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Publication numberUS2817336 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 24, 1957
Filing dateDec 20, 1952
Priority dateDec 20, 1952
Publication numberUS 2817336 A, US 2817336A, US-A-2817336, US2817336 A, US2817336A
InventorsHarvey Kravitz, Norman Lettvin
Original AssigneeHarvey Kravitz, Norman Lettvin
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Means for vaccinating
US 2817336 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Dec. 24,'195'7 H. KRAvl-rz ETAL 2,817,336 MEANS FOR vAccINATNG Filed Deo. 2o, 1952 @hal www@ MEANS FOR VACCINATING Harvey Kravitz andrNorman Lettvin, Chicago, lli. Application December 20, 1952, Serial No. 327,136 16 Claims (Cl. 12S- 253) This invention relates to a device for vaccinating people and more particularly to a device for standardizing vaccinations.

In present vaccination techniques, an amount of vaccine is deposited onto the skin of the individual and then theportion of the skin to which the vaccine is applied is scarified by using a sharp needle and repeatedly jabbing the needle into the area of the skin upon which the vaccine lies. The physician doing the vaccinating usually doesnt want to scarify too deeply as this may be rather painful, and at the same time if the scariiication is insufficient, the vaccination does not take Therefore, the physician usually jabs the scarifying needle into the skin a few times hoping that at least one jab will take. Unfortunately, if they all take, the resulting scar may be large and unattractive. Also each physician may vary the number and size of scarications, and as a consequence vaccinations vary in size and shape.

There is another problem present in present vaccina- `tion techniques which arises particularly in vaccinating children. The child is usually frightened and after the first jab from the needle jerks his arm or squirms, or anticipates the second jab and moves his body. In any event,rmovement` of the child while the physician is scarifying may1result in long scarifying scratches or in kscari- `fications spaced far from each otherand the result is that there may Vbe `formed an excessively long or unattractive' scar.

Regardless of the above problems of scarfication it isalso `highly desirable to have resultingfrom the vaccination as uniform and small `a scar` as possible for obvious cosmetic r-reasons.

Thus, lit `is one objectof this invention to provide a device for standardizing vaccinations by providing for no 4more than a predetermined number of scarifications Within a limited area, or by scarifying over only a predetermined limited area, and `with a predetermined pat tern if desired.

Another `object 'of 'thisinvention is to provide a scariiica'tion device for use in the vaccination process which 1s ment thereof with respect to therarea of the skin scarifed, whereby the possibility of enlarged vaccination scarsais substantially eliminated.

A further object of this invention is to provide a de- `vice fforf'accomplishing the objects set forth above, and which device `is characterized by yits simplicity of construction andV of operationthereof, and by its relative inexpensiveness iln ourcopending application Serial No. 320,724, filed `November l5, 1952, we have described a novel method and apparatusfor vaccinating. The general concept involved in that application `related to `the `dispensing of vaccine` and fscarifying with the vsame -instrumentality.

In View of `the"benetsderivedas disclosed in said copending application, by dispensingvaccine and `scarifying vWith the vsaine instrumentality, it would beldesirable to adapted to be `mounted `so as to restrict lateral move- `f being nited States Patent has adhesive on one 2 provide a device which accomplishes the objects set forth above as part of the combinationof a vaccinatmg` devlce `which is usedboth for dispensing vaccine and for scarifying-and.so, that is still another object of this invention. Thus, it isy also an object of this invention to provide a new vaccinating instrumentality.

A further problem arises in that medical requirements are such that the vaccine dispensing means and scarifying means must be maintained sterile until `use thereof is required, and, thus, still a further object of this invention is to provide a scarifying device, or a combination vaccine-dispensing and scarifying device which may easily be maintained sterile as by individual packaging in sterile packages,l and which devices are to be discarded after. a single use thereof.

Further objects and' advantages of this invention will become apparent as the following description proceeds and the features of novelty which characterize thisV invention will be pointed out with particularity in the claims annexed to and forming part of this specification.

A preferred embodiment of the invention is` shown in the accompanying drawing, in which:

Figure 1 is a plan view of the novel scarifying device for standardizing vaccinations;

Figure 2 is a longitudinal cross-section view of the device in Figure 1 showing it packaged in a typical manner for distribution;

Figure 3 is an enlarged longitudinal cross-scctionview of the device of Figure l showing how it is` positioned for use in scarifying the area of the skin toV which the vaccine has been applied; u s

Figure 4 is a plan View of a modified form of scarifying device shown in Figures 1 to 3;

Figure 5 is a view takenon line 5r54 cf Figure` 4;

Figure 6 is a plan view `of a modified form of the u device which may be used both for dispensing the vaccine and for scarifyiug the skin area upon which `the vaccine is dispensed;

Figure 7 is an enlarged cross-section View taken on line 7 7 of Figure 6; and Figure 8 is a view similar to Figure 7 showing a modiii'cation of the device shown in Figures 6 and 7.

