|Publication number||US2819716 A|
|Publication date||Jan 14, 1958|
|Filing date||Nov 16, 1954|
|Priority date||Nov 16, 1954|
|Publication number||US 2819716 A, US 2819716A, US-A-2819716, US2819716 A, US2819716A|
|Inventors||Miller Joseph B|
|Original Assignee||Miller Joseph B|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (5), Referenced by (23), Classifications (6)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Jan. 14, 1958 r .J. B. MILLER NEBULIZER FOR MEDICINAL PREPARATIONS Filed NOV. 16, 1954 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 lll livlvlli lfllt 1 .rifrrrr'llfflllll 3 mm. E I
.B E m J ATTORNEYS Jan. 14, 1958 J. B. MILLER NEBULIZER FOR MEDICINAL PREPARATIONS 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Nov. 16, 1954 I IN VEN TOR. JOSEPH B. M/LLER United States Patent NEBULIZER FOR MEDICINAL PREPARATIONS Joseph B. Miller, Mobile, Ala.
Application November 16, 1954, Serial.No.-469,243
6 Claims. '(Cl. 128-186) This invention relates to a devicefor nebulizing preparations int-o fine .mist or fog for inhalation by persons under treatment for relievingmucous and other congestions of, the respiratory system.
The medical profession has been treating illnesses arising from whooping cough, lung abscess, asthma, bronchitis, bronchopneumonia and other congestions of the respiratory system of humans with a variety of preparations which are administered by inhalation. One of the standard procedures is to nebulize such a preparation and conduct the nebulized preparation to the patient in the nebulized form for inhalation or,.in some instances, confine-the patient in a tent or incubator and inject the nebulized preparation into the atmosphere thereof for inhalation by the patient. Newborn babies often have difiiculty in breathing normally by reason of inability to separate the bronchial walls due to excessive stickiness of mucous on such walls. In such instances, the attending physician will prescribe the administration of a medical preparation by the nebulizing procedure while the patient is in an incubator or tent.
One of the outstanding difliculties arising from the administration of such preparations is the inability to convert the preparation into a fine floating mist or fog and deliver it in such form to the atmosphere which the patient is to breathe. Heretofore the devices used for such purposes ejected small drops with the nebulized preparation. The drops, by reason of their mass, would fall from the nebulized preparation and in part upon the patient. In most instances the administration of the nebulized preparation is continuous for many'hours resulting not only in an improper mist but continued annoyance to the patient.
The device of this invention is capable of delivering overa period of hours a continuous substantiallyuniform fog or mist of an inhalable preparation substantially free of objectionable drops.
'In the drawings:
Fig. 1 is a front view, partly in section, of the device of this invention;
Fig. 2 is an enlargement in section of the atomizer;
Fig. 3 is an enlargement of the lower end of the duct for delivering the preparation to the atomizer;
Fig. 4 is a sectional view of the atomizer of Fig. 1 and means for adjusting the relation of the atomizer to the reservoir; and
Fig. 5 is a modified form of nebulizer.
The device and the parts'thereof-as shown in Fig. l are about two-thirds of their normal size.
The reservoir 1, which may be of glass, plastic or metal, contains the preparation to be first atomized and then nebulized and is provided with a screw cap 2 preferably of metal. The cap 2 carries two metallic tubular conduits 3 and 4 which pass through openings 5, soldered to the walls thereof and communicating with the interior of the reservoir. The conduit 5 constitutes an inlet for introducing the atomized preparation into-the reservoir and against the upper surface of the preparation and the ice inner walls of the reservoir. The conduit4 constitutes an outletopening for the nebulized preparation and leads it into a tube (not shown) to be attached to the free end of the outlet conduit 4 and which tube conducts the nebulized mist or fog to the vicinity of the patient or into the tent or incubator (not shown) wherein the patient is confined.
The inlet conduit 3 carries an atomizer 6 secured to the wall of the inlet conduit by a shoulder of the adapter 7 and the nut 8 .whereby the atomizer is secured in afixed position at the upper portionof the inlet conduit 3. The atomizer 6 is provided withtwo nozzles 9 and 10 which are frictionally secured in seats of .the atomizer block as shown in Fig. 2. Any form of standard atomizer used in nebulizing such medicinal preparations may be used. The nozzle 9 is connected bythe tubing .11 secured to the adapter 7 and to the outlet of a rotary compressorlZ of the whirlwind type operatingto deliver the pressure medium at a pressure of 10 lbs. per square inch (for instance, a Wocher whirlwinclcompressor). The compressorforces air, oxygen or othersuitable gaseous medium over and around the tip of the nozzle 10. The nozzle .10, as shown in Fig. 2, :is connected to the duct 13 which hangs therefrom with the free end 14 immersed in the preparation to be nebulized. A filter .15 is provided in the end 141ofthe duct to exclude solids should any be present.
The outlet conduit 4 is provided with an angular bend 16, which may be right angle or goose neck or otherwise bent. The cap 17 normally closes the top of the outlet conduit 3 to exclude entry of air into the system.
