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Publication numberUS2814941 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 3, 1957
Filing dateFeb 26, 1953
Priority dateFeb 26, 1953
Publication numberUS 2814941 A, US 2814941A, US-A-2814941, US2814941 A, US2814941A
InventorsEllison Best Frank
Original AssigneeEllison Best Frank
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Lock core
US 2814941 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

' 3, 1957 F. E. BEST Loox com:

Filed Feb. 26. 195:5

`aNvENTOR "n" nl nited States Patent 2,814,941 Patented Dec. 3, 1957 LOCK CORE Frank Ellison Best, Indianapolis, 1nd. Application February 26, 1953, Serial No. 339,051 Claims. (Cl. 70--340) Nature and objects My invention comprises improvements in lock cores and relates to key-operated pin tumbler locks having the lock-controlled assembly feature in which the assembly, of a primary lock core mechanism, into a core receptacle of a complementing secondary lock mechanism, is lockcontrolled.

Descriptz'on of drawings l am illustrating my invention by the accompanying drawings, Figures 1 to 7 inclusive.

Figure l shows an uncombinated lock core 56' in longitudinal vertical center section, enlarged to approximately four times the scale of Figure 5, as taken on plane 1 1 of Figure 2.

Figure 2 shows a comhinated lock core 56 in transverse vertical section, drawn to the scale of Figure 1, as taken on plane 2*2 of Figure l.

Fig. 2A is a cross sectional view similar to Fig. 2 except that it shows a control key instead of an operating key in the lock and shows breaks in the tumbler pins lined up on a different shear line.

Figure 3 shows a side elevation of the body 10 drawn to a scale of approximately twice that of Figure 5.

Figure 4 shows an end elevation of the body 10 drawn to the scale of Figure 3.

Figure 5 shows a perspective view of the combinated lock core 56.

Figure 6 shows a side elevation of the sleeve 18 drawn to the scale of Figure 3.

Figure 7 shows an elevation of the said sleeve 18 drawn to the scale of Figure 6.

General description In the various views, lock core 56' comprises body 1i), face 11, sleeve 18, key plug 19 and key stop 20. rl`he body and sleeve are preferably built up of thin laminations. In Figures l and 3 the body laminations preferably comprise central stampings 14, rear end stampings 13 and face stamping 12. Likewise, the sleeve, as viewed in Figures 1 and 6, is preferably built up of laminations comprising rearward stampings 21 and forward stampings 54 uniting at division surface plane 36. The rearward stampings 21, as viewed in Figures 2, 5 and 6, have a wider upper extensionI 34 than the forward stampings 54 forming locking lug 38 as best seen in Figures 2, 5 and 6.

The body laminations are held together by rivets 17 having heads 15 staked in face lamination holes 32 at 51 upon which the whole stack of remaining laminations is assembled and then riveted rigidly together at 16. Sleeve 18 constitutes an annular ring 33, Figures 2 and 7, with its upper extension 34 housed in recess 35 in body 10. The laminations thereof are held together' by rivets 22 riveted at 23 and 24 into lamination recesses 39 and 37 respectively, Figures l and 7.

By means of the extension of laminations 21, beyond the outline of laminations 54, as shown in Figures 2, 5, 6 and 7, a locking lug 38 is provided that extends outwardly from the regular figure-8 shaped core when the core is combinated and in locked position as best seen in Figures 2 and 5, but which may be retracted by a control key 61, Figure 2A, to the ligure-8 boundary surface.

To limit the rotative movement of the said sleeve 18 relative to body 10, a hole 40 is provided in body 10, Figure 2, and a smaller diametered pin 41 is secured in a hole 42 in sleeve 18. However, when laminations are used, a notch-shaped recess somewhat like hole Il@ is stamped in one or more of the said body laminations 14 and a boss, shaped like the exposed outline of pin d1, is correspondingly formed on one or more mating laminations 21 and 54 to accomplish the same purpose.

Key plug 19 is of the conventional type and is preferably made of a solid piece of material. This key plug 19 preferably has the conventional paracentric fluted key- Way 28 and key guide Z9. It also preferably has the conventional head 30 seated in face or body recess 31 and is trapped in place by annular key stop and retaining washer 2l) riveted thereon at 25.

The conventional pin tumbler holes 26, ejection holes 43 and throw pin holes 27 are preferably drilled and reamed after the core is fully assembled.

In the pin tumbler holes 26 are placed the conventional stacks 55, of pin tumblers 46, driver springs 47 and retaining caps 48.

Thus is provided a core with two shears t4 and 45, the former of which comprise the operating shears with which breaks in the stacks 55 of tumbler pins may be aligned by the insertion of an operating key 49 to permit rotation of a key plug 19 and actuate the secondary lock mechanism, while the latter of which comprise the control shears With which breaks, such as break C in Fig. 2A, in the stacks 55 of tumbler pins may be aligned by the insertion of a control key 61 to permit rotary movement of the sleeve 18 solely for extending and retracting locking lug 33 beyond and within, respectively, the said figure-8 boundary surface of said body 1li.

