US 2810178 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Oct. 22, 1957 J. s. TAYLOR SPIDER AND SLIP CONSTRUCTION 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Aug. 2'7, 1954 Oct. 22, `1957 J. s. TAYLOR SPIDER AND SLIP CONSTRUCTION 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Aug. 27,- 1954 Iii-2 f- 2,810,178 Ice Vpatented oci. 22, 1957 SPIDER AND SLIP CONSTRUCTION James S. Taylor, Tulsa, Okla.
Application August 27, 1954, Serial No. 452,533
3 Claims. (Cl. 24-263) This` invention relates to a new and improved spider and slip construction for use in connection with drilling tools of an oil well and specifically appertains to an 1mproved means for the ease of manipulation of the slips in the operation of suspending or pulling tubing, caslng and the like. The present invention is directed part1cularly to an improved mounting for the slips and an improved guide means, for the tubing, casing and the like and constitutes an improvement over my prior patent, No. 2,319,016, granted May 11, 1943.
The present invention contemplates the provision of back-up rollers for the slips so as to enable the slips to easily move in the body of the 'spider when it is desired to move the tubing or casing or the like up or down.
Thus, a primary object of the present invention-is to provide bearing means on which the slips move in executing the upper opening movement and lower closing movement, such bearing means being interposed between the slips and the body of the spider and providing an ease of action of the slips in association with an improved mechanical operating means for effecting a synchronized movement of the slips.
The present invention further contemplates the provision of means for guiding the tubing or casing as it is moved by the slips and for permitting the lateral placement of the body of the spider on the tubing or casing as it hangs suspended from a tubing elevator.
Thus, another primary object of this invention is to provide segmental guide means which can be inserted on the suspended tubing as the body is passed laterally thereon and to provide a removable side plate for the body that locks the guide means in place and mounts the body on the tubing.
Another object of this invention is to provide an improved slip construction which can be easily manually operated and which has an increased tube gripping action.
These and ancillary objects and structural features of merit are attained by this invention, the preferred form of which ls described in the following description and illustrated in the accompanying drawing, wherein:
Fig. 1 is a perspective view of the improved tubing spider and slip construction with the side cover plate removed to show the improved segmental guide means;
Fig. 2 is a side elevational view thereof;
Fig. 3 is a vertical sectional view taken on line 3 3 of Fig. 2, and,
Fig. 4 is a vertical sectional view taken on line 4--4 of Fig. 3.
Referring now more particularly to the accompanying drawing, the numeral generally designates the body of the spider which has a fixed side wall 12 having upstanding outwardly inclined apertured ears 14 at its upper corners. The side wall 12 is permanently fixed or may be integral with end blocks 16 and 18, which constitute the body proper of the spider. The end blocks are spaced transversely apart at their inner confronting faces 20 and 22 to define a vertical tubing passage 24. The faces 20 and 22 are inclined upwardly so that they are divergent upwardly from their lower ends. Such upwardly divergent faces are formed with axially extending rectangular recesses 26 which open through the top walls of the blocks. The recesses have bottom walls 26a and opposing side walls 26b and 26C and the back walls 26d thereof partake of the inclination of the faces 20 and 22. A coiled spring 28 yis vertically fixed in the bottom walls 26a of the recesses and upstands therefrom. A plurality of rollers 30 are assembled in side by side contacting, parallel relation in the recesses, the length of the rollers being equal to the width of the recesses and the diameter of the rollers being slightly greater than the depth of the recesses. Thus, the rollersprotude slightly beyond the faces 20 and 22. The side walls Z6b and 26C of the recesses have axial grooves 25 which receive the ends of the rollers to hold the rollers in place, that is against outward displacement.
The rollers are held down against the urgement of the springs 28 by hold-down plates 32, which are fastened onto the top walls of the blocks by fasteners 34 and have edges 36 which project over the tops of the recesses and contact the uppermost roller in each group.
The end blocks 16 and 18 are formed with threaded holes 38 on their sides, which holes receive bolts 40 for attaching a removable side plate 42 to the end blocks. The lower ends of the inner faces 20 and 22, below the recesses 26, are formed with transverse slots 44 and 46, which lie in the same horizontal plane. Removable guides 48 and 50 are provided and include semi-circular plates 52 which have lateral flanges 54 on the upper edge of their semicircular walls. The flanges 54 slide in the slots 44 and 46 whereby the guides are mounted in circular relationship. The guides are held in such relationship by the attachment of the side plate 42 to the end blocks. Slips 56 and 58 are provided and are disposed in spaced apart relation in the tubing passage 24. The slips are in the form of blocks and have confronting transversely arcuate inner faces 6) which may be smooth or knurled and which frictionally contact the tubing or casing.
