|Publication number||US2818770 A|
|Publication date||Jan 7, 1958|
|Filing date||Nov 14, 1956|
|Priority date||Nov 14, 1956|
|Publication number||US 2818770 A, US 2818770A, US-A-2818770, US2818770 A, US2818770A|
|Inventors||Vincent F Cilurzo|
|Original Assignee||Vincent F Cilurzo|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (9), Referenced by (24), Classifications (13)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Jan. 7, 1958 v. F. CILURZO 2,818,770
ABSTRACT PATTERN LAMP PRQJECTING MEANS Filed Nov. 14, 1956 IN VENTOR. VINCENT F. CILURZO AGENT United ABSTRACT PATTERN LAMP PROJECTING MEANS Vincent F. Cilurzo, Burbank, Calif.
Application November 14, 1956, Serial No. 622,090
8 Claims. (Cl. 88-24) My invention relates to artistic lighting and particularly to a lamp for producing abstract patterns of light upon a surface.
The fact that humans react to novel lighting effects is well known.
I have found how such effects can be easily and inexpensively produced on the walls, ceilings and/or other surfaces of rooms so that moods created thereby can be made available in the home and in other places where simplicity and low cost are important factors. I accomplish this by a new type of lamp, which may also be termed a luminaire or illuminator. My device has plural kinds of image-forming elements characterized by quasifocal properties in combination with irregular reflecting.
and obscurating elements so that an abstract pattern of light is created in a manner that the identity of the elements forming the pattern cannot be discerned. This creates a pleasing abstraction which most people will not have seen until they have witnessed the operation of one of my devices.
An object of my invention is to provide an abstract pattern of light upon a surface.
Another object is to provide said pattern by means of a relatively simple and inexpensive device.
Another object is to provide a pattern with a relatively small device adapted to operate at safe temperatures in the home and in other places where professional illumination personnel are not in attendance.
Other objects will become apparent upon reading the followingdetailed specification and upon examining the related drawings, in which:
Fig. 1 shows my mood lamp in side selectional elevation oriented to display an abstract pattern of light upon a ceiling,
Fig. 2 shows a conical alternate embodiment of the lamp in side elevation, and
Fig. 3 shows a still further alternate embodiment of the lamp in side sectional elevation.
In Fig. 1 numeral 1 indicates a tubular housing which forms the body of my device. This is provided with a bottom 2, preferably of somewhat thicker material. Aluminum, brass or a similar metal is preferred and the bottom is soldered or equivalently attached to the tubular portion of the housing. Element 3 is a plano-convex lens. It is held in the housing between rolled indentations 4 and 5.
An incandescent lamp 6 has preferably an irregular light-ditfracting clear glass envelope 7, a filament 8 disposed in segments forming an angle one with the other and a base which fits into socket 9. The socket, in turn, is fastened to disk 10, which is detachable from base 2 for replacing lamps.
A perforated diaphragm, membrane or perforated plate 11 is positioned approximately midway between the incandescent lamp and the lens and is supported in a halfcircumference slit in the housing. The perforations in the diaphragm are of divers shapes, are relatively small and occupy the greater portion of the area thereof, to the end 2,818,770 Patented Jan. 7, 1958 that the light output of the mood lamp shall not be greatly less than the inherent light output of the incandescent lamp.
A few representative light rays are shown in Fig. 1 to illustrate the optical functioning of my device. A central ray 12 passes through the optical system without deviation, impinging upon a ceiling, for instance, represented by surface 13. Another ray 14 has been reflected once from the side of the housing 1. Another ray 15 has been twice reflected from the housing, the first reflection occurring from the oblique surface of an indentation 16. Still another ray 17 has passed directly from filament 8 through hole 18 and so to the surface 13. Rays 12, 14 and 15 have been drawn as representative of rays passing through lens 3. It will be noted that these rays impinge upon the central portion of surface 13. Ray 17 has been drawn as representative of rays passing through the several holes such as 18 of the housing. It will be noted that tlhese latter rays impinge upon the outer portion of surface This arrangement of rays adds to the pleasing nature of'the abstract pattern created by my mood lamp. The central-portion thereof is of greater light intensity and sharpness of delineation than is the outer portion thereof. While the paths through the non-uniform thicknesses of glass of envelope 7, through the apertures of diaphragm 11 and from the purposely arranged internal reflections prevent a recognizable image of filament 8 from being discerned on surface 13 the representation as distorted is relatively intense, as has been mentioned. On the other hand, the pin-hole camera, or camera obscura effect of apertures 18 and others is less sharply defined and of less intensity. This combined effect is highly valuable in a device of this kind.
