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Publication numberUS2817328 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 24, 1957
Filing dateFeb 10, 1956
Priority dateFeb 10, 1956
Publication numberUS 2817328 A, US 2817328A, US-A-2817328, US2817328 A, US2817328A
InventorsFred H Gale
Original AssigneeFred H Gale
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Semi-automatic compressed fluid gun
US 2817328 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Dec. 24, 1957 Filed Feb. 10, 1956 Fig.


F. H. GALE SEMI-AUTOMATIC COMPRESSED FLUID GUN Dec. 24, 1957 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Feb. 10, 1956 Q mi v w:

United States Patent fiice 2,817,328 Patented Dec. .24, .1957


Application 'February'10, 1956, Serial N0.'564,745

7 Claimsa (Cl.124 11) This invention relates to semi-automatic guns which are actuated by-a propellant under pressure.

Anobject of this invention is to provide a smoothly operating gas propellant gun that is semi-automatic, rely ing on gas pressure to both propel the projectile from the breech end of the barrel of the gun and toautomatically cook the barrel-to such-position that itis ready for a sub sequent, similar actuationu A furtherobject of the invention is to provide a gun having provision fora disposable container of a gas propella'ntthat is commercially available at the present time, this propella'nt container being pierced; by afiring. pin upon initial operation of the gun and maintainingsuch position as tohave a supply of this gas under pressure in readiness: foradistributionthrough a passageway into a chamber that communicates the'breech end of the "barrel andthah directs the application 'of the gases unde'r -pres-. sure :upon a device tforumoving the barrel "in 'one direction against; the opposing .FblaSi of the; spring, .this movement-of the :barrel being .usedtifor the purpose of cocking ratmotion transmitting 1member which ,rfunctions somewhat similar to therhammeriofafire arm. a

One of: the important features of the inventionris the -ar-t rangement: for-holding a singleshot inwthe breech-end of the bar'rel -in-- orderri= present *':it='=tothe expanding gases for; discharge through :the; barrelwofthe gun; t Another feature ,of the, invention is the 1 simplified valve arrangementthate has a @firing pin connected with it so that upon initial operation-tofithejvalve in the, gas passageway the container havin g the compressed gas: stored in it is opened by being pierced The nature and substance of the invention are embodied in a semit-automaticlgun wherein rgases under-pressure pass through ":3 valved passageway. for the purpose of :moving therbarrel of: the egun rear-wardly against a recoil: spring which tmovement places a gas tentrance -inregistry -with; the=passageway thereby ejcctingcthe projectile which is in the breech, end :of the-barrel, the rearward movement of the barrel withdrawing a valve operatedhammerfrom the valve stem and permitting the, valve to be spring closed; thetmfivement of the hammer imparted to ityby the pre-= viously mentioned movcmentmof the barrel being v to such an extent that it is cocked by a sear. of thegun. Upon the return ofathetbarrelwwhich is caused by thelrecoil spring, aprojectileaeutrance in the breech endtof thelbarrel comes intotregistry withra newtprojectile, that is Spring pressed inthe magazine, through. this entrance and-into the barrel; lnthis positionthehammeris cocked and ready for a sub-\ sequent-firing ,operation tandta new projectile is intthe barrehready tto, lube -forcibly ejected therefrom by gases underpr ssure. The cycle of gun operation is now ready fortfurther actuation by pressing the trigger which through an intermediate mechanism including the previously mentionedsear releases the hammer to open the gas passagew way valve randtpermit gasesi to passqunderpressuretto they passagewayfor the purpose of again moving the barrel rearwarrlly as mentioned above.

Thesetogether with other objects and advantages-which will become subsequently apparent reside in the details of construction and operation as more fully hereinafter described and claimed, reference being .had to the accompanying drawings forming a part hereof, wherein like numerals refere to like, parts throughout, and in which:

Figure l is an elevational view of.a gun which embodies the principles of the invention;

Figure 2 is a fragmentary longitudinal sectional view of the-gun inyFigure 1, the position of the barrel and hammer being that wherein the semi-automatic gun is being initially cocked by manually pulling the barrel rearwardly and compressing the recoil spring ;while so doing;

Figure 3 is a fragmentarysectional view of the, semiautomatic gun the position of the parts being that wherein the barrel is pulled back to its limit manually forlinitial cocking the hammer beingin the cocked position and the barrel being about to be moved forward by the load irnposed on the'recoil spring;

Figure 4 is a fragmentary sectional view of the semiautomatic gun showing the position of the parts at the instant that thepassageway valve is open by motion of thehammeragaiust the valve actuating rod and prior to the:application'of the gases under pressure to the piston onthebarrel which; when applied, pushed the barrel rearwardly in the receiver in order to bring the gas entrance of the barrel into-registry with the passageway, whereby gases under pressure enterthe breech and forcibly eject the projectile through the barrel;