In all the pin tumbler holes and stacks except the rearmost, there are two pairs of shears; namely, operating shears 4d and control shears 45. However, in the last position there is only one pair of shears which l designate the common shears because they must necessarily form an integral part with each of the other shears; namely, operating shears 44 and control shears d5. The single shear in the rearmost tumbler pin barrel shown in Fig. l is coincident with the outer surface of the key plug 19 and the inner surface of the bore in the sleeve 18 and is thus aligned with the operating shears Ml. The notch nearest the end of all keys to be used in the lock is bitted so that it will line up the tumbler pins in said rearmost barrel with this shear. rl'he addition of these common shears obviously adds an element of security to the locking means of both said shears 44s and 45.

It is thought unnecessary and undesirable to show the core combinated in Figure l, since uncombinated cores are catalogued and sold as such and hen-ce an uncombinated core is a completed commercial product and also since some of the claims are drawn to uncombinated cores.

All of the pin tumbler holes 26 of the core as shown in Figures 2 and 2A, may be considered as variously combinated, and operating and control keys i9 and 61 respectively are shown inserted in the keyway therein, which align various pin tumbler stack breaks on one or both of said operating shears 44 and control shears 45. For instance, in Figure 2, operating key 49 which may be a masten sub-master or private key is so bitted at this particular pin tumbler hole position as to bring break O2 of the pin stack 55 thereof, in operating register with operating shears 44. Figure 2A shows a control key 61 which is unlike key 49 in that it is bitted at this particular pin tumbler hole position, so that when it is used the who-le said stack 5'5 drops down under the urge of spring 47 so as to bring break O1 in operative register with operating shears 44 and break C in operative register with control shears 45.

In this instance, the same identical bitting serves as an operating as well as a control bitting, and breaks in pin stacks of other pin tumbler holes are left to selectively differentiate its use either in an operating or control combination.

Thus key 49 is an operating key and key 6i may be either an operating or control key.

It is obvious that other breaks may be used to facilitate the use of other keys or distinctively different bittings in the master keying of either or both said operating and control shears. lt is by this means that the various ramifications of master keying is accomplished.

It will be noted, Figure 1, as has been previously pointed out, that there is no control shears 45 in the rear-most pin tumbler hole, so that all operating and control7 combinations must use the one shears in this rearrnost stack position.

lt is thought, however, that it is not objectionable to have one less pin tumbler hole on the control shears 45 than is provided on the operating shears d4, particularly since relatively little master keying is usually resorted to on said control shears 45 and hence its practical security with 4one less pin tumbler will be quite comparable with the somewhat impaired master keyed security resulting from more breaks in the pin tumbler stacks of the operating shears 44 of one more pin tumbler stack.

The chief utilitarian ends of this improvement are the ease and cheapness of manufacture and assembly and the strength, ruggedness, good appearance and added security thereof.

Having thus described my invention, what l claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States are as follows:

l. In a lock core, consisting of a key-operable primary lock mechanism adapted to be releasably locked to, and to complement, a secondary lock mechanism, the combination of elements comprising a body, having a notched recess on the underside thereof, a sleeve in said recess, said body and sleeve havin-g coaxial key plug holes lengthwise therethrough, a key plug in said key plug holes, head and washer means on said key plug trapping said body, sleeve and key plug together in operable assembly, a number of vertical pin tumbler holes of extension downward through said body and sleeve, said body and sleeve having arcuate mating surfaces forming control shears at locations where the pin tumbler holes intersect said arcuate mating surfaces, a lug on said sleeve of arcuate extension around said sleeve and beyond the prole outline of the body as viewed in end elevations when the respective pin tumbler holes through said body and sleeve are in aligned relation and of such narrowness of said arcuate extension as to be retractable within the said profile outline by rotation of said sleeve, and stacks of pin tumblers in said pin tumbler holes having breaks between the individual pin tumblers thereof, said pin tumblers and breaks being adapted to the selective locking against rotation. and releasing for rotation of said sleeve by the alignment of said pin tumblers across said control shears and the alignment of control breaks at said contro-l shears respectively, said lug on said sleeve being capable of locking said lock core to a secondary lock mechanism when the lug is projected beyond the outline of said body by rotary movement of said sleeve.

2. In a lock core, consisting of a key-operable primary lock mechanism adapted to be releasably locked to, and to complement, a secondary lock mechanism, the combination of elements comprising a body, having a notched recess on the underside thereof, a sleeve in said recess, said body and sleeve having coaxial key plug holes lengthwise therethrough, a key plug in said key plug holes, head and washer means on said key plug trapping said body, sleeve and key plug together in operable assembly, a number of vertical pin tumbler holes of extension downward through said sleeve and into said key plug, said sleeve and key plug having mating arcuate surfaces forming operating shears where the pin tumbler holes intersect said mating arcuate surfaces, said key plug having means adapted to the transfer of rotative motion of said key plug to a secondary lock mechanism, and stacks of pin tumblers in said pin tumbler holes having breaks between the individual pin tumblers thereof, said pin tumblers and breaks being adapted to the selective locking against rotation and releasing for rotation of said plug by the alignment of said pin tumblers across said operating shears and the alignment of operating breaks at said operating shears respectively, whereby when breaks in the pins register with the operating shears said key plug may be rotated in operating secondary lock mechanism.