The operation of the deviceof Fig. l is as follows:
The reservoir, which has a capacity of one quart, is provided with a pint of medicinal preparation or solution to be nebulized, being introduced thereinto by removal of the screw cap v2. A space is thereby provided between the pool level and cap and-the conduits thereto attached. Upon the replacement of the cap 2, the conduits 3 and 4 and the devices carried thereby are properly positioned. A sealing gasket 19 is provided at the mouth of the reservoir. The compressor is caused to operate and delivers a continuous flow of the pressure gas or medium through the tubing 11 and nozzle 9 whereupon the preparation in the reservoir is continuously drawn through the duct 13 and out of the .nozzle 10. The mixture of pressure medium issuing out of the nozzle 9 and the preparation issuing out of the nozzle 10 disperses in the inlet conduit 3 and is directed thereby in a continuous stream through the length of the conduit 3 against the upper surface of the preparation and then against the inner walls of the reservoir 1 and then'to the outlet conduit 4 and against the inner wall of the bend 16.
The contact of the atomized solution issuing from the atomizer with the surface of the solution in the pool, the side walls of the reservoir and the bend in the outlet conduit 4, nebulizes the drops into mist or fog .or, if not nebulized, permits them to drop from the mist or fog and return to the pool. initially, the preparation issuing from its nozzle 10 is mixed with the pressure medium as it issues from its nozzle 9 and the mixture, in a stream, confined by the walls of the inlet conduit 3, is directed to and impacts the surface of the pool in the reservoir; then, diverted at an angle (substantially to its original course out of the inlet 3, swirls against the inside walls of the reservoir and finally enters the outlet conduit 4 engaging the inside Walls thereof and impacting the turn or bend 16 Wherefrom it issues as a 'fine mist or fog, sustained in the atmosphere for inhalation. The preparation during its successive steps of engagement with the varioussurfaces above enumerated has several functions or operations performed thereon-.-it is atomized, nebulized, and drops 3 incapable of being sustained as a fine mist or fog are dropped from the fine mist or fog and deposit back in the reservoir to be reprocessed as the operation continues.
In consequence of the repeated impacting of the atomized solution, as above described, drops are either converted into a fine mist or fog sustainable in the atmosphere or drop back into the reservoir pool.
The device above described may be termed a closed unit, the volume of pressure medium leaving the outlet conduit being substantially the same, as to volume, as constituted upon entering through the atomizer nozzle 9.
In some instances the attending physician or technician may conclude that it is desirable to introduce into the system an amount or supply of atmospheric air to increase the velocity and amount of the fine mist or fog from the outlet conduit 4. In order to permit such operation, the cap 17 is provided with a slit 18 (normally closed by overlying the wall of the conduit 3). The cap is adjustable and by upward adjustment thereof the slit 18 is moved in part above the top edge of the conduit 3 permitting atmospheric air to enter the system and mix with the atomized preparation and pressure medium. The extent of such adjustment will determine the amount of air admitted which can be determined as to sufficiency and speed by examining the discharge at the outlet conduit 4 or the discharge at the place of delivery to the patient.
In the device illustrated in the drawings Figs. l-3 (its scale is of an inch to an inch) the length of the inlet conduit, below the atomizer, is approximately 3 inches, the diameter of the inlet tube and of the outlet tube is each approximately 1% inches, and the reservoir contains on initial operation 1 pint of preparation. The output in liquid, using the 10 lb. compressor heretofore mentioned, is approximately 62 cc. per hour. This amount of preparation in the form of the fine mist or fog (free of drops) is sufiicient to treat a patient for many hours. In order that the physician or attendant may increase the output, separate units of different inlet tube lengths secured to a cap 2 may be provided. The diameter size of the inlet and outlet tubes as they are increased in ratio also tend to increase the output of fine mist or fog free of drops.
In some instances the preparation to be nebulized contains a detergent which ordinarily tends to foam. How ever, the atomized mixture of preparation and pressure medium directed downwardly and impinging against the surface of the preparation breaks up the foam.
The inner ends of the inlet and outlet tubes extend slightly below the inner surface of the cap 2 which may be approximately 1 inch and which assists in nebulizing should the reservoir be mistakenly almost filled just short of its full capacity. The same advantageous results are obtained if the inlet tube extends 1 inch below the cap surface and the outlet tube only A to /2 inch below such surface as shown in Fig. 5.
The height of the atomizer 6 with respect to the surface of the pool may be varied. For this purpose a sleeve 20 is provided in sliding relation to the inlet conduit 3. The sleeve 20, as shown in Fig. 4, carries the atomizer and as it is adjusted the atomizer is correspondingly adjusted with relation. to the reservoir. The adjustment of the sleeve 20 and the atomizer away from the reservoir and its pool tends to increase the output of mist or fog. For normal operation the device shownin the drawings will function, but should the physician desire a larger delivery of mist per hour, he can readily adjust the position of the atomizer away from the pool until the device delivers the amount of fog or mist desired.
Examples of the preparation which may be nebulized by this device are:
(1) Plain water aerosols, at present widely used for humidification purposes in oxygen tents.