FigureS is an enlarged sectional=view taken transversely and on =the.line5--5 of Figure 3; t

Figure 6 is a *transversesectional view takenonthe line 6- '6 of :Figure 3 f Figure: "7 is, an: enlarged :transverse sectional view taken on:the"linew77 of Figure 4;

Figure 8 is a: perspective view: of the barrel and other mechanical partsthat are' connected :withit; and t Figure 9 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional view showing particularly the means forcholding a. singlet-pro jectilein the breech end of the'barrelwpreparatory to :firing the sprojectilevthrought the I barreL;

In. Figure 1 the semi-automatic gun-w10,{consists*"of=1:a frame or\ receiver=-12 of usual configuration; It; includes a handle (14 trigger guard 16 and-other partsnto be; men-1 tionednsubsequentlyw Barrel 18 (Figure==-8) sis {cylindricaLandpreferablyrhas a smooth bore.- Itfits in atubular part 20. of the frame ,audtistadapted to-:recipr0cate:therein: Frame .12 has;rsleeve.22at the top thereofin alignment andregistry withthe tubulartpart 20w Thetbore oftsleeve 22 constitutes cylinder. =24,in which piston 26-lis reciproca ble.,, The rea-rmost -end ofisleeve 22 has threadsa28 on-it accommodatingt the,threaded,cap 30w Barrel'i18 hasbarrel. extension. 32 in.axialt alignment with it-anc1 projecting through, cylinderaz laand aperture 36 in cap .30. Piston ZdisttfiXedJtothe barrelvextensiont32.rathert than the cylinder p -oper Propellantt inlet=opening 38 is formed in the barrel 18 adjacentvtomthetprojectile.entrance 40101: the breech end dlsoftthe hbarrel (Figuret9).tt

A projectile magazine .44 is .-sec.ur.edtto the tubular-part of the frame 12a,Thezmagazine consistst of /a pelletmorprojectilettubetifi MhifihrfiXtCIlClS, paralleltotthe barrel and whichfihasianqopen. end in registry with a passage -48-in frame .12,. thispassage-being in alignment with the-tpart of tthebar-rel 18 thatahas entrance :401'therein. In-the" reciprocation ofbarrel' 18, projectile entrance 40 is brought into-registry withpassage48 sothat'one of -the projec-- tilesStl-may-befed'into thebreechend of the barrel. To cause-this feeding'operation spring 52 is located in the tube 46'," havingyone endreacting'on'the closed outer end of tube=46 and the other end reacting on a slide 54. This slide-is swi-ngable tintowza notch 56 intermediate the ends: oftube 46 so ias-ttoitemporarily hold the springe52 corn-a1 pressed while the magazine tube 46 is being loaded through a lateral opening 58 in tube 46.

Frame 12 has a cylindrical part 60 to which the lower part having handle 14 and the trigger mechanism is secured. The cylinder 60 has open, internally threaded ends, plugs 61 and 62 being threaded respectively therein. Plug 61 has a knurled surface to facilitate its removal for access into the propellant chamber 64 defined by a portion of cylinder 60 between plug 61 and wall 66. Central aperture 68 is formed in wall 66 to accommodate the neck 69of container 70. It is preferred that the propellant be stored in container 70 that is held firmly in place in propellant chamber 64 by the accommodation of neck 69 in aperture 68 and by being pressed forwardly by means of spring 71 that is carried by plug 61. There are available at the present time small containers 70 having under considerable pressure carbon dioxide gas. It is appreciated that the other gases or air under pressure may be used in lieu of the carbon dioxide, the latter having been selected in view of its present availability. Plug 61 is threaded in cylinder 60 and locked in place by screw 73. A structural member 74 in the form of a cylindrical block functions as a hammer and is biased forwardly in the bore of cylinder 60 by means of a spring 76 whose ends are seated in recesses provided in the plug 62 and in the hammer. Partition 78 is in cylinder 60 intermediate the ends thereof. This partition has an aperture in which the valve actuating rod 79 is slidable. Valve 80 is secured to rod 79 and is located on one side of the wall 82 extending across the bore of cylinder 60. This wall has one or more orifices 83 that are closed by the flexible valve member 84, the latter being a suitable plastic or rubber or other composition capable of yielding slightly in order to close the orifices 83 tightly. Valve member 84 is backed by collar 86, the latter being fixed to rod 79. Valve 80 is normally closed by a spring 87 concentrically arranged on rod 79 and seating on one surface of partition 78 and also on a collar 88 that is secured on rod 79. An end of rod 79 protrudes beyond collar 88 and forms a contact surface for the hammer 74, the hammer function being that of striking rod 79 in order to open valve 80.