Referring now tothe drawings, reference is had `to the form of the device shown in Figures lV to 3, particularly to Figure 3, wherein the device is shown in operation. There is shown a rigid plate member 10 having extending from a central portion thereof a predetermined plurality of scarifying points or needlesl `1 2 which are `adapted to overlie an area 14 of the skin S to which the vaccine 16 has been applied. Means areprovided to laterally position the member 10 so as to substantially eliminate possible lateral movement between the Vneedles 12 and the skin area 14 while still affording movement of the needles 12 toward andraway froml `the The means `for accomplishing thisflateral positioning of member 10 comprises a strip 18 of fabric or `the like, to` which said plate 10 is secured intermediate `the ends ot" strip 18 by means of a cover patch 20. The strip 18 side thereof adapted to secure said strip 18 tosareas of the skin adjacent the skin area 14 which is to be sacried.

The fabric strip 18 is relatively inelastic, and, when once adhered to the skin, substantially `fixes the position of the scarifying means relative to skin area 14, and restricts any lateral movement of the scarifying means 12 with respect to skin area 14. At the saine Vtime said fabric strip 18 affords sucient movement of the needles 12 towardvand away from skin area 14 to bring ,about scariiication.

The rigid plate member 10 is secured iriposition on strip 18 by means of the cover patch 20. The patch 20 on, may be used as the scarifying means.

` 4 and 5. Furthermore, the needles 12 ing members 36.

animee may be secured to strip 18 by any appropriate means, including the adhesive, which is already on the side of strip 18 to which the patch 20 is secured. Patch 20 has an aperture 22 therein through which extends the scarifying means 12.

The entire device shown in Figure 3 should be sterilized, by autoclaving or the like, and may be packaged individually in a sterile paper package 24, such as is commonly used in the packaging of individual bandages. Such an individual, sterile package 24 is shown in Figure 2. The strip 18 also may have sterile gauze members Z6 and 28 secured to the adhesive portions thereof, in a manner well known and presently used in packaging of certain types of commercial adhesive bandages. The gauze strips overlie the plate member and the scarifying needles 12 and maintain them free from contaminants. The layers of gauze 26 and 28 which overlie the scarifying means 12 are suicient to prevent the scarifying means from piercing the paper package 24.

The scarifying needles 12 are made long enough to afford good scarifying therewith and short enough to prevent laceration even if buried in the skin to their full length. The plate member 10 is large enough to be engaged by at least the entire pressing area of a thumb or finger of a person manipulating the scarifying means. This permits the physician to apply sufficient pressure on the back of the plate member 10 to achieve scariication without any resultant discomfort to him, as might be ocv casioned if the plate member 10 were of smaller area.

The member 10 also is adapted to engage a suicient portion of the area of skin surrounding the area 14 being scarified and bear thereagainst to prevent unusual penetration of the needles 12 into the skin.

A modified form of the scarifying means shown in Figures l to 3 is shown in Figures 4 and 5 and includes la rigid plate 30 having serrations 32 in the outer surface thereof. Any member or patch having an abrasive surface, such as sandpaper or fabric having abrasive there- The plate 30 is retained in position on fabric strip 18 by means of patch 20 which has an aperture 22 therein through which extends the scarifying means 32. The size and shape of aperture 22 determines and limits the area of skin which is being scarified, and thus the size of vaccinations may be standardized either by use of a predetermined number of needles 12, as shown in Figures l to 3, or by scarifying a predetermined area as limited by apertures 22 in Figures may be arranged in a predetermined pattern, if desired, as may also be the shape of aperture 22.

In the modified form shown in Figures 6 and 7, the scarifying member is shown in combination with means for dispensing the vaccine either prior to, or simultaneously with, the use of the scarifying member on the portion of the skin to which the vaccine is to be applied. Thus, in this form, the invention is a device for vaccinating people.