(2) Bronchodilator solutions, such as isopropylarterenollsuprel (R), Aleudrin (R), Aerolone (R)-or theophyllineAminophylline (R).
(3) Bronchovasoconstrictor solutions, such as phenylephrine"Neosynephrine (R).
(4) Detergent solutions, such as oxyethylated tertiary octylphenol formaldehyde polymerAlcvaire (R).
(5) Proteolytic enzyme solutions, such as trypsin Tryptar (R).
1. A device for nebulizing an inhalable medicinal preparation and for regulating the flow of such preparation to a patient, comprising a reservoir, an inlet and outlet therefrom, said inlet and outlet being juxtaposed and arranged at the top of the nebulizer, the lower ends of said inlet and outlet being open and communicating with the interior top portion of the reservoir, and inlet and outlet beingin the form of conduits, said inlet conduit extending from the reservoir and to a height above the inner end of the outlet conduit, a nozzle in the upper portion of the inlet conduit, a source of pressure connected to the nozzle, an adjustable member carrying the nozzle and adjustable with the nozzle toward and away from the open end of said inlet conduit, a duct one end whereof is positioned at the lower portion of the reservoir and the upper end communicates with the nozzle at the upper portion of the inlet conduit and above the inner end of the outlet conduit, atomized medicament under pressure of said source of pressure initially streaming through the inlet conduit out of the open end thereof, then impinging the surface of the medicament in the reservoir, then impinging, directly from such surface, against a wall of the reservoir, then passing into the outlet conduit and then against a wall of the outlet.
2. A device for nebulizing an inhalable medicinal preparation and for regulating the flow of such preparation to a patient, comprising a reservoir, an inlet and an outlet in the form of conduits, said inlet and outlet being juxtaposed near the top of the nebulizer, the lower ends of said conduits being open and communicating with the interior of the reservoir, the inlet conduit extending to a height above the inner end of the outlet, a nozzle in the upper portion of said inlet conduit, a source of pressure connected to the nozzle, an adjustable member carrying the nozzle and adjustable with the nozzle, toward and away from the open end of said inlet conduit, the inlet conduit having a length of at least three inches below the nozzle, a duct one end whereof is positioned at the lower portion of the reservoir and the upper end communicates with the nozzle at the upper portion of the inlet conduit and above the inner end of the outlet conduit, the atomized medicament dispersing from the nozzle throughout the length of the inlet conduit in a continuous stream, then against the surface of the medicament in the reservoir, then against a wall of the reservoir and finally against a wall of the outlet conduit.
3. A device for nebulizing an inhalable medicinal preparation and for regulating the flow of such preparation to a patient, comprising a reservoir, an inlet and an outlet in the form of conduits, the inlet conduit extending from the top portion of the reservoir and to a height above the inner end of the outlet, open ends in the bottom portion of each conduit communicating with the interior of the reservoir, an adjustable member positioned at the upper portion of the inlet conduit and carried thereby, a nozzle located at the upper portion of the inlet conduit and carried by the adjustable member, the adjustable member and the nozzle in the inlet conduit being adjustable toward and away from the open end of the inlet conduit, a source of pressure connected with the nozzle, a duct one end whereof is positioned at the lower portion of the reservoir and the upper end communicates with the nozzle at the upper portion of the inlet conduit and above the inner end of the outlet conduit, the medicament in a con-' tinuous atomized stream passing downwardly through the inlet conduit, under impulse of said pressure medium out of the open end of said inlet conduit, atomized medicament impinging the surface of the medicament in the reservoir, then impinging a wall of the reservoir and then the outlet conduit.
4. A device for neubulizing an inhalable medicinal preparation and for regulating the flow thereof according to claim 3, wherein the outer end of the outlet conduit is connected to a tube for transmitting the neubulized medicament to an incubator in which the patient is confined.
5. A device for nebulizing an inhalable medicinal preparation and for regulating the flow thereof according to claim 3, wherein the nozzle is part of an atomizer and a duct extends from the lower portion of the reservoir, through the reservoir, through the inlet conduit and into the atomizer.
6. A device for nebulizing an inhalable medicinal preparation and for regulating the flow of such preparation to a patient, comprising a reservoir, an inlet and an outlet, said inlet and outlet being in the form of conduits, said conduits extending side by side upwardly from the top surface of the nebulizer, the lower ends whereof are open and extend into the reservoir at the upper portion of the nebulizer, said open ends of the conduits lying in juxtaposition, an atomizer positioned at the upper portion of the inlet conduit, a nozzle carried by the atomizer, a duct extending from the lower portion of the reservoir through the reservoir and the inlet duct and connected to said atomizer, a member carried by the inlet conduit, said member carrying the atomizer, said member sliding on said inlet duct, whereby the atomizer may be selectively adjusted toward and away from the open ends of the inlet and outlet ducts.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,438,868 Trier Mar. 20, 1948 2,605,089 Dautrebande July 29, 1952 2,720,388 Dorsak et al Oct. 11, 1955 FOREIGN PATENTS 555,187 France Mar. 17, 1923 569,753 Great Britain June 7, 1945
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|U.S. Classification||261/78.2, 128/200.21, 239/338|