Carbon dioxide containers 70 are constructed with a closure in neck 69 that is adapted to be ruptured to allow the carbon dioxide to be discharged. Inasmuch as the container 70 is inaccessible from the exterior of the semiautomatic gun 10, means responsive to actuation of valve 80 are constructed in the gun for fracturing the closure in the neck 69 of the carbon dioxide container 70. The preferred means consist of a pin 90 which functions as a firing pin in its piercing operation. The end of pin 90 is sharpened to facilitate piercing, while the opposite end is connected with valve 80, being preferably an extension of rod 79 which protrudes in advance of the valve structure. Therefore as the hammer drives rod 79 forward in order to open valve 80, the firing pin is moved forwardly sufiiciently to pierce the closure in the neck 69 of the container 70. During all subsequent actuations of valve 80 the needle nose 92 of firing pin 90 functions as a valve in the hole in the closure of container 70 that is made by the sharpened needle nose 92 of firing pin 90.

After the container 70 is ruptured the gases emitted therefrom are constrained in their travel. Their course is through a passageway that is formed by a number of cavities in the frame 12. The passageway defining the course which the gases take comprises the chamber 93 in which the valve 80 is operable, the one or more orifices 83 in wall 82. the space between wall 82 and partition 78. a bore 95 which communicates with space 94 and cylinder 24 on one side of piston 22 rearwardly of the barrel bushing 96. Accordingly, this passageway including all of these cavities and regions is generally indicated at 97.

The trigger mechanism 98 is but one of a number which. may be selected. It includes a scar 99 mounted on a transverse pivot 100 in frame 1.2 and. biased in one direction by means of spring 102, the extent of travel of the sear being limited by stop 104 in frame 12. One end 106 of the sear passes through an opening 108 in cylinder 60 for disposition in the groove 110 longitudinally formed in the hammer 74. End 106 is adapted to be moved in advance of the hammer 74 (Figure 3) for holding the hammer in the cocked position.

Trigger 112 is mounted on pivot 114 carried by frame 12 and has a scar actuating member 116 pivoted to it and arranged with a spring 118 which maintains the interengaging notches 120 of the scar and member 116 in engagement. When the trigger 112 is pulled the sear is separated from hammer 74, this separating motion being against the bias of spring 102 that returns the sear into groove 110 through opening 108 during normal operation of the gun 10.

At the rear upper part of cylinder 60 a longitudinal slot 124 is formed. Arm 126 is fixed to the barrel extension 32 and passes through a similar slot 128 in the sleeve 22. Longitudinal groove 130 is formed in hammer 74 and is provided with an abutment 132 at the rear end thereof. This abutment contacts the arm 126 when the barrel 18 is moved rearwardly so that arm 126 returns hammer 74 to the cocked position in response to rearward motion of the barrel 18. Recoil spring 138 has one end in contact with a part of arm 126, seating thereon, and another part seating on cap 30 near aperture 36. Recoil spring 138 functions as such and also to return the barrel 18 during the semi-automatic operation of the gun. A hand knob 140 is formed on the barrel extension 32 and located exteriorly of sleeve 22 to facilitate the initial, manual cocking of the gun. When in use the arm 126 is moved rearwardly of receiver 12 thereby loading the recoil spring 138. In order that the recoil spring does not absorb all of the shock the adjustable collar 144 is threaded on threads 128 at the rear end of sleeve 22. This collar is contacted by the arm 126 when the spring 138 is reasonably heavily loaded.

In order that the gun fire a single shot, one projectile 50 is accepted in the breech end of the barrel and maintained therein firmly but easily released upon application of the propellant in the breech. The means for lightly but firmly holding individual projectiles 50 in breech end 42 of the barrel are seen best in Figure 9. They comprise a stop, for example pin 148 extending transversely across the barrel, for limiting the rearward travel of the single projectile 50 in the breech. In addition entrance 40 is made of a size so as to accommodate only one projectile 50 at a time. The entrance is located sufiiciently far in advance of the stop 148 that a part of the barrel at the breech beneath and slightly in advance of the stop 148 constitutes a seat for the projectile. To hold the projectile in the seat a light, leaf spring 150 bears against the front, top of the projectile 50. This spring is operable in a shallow groove 152 formed in the barrel at the breech, there being a curved portion 154 of spring 150 that is capable of easily being flexed and which is arranged to exert the necessary spring force on the projectile 50 to hold it in the breech between stop 148 and the seat 156 formed by a part of the barrel at the breech end 42 and at the rear edge of projectile entrance 40.