In this form of the invention, there is a dished rigid plate member 34, having a flange 3S for reasons hereinafter described, and having a predetermined number of scarifying members 36 projecting from the convex surface thereof, which scarifying members 36 are formed by piercing the dished rigid plate member 34 and bending the scarifying member 36 away from the surface of the dished rigid plate member 34. The forming of the scarifying members 36 by bending them away from the plate leaves a plurality of apertures 38 in plate 34 adjacent the scarify- Vaccine may be dispensed through the apertures 38 and may run down the scarifying members 36 adjacent the apertures 38 to be dispensed onto the skin. The size of the dispensing apertures 38 may be limited to provide control of the flow of vaccine therethrough as taught in the above referred to copending application.

Positioned in the concave portion of the dished rigid 'i plate member 34 is afrangible or puncturable capsule 40 containing liquid vaccine 42 therein. The dished rigid plate member 34 and capsule 40 are positioned on an adhesive fabric 44 with the capsule positioned between the dished rigid plate member 34 and the fabric strip 44. By pressing on the capsule 40 through the fabric strip 44, the capsule may be ruptured or broken, and the vaccine that is released may then be forced through apertures 38 in dished rigid plate member 34 onto the skin of the person being vaccinated. Thereafter, additional force applied to dished rigid plate member 34 will bring about scarication of the area of the skin to which the vaccine is applied. The dished rigid plate member 34 is main-- tained in position by a cover patch 46 in a manner similar.'

to that shown in Figures `l to 3.

In the use of the device shown in Figures 6 and 7, the adhesive strip 44 may first be adhered to the skin, and then, by pressure applied through adhesive strip 44 against capsule 40, the vaccine is released and dispensed through apertures 38 onto the skin, and continued pressure applied to dished rigid plate 34 brings about scaritication by scarifying members 36.

A preferred method of use of this device comprises the rupturing of the capsule 40 prior to applying the device to the skin. After the capsule 40 has been ruptured and the vaccine 42 has been released, the vaccine 42 may be dispensed carefully, by controlled digital pressure, through the apertures 38 onto the skin. Such controlled dispensing is desirable so that only a desired amount of vaccine is dispensed. The apertures 38 are small enough so that the vaccine 42 does not ow readily therethrough and the vaccine 42 will be dispensed only under positive digital pressures.

Since the needles or scarifying members 36 are adjacent the apertures 38, the vaccine may feed down along said needles 36 and be dispensed .therefrom Without touching the needles 36 to the skin of the person. After the desired amount of vaccine has been dispensed, the adhesive strip 44 may be secured to the skin with the scarifying member 36 positioned above the vaccine which has been dispensed onto the skin. Then by applying pressure to the dished rigid plate member 34 Ithe scarifying members 36 are caused to scarify the skin. This pressure may be applied to the ange 35 of dished rigid plate 34 and in this way no additional pressure is applied to the capsule 40 and vaccine 42, and no additional vaccine will be dispensed during the scarifying operation.

vThe fabric strip 44 is sufficiently uid resistant to delay leakage of vaccine 42 therethrough after the capsule 40 has been ruptured and While the vaccine 42 is being dispensed through apertures 38. There may also be included an extra sterile fiap 48 of close-mesh fabric, rubber, or the like, positioned between the dished rigid plate member 34 and the fabric strip 44. The purpose of the ap 48 is to provide resistance to leakage or permeation of the vaccine 42 therethrough, and through the fabric strip 44. In addition, the ap 48 may be secured directly to the flange 35 of the dished rigid plate member 34 by any appropriate means, and in a fluid-tight seal, if desired. The dished rigid plate member 34, capsule 40 and ap 48 may be prefabricated as a subassembly of the device shown in Figure 7 and may even be provided as a vaccinating device by itself, without 'the adhesive strip 44.

It will be seen that ap 48 and the portion of fabric strip 44 adjacent capsule 40 is arched, rather than being taut; this permits movement of flap 48 and fabric strip 44 4toward the concave face of dished rigid plate member 34 during the operation of dispensing the vaccine. If the iiap 48 and the fabric strip 44 were taut, then movement of flap 48 and fabric strip 44 toward dished rigid plate member 34 would be restricted.

In the modified form shown in Figure 8, additional needle-like projections 50 extend inwardly from the concave side of dished member 34 and thus provide means for piercing the puncturable capsule 40 positioned between dished rlgid member 34 and the fabric strip 44.

These projections'l) serve as means for opening the capsule 40 for later dispensing of the vaccine 42 through the apertures 38 in the dished rigid member 34.

It can be seen that there has been provided a novel apparatus for standardizing vaccinations, and there has also been provided a novel vaccinating apparatus and method of vaccinating.

While there has been shown and described a particular embodiment of this invention, it will be obvious to those skilled in the art that various changes and modiications may be made therein without departing from the invention and, therefore, it is intended in the appended claims to cover all such changes and modications as fall Within the true spirit and scope of the invention.