The focal length of lens 3 is not critical. I have found that a focal length in the range of from 4 to 12 inches is suitable for use in most rooms. The camera obscura holes may be of the order of in diameter. A spring clamp 19 fastens the unit to a ledge 20. Cord 21 and switch 22 are provided.
We now turn to alternate embodiments that I have tested, of Which Fig. 2 shows one example. Here housing is conical in shape with a cylindrical portion at the smaller end, said cylindrical portion being identified by numeral 27. The latter slides over a further cylindrical portion 28, to which socket 29 is attached. This allows the incandescent lamp 30 to be changed, which lamp is mounted in socket 29 and has filament 31.
A double convex lens 32 closes the wide end of the housing 25, being held in place by the concavity of the cone on the inner side and by bent-over tabs 33 around the circumference thereof on the outside. A diaphragm 34 is in this case permanently located within and attached to the housing at approximately the half-way point between filament and lens. The diaphragm may have axial thickness formed by distorting a thin sheet of material. It is desirable that the material be highly reflecting, as aluminum foil, and that the ratio of open area to opaque area be large so as to allow a satisfactorily high value of illuminating efficiency.
The incandescent lamp is shown with a relatively smooth and uniform envelope 24. Such can be used rather than the flame type bulb shown in Fig. 1. In any event, clear glass is desired, rather than frosted glass or any kind of semi-opacity which masks the geometrical identity of the filament.
Representative light rays in this embodiment are approximately the same as in Fig. 1. Ray 35 is one which almost axially has passed through the diaphragm and lens and continues to the central portion of the abstract pat tern. Ray 36 has passed through the diaphragm but passes through hole 37 and thence to the outer portion of the pattern. Ray 38 passed through hole 39 and proceeds to even a farther out portion of the pattern.
An extension cord 40 and accessory fitments are also provided.
Another alternate embodiment is shown in Fig. 3. Here the distinguishing element is a seriously deformed housing 45. The housing has roughly a conical or cylindrical shape but this is broken with many large indentations. A positive meniscus lens 46 is held in place by symmetrically arranged indentations 47 and 48. A tubular portion 49 of housing 4-5 fits within a corresponding base portion 50 so that incandescent lamp 51 may be replaced. The lamp 51 preferably has a clear flame glass envelope 52 in this embodiment for the light-difiraction capabilities thereof since the diaphragm is absent. Socket 53 holds the lamp and is provided with an electric switch 54, electric cord 55 and other necessary fitments.
Optically, the embodiment functions byydirect and reflected rays from filament 56 passing through lens 46. Axial ray 57 is an example of the former, While rays 53 and S9 are examples of the latter. It will be understood that the purposely introduced geometrical lightdifracting distortions of the flame envelope 52 and of the irregular light-reflecting inner surface of housing 45 will provide the abstract image of filament 56. In this embodiment forward camera obscura holes are not provided, thus the pattern will be somewhat more definite in extent upon a viewing surface located (but not shown) to the left of Fig. 3. Several holes, such as 60, are provided near the incandescent lamp, thereby providing a further pattern upon the working surface, which may be considered as lying in more than one plane. In Fig. 3 this is located behind and relatively close to the lamp, being surface 61. At least some of the holes 60 are close to the base of the lamp. Thus positioned, I have found that a lens focusing effect occurs because of the curvature of the glass envelope 5?. thereat and that a pleasing rendition of the incandescent lamp filament 56 occurs.
The housing 45 is fabricated by starting with a conical shape and then deforming it with blows by variously shaped and angled punches so that an essentially haphazard internal reflecting structure is obtained.
A semi-opaque etched pattern 62 is shown on envelope 52. This is an alternate manner of accomplishing the pattern-forming effect of diaphragms l1 and 34. Tests have shown, however, that the lamp of Pig. 3 will produce a pleasing light pattern without the etched pattern 62 because of the flame type envelope and the internal reflecting structure.