In use of the semi-automatic gun the sequential operation after loading the magazine 44 and placing container 70 in the propellant chamber 64 is as follows: The extension 32 of the barrel 18 is manually pulled rearwardly of the gun, the initial motion having been commenced as shown in Figure 2. In pulling the extension 32 rearwardly recoil spring 138 is loaded by being compressed and arm 126 is pulled rearwardly. The movement of arm 126 is imparted to the hammer 74 inasmuch as the extremity of arm 126 is located in groove 130 and bears against abutment 132. The abutment is pulled rearwardly with arm 126 thereby pulling hammer 74 with it and compressing the hammer spring 76. When the hammer 74 is pulled back far enough for the end 106 of sear 99 to be biased by spring 102 in the hammer latching position (Figure 3) the click sound ofthe searend 106 snapping behind hammer 74-is audible. Moreover, the rearward motion of the barrelreachesits limit by contact of a part of arm 126 with adjustable stop 144. In instances where the stop 144 is omittedrthe same part of the arm 126'will contact apart of cap 30. This would necessitate the shortening of the sleeve 122portion of receiver 12 or the lengthening of cap 30, this being a design factor.

Then the barrel extension 32 is'released from the hand of the gun operator allowing'recoil spring 138 to return the barrel to the position shown in Figure 4 with the hammer 74 remaining cocked as shown in Figure 3. At this time it is immaterial whether a projectile is in the entrance 40 since the prime purpose of this manual start is to puncture the receptacle 70.

In this condition ofthe parts of the gun 10, actuation of the trigger mechanism 98 will cause the withdrawal of the sear end 106 from in front of the hammer. The load of spring 76 is then transferred from potential to kinetic energy, forcibly pushing the hammer against valve actuating rod 79. Inasmuch as'the firing pin 90 is directly mechanically connected to the valve 80 and the valve is opened by red 79 moving forward against the opposing bias of spring 87, the needle point end 92 of the firing pin is thrust into the closure of container 70 located in the neck 79 thereof. This pierces the closure of the container 70 and upon withdrawal of the firing pin 90 and particularly the needle nose 92 thereof, the stored propellant in container 70 is permitted to issue therefrom into the valve chamber 93 of passageway 97.

Upon issuance of the propellant into passageway 97, it fiows through the orifices 83 and traverses the remainder of the passageway that is the passage or bore 95 and cylinder 24 on the front face of piston 26. This application of propellant under pressure moves the barrel 18 rearwardly and at a high rate against the bias of recoil spring 138. As the barrel moves rearwardly it assumes the position shown in Figure 3, that is with the propellant inlet opening 38 in registry with the passageway 97 so that gases which constitute the propellant enter the breech 42 and drive the projectile, if any, that is located therein.

As seen in Figure 3 when compared to Figure 2, as the barrel 18 is moved rearwardly either manually or due to the propellant pressure in cylinder 24, arm 126 moves hammer 74 rearwardly inasmuch as a part of it is resting on abutment 132. The initial movement of hammer 74 rearwardly that is, in such direction as to compress the hammer actuating spring 76, permits spring 87 to return valve 80 to its normal (closed) position. This closes the passageway trapping the unused propellant on the propellant chamber side of wall 82.

Additional movement of the barrel 18 rearwardly pulls the hammer 74 back sufiiciently far that the sear 99 is biased through opening 180 so that the end 106 of the sear is locked in front of the hammer 74. Accordingly, the hammer actuating spring 76 is placed under a load while the hammer is in the cocked position.

The loading of the breech end 42 of the barrel is done automatically. When the propellant is applied into the cylinder 24 of the passageway 97 and moves the barrel 18 rearwardly, the projectile entrance 40 moves rearwardly of the frame 12 with the projectile 50 in the breech held captive therein by means of light spring 154. Upon the registry of propellant inlet opening 38 with passageway 97, the projectile is driven from the breech end of the barrel down the barrel 18. As the barrel 18 moves forward due to the action of recoil spring 138 as described previously, the projectile entrance 40 comes into registry with the passage 48. When this registering condition exists (Figure 4) the spring loaded projectiles 50 of the magazine 44 are moved forwardly a distance equal to the diameter of the single projectile which is pressed into the entrance 4 8. Accordingly, the loading ranged to load said breech end with a projectile during ofthe breech end 42is responsive to the reciprocation of the barrel 18.

The foregoing is considered as: illustrative only of the principles of the invention. Further, "since numerous modifications and changes will readily occur to those skilled in the art, it is not desired to limit the invention to the exact construction and operation shown and described, and accordingly, all suitable modifications and equivalents may be resorted to, falling within the scope of the invention as claimed.