The slips have their back faces 62 in contact with the rollers and the slips are disposed at an angle to the vertical, the angle of setting of the slips complimenting the angle of the faces 20 and 22 of the end blocks.
The upper ends of the slips are provided with pairs of apertured ears 64 which receive pivot pins 66 that pivotally attach the inner ends of slip arms 68 to the slips. The outer ends of the arms 68 carry transverse shafts 70, which project laterally in opposite directions from the arms and are rotatably journaled in the ears 14 on the fixed side wall 12 and in similar ears 72 formed on the removable side wall 42.
Tandem bar cranks 74 and 76 (see Fig. 2) are fixed on the shafts 7) at the fixed side wall 12 and are connected by a tandem bar "I8 which has its end pivoted to the outer ends of the cranks. The bar 78 has an offset end 7 Sa which is pivotally attached to the crank 74 and a straight end 78b which is pivotally attached to the crank 76.
A pin 80 extends laterally inwardly from the bar 78 adjacent the center thereof and is received in an axial slot 82 in the arm 84 of a crank type handle 86, which has a hand lever 88.
In assembly, the rollers 30 are positioned in the recesses through the open upper ends thereof with the lowermost roller in each group resting on the spring 28. The hold-down plates 32 hold`the rollers against the spring in group form. The rollers are so positioned that the back faces 62 of the slips only contact the peripheries of the rollers and move on such roller surfaces. This arrangement enables the slips to be easily raised when it is desired to move the tubing up or down.
Since the tubing is suspended from tubing elevators, the body cannot be axiallyY moved onto the tubing and, for this reason, the side wall 42 is made removable to permit the lateral passage of the body onto the tubing. The guides 48 and 50 are provided to guide the tubing in a straight line and are removable Vto permit -the lateral passage of the body onto the suspended tubing.
When the tubing is raised, it will tend to release the slips to the point where it will be very easy for the operator tomove the slips entirely up out of the Way by usingthe hand lever 88 which slides the tandem bar and causes the cranks to be rotated, thereby rotating the shafts 70 and raising the slips.
Whenl the slips are raised, the rollers will be urged to their upper position as a group by `the springs 28, ready for the next lowering movement of the sli-ps. When the slips are lowered to grip on a tubing, the back faces of the slips ride on the rollers and the slips start their wedging action. The rollers move down as a group and roll between the back walls of the recesses and the back faces of the slips until the slips reach their maximum wedging positions.
Thus, an extremely simple but highly effective roller back-up means for the mechanically operated slips is provided.
While the best known form of the invention has been described and illustrated, other forms may be realized as come within the scope of the invention, as defined in the attached claims,
What is claimed is:
1. In a well tube `gripping device, a vertically disposed body having a vertical bore extending through its upper and lower ends and defined by side faces and upwardly divergent end faces, said endy faces having axial recesses extending from a point above their lower ends through their upper ends, a vertically stacked group of peripherally contacting rollers disposed transversely in the recesses and outstanding slightly` beyond the plane of the end faces, spring means disposed between Vthe bottoms of the recesses and the lowermost roller for urging the rollers, as a group, upwardly in the recesses, means removably fixed on the upper end of the body and overlying the uppermost roller to limit the upward movement of the rollers, a pair of companion slips mounted in the bore and having cooperative tube gripping inner faces and upwardly and outwardly inclined at rear walls which slide on the rollers, the engagement between such walls and the rollers constituting the sole guiding support for the slips, means disposed below the recesses for guiding the tube in the bore and means for raising and lowering the slips in synchronized fashion to engage and release a tube with the slips moving solel3 on the rollers in their vertical movement and being wedged tightly onto a tube by the rollers in their downward movement.
2. A device as claimed in claim 1, wherein said guiding means includes an axially split sleeve having semi-circular sections and disposed removably in the bore at the lower end thereof.
3. A device as claimed in claim 1, wherein said guiding means includes an axially split sleeve vertically disposed in the lower end of the bore and including a pair of mating semi-circular sections having laterally outstanding mounting flanges on their upper ends and said end faces having transverse slots formed therein below the bottoms of the recesses for receiving the anges to mount the sections in the bore and one of the side faces of the bore being removable for the insertion of the sections and holding the sections 1n place.
References Cited in the tile of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,856,905 Carroll May 3, 1932 1,883,073 Stone Oct. 18, 1932 2,030,111 Long Feb. 11, 1936 `2,279,964 Berliner Apr. 14, 1942 2,319,016 Taylor May 11, 1943