I have found that color plays an important part in the lighting effect of the patterns created by my devices. The color arises because of at least two optical conditions. First, employing a relatively shiny but colored inner surface for the housings results in at least a considerable portion of the pattern taking on that color. The surface may be prepared by color anodizing processes known to the metal treating arts. Second, prismlike irregularities in the flame-shaped envelope and chro matic aberration in the lenses employed results in spectrum colors in a number of small individual areas of the pattern. A distorted and to some extent multiple image of the filament of the incandescent lamp is also a part of the pattern, usually in the central portion and of the brightest intensity. This image is particularly likely to have spectrum colors associated with it. A transparent tint to the lamp envelope may also be employed to enhance color rendition but is not required.
Quite the opposite to usual optical practice I employ all conveniently obtainable aberrations to produce an efficient structure for my purposes.
As to further alternate arrangements, the diaphragm 111 of Fig. l, which is held in a slot in housing 1, may be replaced by others of ditferent nature or design, or may be omitted for variation of the pattern of this embodiment. I prefer to employ metal or other non-inflammable substances for the diaphragms and to avoid colored gelatins, or gels, as known to the professional trade for safety with respect to fire.
The size of my mood lamp may be varied over wide limits. A large housing with a relatively powerful incandescent lamp provides a large and bright abstract pattern. A small housing and, for example, a 7 /2 watt 115 volt incandescent lamp provides a small and less bright pattern useful when other ordinary illumination is absent. Of course, the voltage and nature of the lamp utilized in my device is subject to wide variation; a battery-operated flashlight being one example and a gaseous discharge lamp, particularly with an internal defined arc, being another.
My mood lamp is of inexpensive construction, being made of relatively simple parts, the optical quality of which are ordinary and of low cost. As such it is within the economic reach of the average householder and is suitable for sale in a kit or do-it-yourself form.
My abstractions in light may also be accomplished by providing a plurality of individual units mounted together on a standard by swivel means. A considerable working surface may then be illuminated and one lying in more than a single plane. This alternate embodiment may be considered illustrated by taking Figs. 1, 2 and 3 together as a coactive whole.
It is also evident that my units may be employed for exterior illumination of surfaces of buildings, walls, etc., for which application the clamp 19 may be altered to a spike for inserting into the ground or into a structure.
Still other variants are possible. The several types of lenses shown can be interchanged, as can the diaphragm structures. The housings may take on other shapes, such as an oval cross-section, a quasi-paraboidal or elliptical inner surface, and so on. The tubing may also be rectangular in cross-section. The working (illuminated) surface may extend to the side and behind any of the lamps shown.
Various changes in proportions, shape, materials of construction and of constructional details may also be made without departing from the scope of my invention.
Having thus fully described my invention and the manner in which it is to be practiced, I claim:
1. Means for projecting a quasi-focused pattern of light upon an area comprising a housing having light reflective means therein and multiple light transmissive means therethrough, a source of light within said housing, a light-converging lens also within said housing, the recited elements arranged to cause at least a part of the light reaching said lens having been reflected by that part of said light reflective means of said housing between said light source and said lens and to form a quasifocused pattern of light from said lens upon said area; other light from said source passing only through said light transmissive means to form a distorted representation of said source upon said area adjacent to and surrounding light reaching said area from said lens.
2. A lamp for projecting an abstract pattern of light upon an area comprising a housing having a plurality of apertures, a single light source having a transparent envelope positioned within said housing, a light-converging lens also within said housing, pattern-forming means substantially midway between said light source and said lens, the recited elements so arranged that a part of the light reaching said lens has been reflected from the inner surface of said housing lying between said source and said lens and so that partially out-of-focus images of said light source and said pattern-forming means are formed upon said area, while other light from said source passes through said apertures to form diffuse images of said source adjacently upon said area at reduced intensity with respect to said images formed by said lens.
3. A lamp for projecting a pattern of light upon an area comprising an elongated housing having a colored inner surface and a plurality of depressed apertures, a light source having a light-diffracting envelope located at one end of said housing, an image-forming lens having aberration located at the other end of said housing; the recited elements so arranged that light reaching said lens reflected from that portion of the inner surface of said housing between said source and said lens and other light form quasi-focused images of said source upon said area, while still other light from said source passed through said apertures forms quasi-focused images of said source upon said area; plural colors in said pattern arising from the intrinsic color of said light source, from reflection from said colored inner surface and from the aberration of said lens.