3. ln a lock core consisting of a key-operable primary lock mechanism, the combination of elements comprising a body, having a notched recess in the underside thereof, a sleeve in said recess, said body and sleeve having coaxial key plug holes lengthwise therethrough, and a key plug in said key plug holes, head and washer means on said key plug trapping said body, sleeve and key plug together in operable assembly, a number of vertical pin tumbler holes of extensions downward through said body and sleeve and into said key plug, said sleeve and key plug having mating arcuate surfaces forming operating shears at the locations where the pin tumbler holes intersect the mating arcuate surfaces of said sleeve and key plug, said body and sleeve having mating arcuate surfaces forming control shears at the locations where said pin tumbler holes intersect the arcuate mating surfaces of said body and sleeve, a lug on said sleeve of arcuate extension around said sleeve beyond the profile outline of the body as viewed in end elevation when the respective pin tumbler holes through said body `and sleeve are in aligned relation and of such narrowness of said arcuate extension as to be retractable within the said profile outline by rotation of said sleeve, said key plug having externally engageable rotary motion transmitting means and a suitable keyway therein.

4. A primary lock core as set forth in claim 3 in which the body comprises relatively thin laminations parallel with the face riveted together.

5. A primary lock core as set forth inI claim 3 in which the sleeve comprises relatively thin transverse laminations riveted together.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 396,628 Hoevenbergh Jan. 22, 1889 806,361 Pickop Dec. 5, 1905 1,433,364 Freysinger Oct. 24, 1922 1,433,591 Abell Oct. 31, 1922 1,487,307 Best Mar. 18, 1924 1,575,092 Best Mar. 2, 1926 1,866,342 Best Iuly 5, 1932

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US396628 *Jul 19, 1888Jan 22, 1889 Bergh
US806361 *May 7, 1904Dec 5, 1905P & F CorbinPin-tumbler lock.
US1433364 *Jan 19, 1922Oct 24, 1922Yale & Towne Mfg CoPin-tumbler lock
US1433591 *Aug 31, 1921Oct 31, 1922Jessica HortonLock
US1487307 *Apr 24, 1919Mar 18, 1924Frank E Best IncLock
US1575092 *Oct 9, 1924Mar 2, 1926Frank E Best IncLock face
US1866342 *Jun 24, 1930Jul 5, 1932Frank E Best IncLock
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3190091 *May 27, 1963Jun 22, 1965RussellRemovable cylinder spindle retaining shoulder
US3206958 *Feb 15, 1963Sep 21, 1965Ellison Best FrankInterchangeable lock cores
US3206959 *Feb 28, 1963Sep 21, 1965Ellison Best FrankInterchangeable lock cores
US3603123 *Nov 19, 1968Sep 7, 1971Best Lock CorpPin tumbler lock
US3667264 *Feb 10, 1970Jun 6, 1972Emhart CorpLock core
US4328690 *Aug 4, 1980May 11, 1982Oliver Roy NRemovable core cylinder lock
US4386510 *Mar 2, 1981Jun 7, 1983Best Lock CorporationKey-changeable lock core
US4953373 *May 9, 1989Sep 4, 1990Ilco Unican Inc.Key removable core body
US5176015 *Apr 10, 1991Jan 5, 1993Sussina Stan JRestricted key system
US5507163 *Apr 4, 1994Apr 16, 1996Juang; Wen-JangInterchangeable lock core structure
US6035673 *Oct 14, 1998Mar 14, 2000Kenstan Lock CompanySliding door lock with a key removable core
US8336348Dec 25, 2012Compx International Inc.Key operated pin tumbler locks and methodology
US20050034496 *Sep 27, 2004Feb 17, 2005Fuller Mark WestonRemovable keyless turning mechanism for locks
US20070271976 *May 24, 2007Nov 29, 2007Compx International Inc.Key operated pin tumbler locks and methodology
US20080016928 *Jul 20, 2007Jan 24, 2008Ju-Lin YangInterchangeable lock core cylinder
USRE31910 *May 3, 1984Jun 11, 1985Medeco Security Locks, Inc.Removable core cylinder lock
USRE35518 *Jan 4, 1995May 27, 1997Medeco Security Locks, Inc.Restricted key system
Classifications
U.S. Classification70/340, 70/369
International ClassificationE05B27/00, E05B9/08, E05B9/00
Cooperative ClassificationE05B27/0053, E05B9/086, E05B9/084
European ClassificationE05B9/08C, E05B9/08C2