What We claim as new, and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States, is:

1. A device for standardizing vaccination procedures comprising a rigid member having a plurality of scarifying needles extending therefrom, an adhesive member secured to said rigid member and adapted to be secured adjacent the skin area to be scaried, whereby the scarifying needles may be substantially restricted as to relative lateral movement thereof with respect to the area to be scaried.

2. A device for standardizing vaccination procedure comprising an adhesive strip adapted to be secured to areas of skin adjacent a particular area to which the vaccine is applied and which particular area is to be scariiied, and a scarifying means carried by said adhesive strip adapted to overlie said particular area, said scarifying means, as carried by said adhesive strip, being adapted to be forced against the skin to scarify said skin after said strip is properly positioned on the vaccinatee, said strip being maintained in position by said adhesive.

3. A device for standardizing vaccination procedure comprising an adhesive strip adapted to be secured to areas of skin adjacent to and on opposite sides of a particular area to which vaccine is applied and which particular area is to be scarilied, and a scarifying means carried by said adhesive strip intermediate its ends adapted to overlie said particular area, said scarifying means, as carried by said adhesive strip, being adapted to be forced against the skin to scarify said skin after said strip is properly positioned on the vaccinatee, and said strip being maintained in position by the adhesive.

4. A device for standardizing vaccination procedure comprising an adhesive strip adapted to be secured to areas of skin adjacent a particular area to which the vaccine is applied and which particular area is to be scaried, and a scarifying means carried by said adhesive strip adapted to overlie said particular area, said scarifying means adapted .to be forced against the skin to scarify said skin after said strip is properly positioned, said strip being maintained in position by said adhesive, and said scarifying means comprising a patch of abrasive material secured to the adhesive side of said strip. i

5. A device for standardizing vaccination procedure comprising an adhesive strip adapted to be secured to areas of skin adjacent a particular area 4to which the vaccine is applied and which particular area is to be scaried, and a scarifying means carried by said adhesive strip adapted to overlie said particular area, said scarifying means adapted to be forced against the skin to scarify said skin after said strip is properly positioned, said strip being maintained in position by said adhesive, said scarifying means comprising a rigid plate-like member secured Ito the adhesive side of said strip and having a plurality of needle-like projections extending from one face of the member and positioned centrally thereon.

6. A device for standardizing vaccination procedure comprising an adhesive strip adapted to be secured to areas of skin adjacent a particular area to which the vaccine is applied and which particular area is to be scaried, and a scarifying means carried by said adhesive strip adapted to overlie said particular area, said scarifyng means adapted to be forced against the skin to scarify said skin after said strip is properly positioned, said strip being maintained in position by said adhesive, said scarifying means comprising a rigid plate-like member secured to the adhesive side of said strip and having a plurality of needle-like projections extending from one face of the member and positioned centrally thereon, said needle-like projections being long enough to afford scarifying therewith and short enough to prevent laceration even if buried in the skin to their full length.

7. A device for standardizing vaccination procedure comprising an adhesive strip adapted to be secured to areas of skin adjacent a particular area to which the vaccine is applied and which particular area is to be scaried, and a scarifying means carried by said adhesive strip adapted to overlie said particular area, said scarifying means adapted to be forced against the skin to scarify said skin after said strip is properly positioned, said stripv being maintained in position by said adhesive, said scaritying means comprising a rigid plate-like member secured to the adhesive side of said strip and having a plurality of needle-like projections extending from one face of the member and positioned centrally thereon, said plate-like member being of suthcient area to be engaged by substantially the entire pressing area of a thumb or finger of a person manipulating said scarifying means.

8. A device for standardizing vaccination procedure comprising an adhesive strip adapted to be secured to areas of skin adjacent a particular area to which the vaccine is applied and which particular area is to be scaried, and a scarifying means carried by said adhesive strip adapted to overlie said particular area, said scarifying means adapted to be forced against the skin to scarify said skin after said strip is properly positioned, said strip being maintained in position by said adhesive, said scarifying means comprising a rigid plate-like member secured to the adhesive side of said strip and having a plurality of needle-like projections extending from one face of the member and positioned centrally thereon, said needle-like projections being long enough to alord scarifying therewith and short enough to prevent laceration even if buried in the skin to their full-length, said plate-like member adapted to bear against the skin adjacent and surrounding the area being scariiied to limit the penetration of the needle-like projections.