4. An illuminator for projecting an abstract pattern of colored light upon an area comprising an elongated housing having a colored inner surface and a large plurality of indented apertures, a line-like light source having an outer transparent diffracting envelope located at one end of said housing, a positive image-forming lens having chromatic aberration located at the other end of said housing; the recited elements so arranged that at least a part of the light reaching said lens has been reflected from the inner surface of said housing positioned between said source and said lens and forms quasifocused aberrational images of said light source upon said area, and other light from said source having passed through said apertures forms quasi-focused images of said source upon said area, said colored light arising from the intrinsic color of said source, reflection from said colored inner surface, and from the chromatic aberration of said lens.
5. A display lamp for projecting an abstract pattern of light of plural colors upon an area comprising an elongated housing having a colored inner surface and a large plurality of small apertures, a line-like light source having an irregular light-diffracting envelope located at one end of said housing, an image-forming light-converging lens having chromatic aberration located at the other end of said housing, a multi-apertured plate located between said light source and said lens; the recited elements so arranged that at least a part of the light reaching said lens from said source has been reflected from that part of the inner surface of said honing lying between said source and said lens to form highly aberrational images of said light source and said plate upon said area, and other light from said source having passed through said apertures to form roughly focused images of said source upon said area, said plural colors arising from the intrinsic color of said light source, reflection from said colored inner surface and from the chromatic aberration of said lens.
6. A luminaire device comprising an incandescent lamp having a plural-directional linear filament, a light-diffracting envelope irregularly surrounding said filament, an elongated housing having a colored inner surface and a large plurality of indented perforations, said lamp located in one end of said housing, a converging lens located in the end of the housing opposite said filament, and a multi-perforated membrane located between said lamp and said lens; the recited elements arranged so that the light path of at least part of the illumination reaching said lens from said filament includes reflection from that portion of the inner surface of said housing lying between said lens and said filament and from the indentations of said punctures and so that an unfocused image of said filament and said membrane is formed upon a surface away from said luminaire; light having passed through said perforations forming unfocused 6 images of said filament; at least a part of the illumination emitted by said luminaire having a color similar to that of said inner surfaee and all the illumination therefrom adapted to form an abstract pattern of light upon said surface away from said luminaire.
7. A lighting effect lamp comprising an incandenscent filament having angularly disposed segments, an envelope irregularly surrounding said filament, an inner-surfacecelored tubular housing having a large plurality of indented punctures, said filament located in one end of said housing, a multiperforated diaphragm located in the central portion of said housing, and a light-converging lens located in said housing opposite said filament; the elements recited so arranged that the li ht path of at least part of the illumination reaching said lens from said filament includes reflection from that part of the inner surface of said housing disposed between said lens and said filament and from the indentations of said punctures to form relatively unfocused images of said filament and said diaphragm upon a surface removed from said lamp, while other light having passed through said punctures forms relatively unfocused images of said fila ment according to the functioning of the pinhole camera, at least part of the illumination emitted by said lamp being of color of the inner surface of said housing and all the illumination therefrom adapted to form an abstract pattern of light upon said surface removed from said lamp.
8. A display lamp comprising an incandescent filament disposed in segments forming an angle one to the other, an evacuated transparent light-diffracting envelope irregularly surrounding said filament, an inner-surfacecolored tubular housing having a large plurality of small indented punctures, said filament located in one end of said housing, a haphazardly multipunctured diaphragm located in the central portion of said housing, and a converging lens having chromatic aberration located in the end of said housing opposite said filament; the recited elements so disposed that the path of at least a part of the illumination reaching said lens from said filament includes reflection from that part of the inner surface of said housing lying between said lens and said filament and from the indentations of said punctures, so disposed that images of both said filament and said diaphragm are partially out of focus upon a planar surface, and so disposed that other light from said filament having passed through said punctures forms unfocused images of said filament according to the functioning of the camera obscura, at least a part of the illumination emitted by said display lamp being of the color of the inner surface of said housing, another part from chromatic aberration of said lens, and all of the illumination adapted to form an abstract pattern of light upon a pluralplanar surface considerably removed from said lamp.
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|U.S. Classification||353/62, 362/310, 472/61, 353/1, 362/806, 84/464.00R|
|International Classification||G09F19/18, G03B15/06|
|Cooperative Classification||G09F19/18, G03B15/06, Y10S362/806|
|European Classification||G03B15/06, G09F19/18|