of said lcore body and Vreceiving therein a dowel-pin of the core body, whereby Vthe core body and breech plate are .supported against relative rotation; and outwardly extending spaced apart lugs on the inner end portion of said sleeve mating and intertting the segments and notches of the breech plate and releasably securing the core body and sleeve and key plug to the breech plate.
3. The apparatus as claimed in claim 2 in which at least two adjacent breech lock lugs on the inner end portion of the sleeves are spaced apart a distance greater than the transverse dimension of the dowel pin on the inner end of the core body and are positioned to receive therebetween said core body dowel pin, whereby a predetermined limited amount of rotary movement of the sleeve in the core body is provided.
4. In a lock, a core body; a sleeve rotatively movable in said core body; a flange on the inner end of said sleeve overlapping said core body; a key plug rotatable in said sleeve; a ange on the outer end of said key plug overlapping said sleeve and said core body; a plug retained secured to the inner end of said key plug and overlapping said sleeve; tumbler pins interconnecting said key plug and sleeve and core body providing two shear lines aligned by different key combinations, one shear line providing rotary movement of the sleeve and key plug within the core body and the other shear line providing rotary movement of the key plug within the sleeve; secondary lock mechanism including a breech plate having an opening, the marginal portion of said breech plate around said opening having inwardly directed segments with notches therebetween; and outwardly extending spaced apart lugs on the inner end portion of said sleeve mating and intertting the segments and notches of said breech plate and releasably securing said sleeve and core body and key plug to said breech plate.
References Cited in the le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 857,126 Voight June 18, 1907 1,565,557 Fremon Dec. l5, 1925 FOREIGN PATENTS 533,216 Germany Sept. 18, 1931 533,217 Germany Sept. 18, 1931