What is claimed as new is as follows:

1. In a semi-automatic gun which includes a frame, a barrel carried for reciprocatory movement by said frame, the breech end of said barrel having a projectile entrance and a propellant opening, and a magazine arthe reciproction of said barrel, the improvement comprising a spring reacting on said frame and said barrel normally biasing said barrelin one direction, a propellant chamber in said frame, a passageway in said frame which communicates said chamber with the opening in said breech end of the barrel to apply a charge of propellant to the? projectile in said breech end of said barrel, a piston connected with said barrel, a cylinder in which said piston is operable and forming a part of said passageway so that when the propellant enters said breech end to drive the projectile therefrom said piston moves said barrel in a direction to load said spring, a hammer movably carried by said frame, a spring reacting on said frame and said hammer to bias said hammer in one direction, means connected to said barrel and said hammer to return said hammer and compress said spring which reacts on said hammer, a trigger pivotally carried by said frame, means actuated by said trigger and operatively connecting said trigger with said hammer to release said hammer, and a normally closed valve in said passageway and actuated by said hammer upon release of said hammer to open said valve.

2. The gun of claim 1 wherein said valve has a flexible valve element, a valve seat, and yielding means normally holding said flexible valve element pressed onto said seat.

3. In a semi-automatic gun, the combination of a frame, a projectile magazine, a barrel carried by said frame and having a breech and provided with a projectile entrance and a propellant opening spaced therefrom and in the side wall thereof, a propellant chamber in said frame, means including a passageway for conducting propellant from said chamber to said breech end of said barrel for driving the projectile from said breech end and for moving said barrel in one direction, said means also including a piston connected with said barrel, a cylinder connected with said passageway and in which said piston is operable and into which propellant is introduced to move said piston and said barrel in one direction to a first posi tion at which said projectile entrance is separated from registry with said magazine and said propellant opening is placed in registry with said passageway, a recoil spring reacting on said frame and the piston and which is loaded when said barrel is in said first position, a hammer in said frame, means including a trigger for holding said hammer in the cocked position, a valve in said passageway and arranged to be actuated by said hammer, said valve being normally closed when said hammer is cocked and being opened by said hammer in order to admit propellant under pressure into said cylinder.

4. The semi-automatic gun of claim 3 together with means for releasably holding a projectile in said breech end of said barrel when said barrel is returned by said recoil spring in which position said propellant entrance is separated from said passageway.

5. The semi-automatic gun of claim 3 wherein said propellant chamber has means to support a compressed gas container in which the propellant is stored, a firing pin secured to and movable with said valve in order to open the container and to open and close the opening in the container simultaneously with the actuation of said valve.

6. In a semi-automatic gun having a frame, a barrel mounted for reciprocation in said frame, a propellant passageway in said frame and a valve arranged to control said passageway, resilient means biasing said valve to the closed position, a propellant inlet opening in said barrel at the breech end thereof, a projectile entrance to said barrel adjacent to said propellant inlet opening, means including a magazine and a passage in said frame for feeding projectiles into said entrance upon reciprocatory movement of said barrel, means including a trigger and a hammer released by said trigger for opening said valve in order to establish propellant flow through said passageway, resilient means biasing said hammer to move said hammer in one direction, means connected to said barrel against which the propellant reacts to move said barrel in one direction and bring said propellant inlet opening in registry with said passage thereby discharging the projectile from the breech end of said barrel, means connected to said barrel and operatively connected with said hammer for withdrawing said hammer from said valve in order to permit said valve to close said passageway when said barrel is moved in the direction to bring said propellant inlet opening in registry with said passageway, a recoil spring connected with said barrel to return said barrel after it is moved by the propellant in the direction previously mentioned herein, and yieldingmeans in said breech end of said barrel for releasably holding a single projectile in said breech.

7. The gun of claim 6 wherein said projectile holding means includes a spring in said breech end of said barrel, and a structural abutment closely adjacent to said projectile entrance constituting a seat against which the projectile is biased by said last mentioned spring.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 645,932 Beck et al. Mar. 27, 1900 1,516,483 Kraift Nov. 18, 1924 2,101,198 Robinson Dec. 7, 1937 2,495,829 Vincent Ian. 31, 1950 2,505,972 Johnson May 2, 1950 2,537,358 Lincoln Jan. 9, 1951

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U.S. Classification124/74, 124/76, 124/53, 124/37, 124/44.7
International ClassificationF41B11/62
Cooperative ClassificationF41B11/62
European ClassificationF41B11/62