9. A device for standardizing vaccination procedures comprising a scarifying means adapted to be positioned over a particular area to which vaccine has been applied and to be moved toward and away from said] particular area, `and a member secured to said scarifying means and having means thereon for positioning said scarifying means relative to said particular area so as to eliminate any substantial relative lateral motion between the: scarifying means and the particular area being scaried, while still affording movement of said scarifying means toward and away from the particular area being scariiied.

10. A device for standardizing vaccination procedures comprising a scarifying means adapted to be positioned over a particular area to which vaccine has been applied and to be moved toward and away from said particular area, and means for positioning said scarifying means relative to said particular area so as to eliminate any substantial relative lateral motion between the scarifying means and the particular area being scarified, while still aording movement of said scarifying means toward and away from the particular area being scaried, said positioning means comprising a member secured to said scarifying means, and adhesive means on said member for securing said member in a fixed position relative to the particular skin area being scaried with said scarifying means overlying said particular area.

1l. A device for standardizing vaccination procedures comprising a scarifying means adapted to be positioned over a particular area to which vaccine has been applied and to be moved toward and away from said particular area," andimeans for positioning said -s'carifying means relative 'to saidfparticular'area.so; as to eliminate any substantial! relative lateral.'y motion fbetween '-.thev scarifying meansand sthe'parti'cular: area being lscariiied, while still affording movement of said scarifyinglmeanstoward and away from the jparticularrarea being `scariied,V said positioningffmeans comprisingy a vflexible andl relatively-nonelastic member secured to said-scarifying means,and` adhesive 'means on said member `for: securingl said lmember in a fixed position relative to :the particularskin area being -scaried *with* said vscarifying lmeans overlying said particular :areaf said exible lmember-affording limited movementfof said vscarifying'means toward* and away from said particular skin v area y'being scaried 12. A device for vaccinatingpeoplecomprising al ilexbleadhesivestrip, am'ember havingvscarifying means thereon mounted 'on--sa'id1- adhesive strip intermediate the ends yf-said strip, v'apertures in` said member through which vaccne'may -be'forcedfonto thef'skin fof the person being vaccinated, and arupturable capsulecontaining vaccine positioned between ysaid m'emberand said strip.

V13. A device for vaccinating people'comprising a exible adhesivestrip, a dished rigid member-having scarifying means thereon mounted -onvsaid adhesive strip intermediate the ends of said strip, apertures in said `dished member through which vaccine may' be forced onto the skin of a person `being vaccinated, said scarifying means extending from the convex side of said `dished member, and a rupturable capsule containing vaccine positioned between the concave side of the dished member and the said strip.

14. A device for vaccinating people comprising a ilexible adhesive strip, a dished rigid member having scarifying means thereon mounted on said adhesive strip intermediate the ends of said strip, apertures in said dished member through which vaccine may be forced onto -the skin of a person being vaccinated, said lscarifying means extendngrffrom the convex side ofsaid dished member, puncturingmeans' extending fromf-the concaveV side of said dished'mem'berg andI said'dished member-adapted to receive therein a sealed puncturable l capsule containing vaccine.

l5. Aldevice for vaccinatingpeople vcomprisingaflexible adhesive strip, a dished rigid member having scarifying i means thereon 'mounted' on said vadhesive f stripI intermediate the ends of'- saidistrip; aperturesin-fsaid'dished membery through which i vaccine may rbe forced onto the skinof a personbeiilgfvaccinated,- said scarifyingmea'ns extending fromdickem/ex"v sideof said dished member,` a rupturabler capsule 'containing'uvaccine' positioned between the concave s'ide of thedished member and saidstrip, and a ilexiblesterile rap interposed between said capsule" and said adhesive strip, operative to retard permeationof liquid vaccine"released `from-'said capsulethrough said strip.

l6. A device for vaccinating people comprising a dished rigid member havinga'ange"extending from theedge thereof,scarifying'means extendingfrom the convex side of said'dished`rr're`rr1'ber, Yapertures'in said'dished member through which vaccine may be forced onto'thefskin of a person being vaccinated, a rupturable capsule containing vaccinepositioned Vadjacenty the concave side' ofv the dished member, and vraf flexiblemember coveringv the capsule within said dished member andbeingmovable towardthe concave side of saiddished memberglwherebythe capsule may be rupt'uredandthevaccine maybe forced through said apertures.

Freed i s vrart 16, 1,917 f Rosenthal m Dec. 2, 1952

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Referenced by
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Classifications
U.S. Classification604/47, 604/306
International ClassificationA61B10/00, A61B17/20
Cooperative ClassificationA61B17/205, A61B10/0035
European ClassificationA61B17/20B, A61B10/00E