US 2819983 A
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1 M. SALO ET AL 2,819,983
WOOD FINISHING LACQUER SYSTEMS Filed Feb. 1, 1954 LLULOSE ACE7Z47'E EUTYRATE SEALER CELLULOSE ACETATE BUT YRATE F LLER MART/IV SALO GERARD J CLARKE JOHN GALL AGHE R IN V EN T 0R5 Y I 7 5. /%9w ATTORN rs CELLULOSE ACETATE BUT YRAT E TOP COAT ates WOOD rmrsrmrr; LACQUER SYSTEMS Salo, Gerard J. Clarke, and John F. Gallagher, Rochester, N. Y., assignors to Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, N. Y., a corporation of New Jersey Application February 1, 1954, Serial No. 407,581
2 Claims. (31. 117-73 This invention relates to ternary woodfinishin'g'la'cquer systems, particularly systems based on cellulose acetate butyrate.
Hitherto, lacquers used in wood finishing have: generally been produced with nitrocellulose as 'a base, particularly the one-half second and one-quarter second types. However, cellulose nitrate has certain limitationswi't'h respect to heat and ultraviolet light stability. Attempts have been made to substitute various cellulosic esters for cellulose nitrate without noticeable success.
meets that need in that it provides three successive coat- "4.0 united with each other due to the particular afiinity for the ings, each performing a specific task, but each inseparably other coatings.
One of the objects of this invention is to provide a high gloss wood finishing lacquer. v ention is to provide a ternary wood finishing system having a cellulose acetate butyrate base. A further object of this invention is to provide a brushing or spraying lacquer system containing cellulose acetate butyrate and compatible ingredients to form a hard finish wood surface coating.
Anormal system for coating wood consists of three'or moresuccessive coats in which the first three perform specific functions. A filler coat which contains some filler material which fills the pores of the wood to provide a smooth surface is ordinarily first applied over the sanded surface. In conventional type fillers, linseed oil is a predominant vehicle. Consequently, it has been found that cellulose acetate butyrate lacquers applied over-this type of filler may have poor adhesion and inferior appearance due possibly to the migration of the incompatible linseed oilinto the sealer and topcoats. The fillers, provided in this invention, contain cellulose acetate butyrate, a large amount of inorganic material such as talc, in low-cost solvent mixtures such as ones containing a large proportion of turpentine and dipentene.
A sanding sealer is next applied to the surface following-the filling operation and sanded or buffed to a fine finish. One, two, or more coats may be applied depending upon the finish desired. This coating must be easily sandable to a fine finish and adherent both to 'the fille'd surface and top coats. The sealer must also be successfully'fiexible to withstand the dimensional changes occur- In some adaptations, cellulose acetate has been found unsuitablebec'ause of its incompatibility with most natural, and especially with most synthetic resins, necessary ingredients of a lacquer For instance, cellulose 'a'c-' Consequently, there has been a need for 21' Another object of this in tent 2 ring'inthe wood caused by aging and normal fluctuation in temperature and humidity. The sealers of this invention, based on cellulose acetatebuty'rate, have worked out successfully as sanding sealers having good adhesion to the corresponding fillers and to'cellulose acetate butyrate top coat lacquers.
Top coats are applied following the bufiing of the sealer coat. The top coats of this invention are based'uponcellulose acetate butyrate and have good afiinity and adhe sion for the preceding cellulose acetate butyrate coatings used for sealer and filler. However, the main feature of this invention is in the proper integration of the top coat lacquer with corresponding fillers and sealers to obtain a high grade high gloss finish.
The attached diagrammatic drawing illustrates our in tegrated 3-coa't system for wood usiii'g cellulos'eacetate butyrate filler, a cellulose acetate butyrate sealer ahd a cellulose acetate butyrate topcoat. e e p 7 g The following tables give formulas which have "been found satisfactory forthe respective coatings.
TABLE I Wood grain fillers Cellulose acetate butyrate (about 37% butyw-l)...
Vinylite VM'OH Santolite MI-IP Petrex 37 Asbestine X Percent solvent Type of solvent 1 2 SOLVENTS 1=50% turpentine, 22.2% bntyl acetate, 13.4% butyl alcohol, 3.3% butyl Cello'solve, 11.1% #l'ethyl alcohol.
2=50% dipentene, 22.2% butyl acetate, 13.4% butyl alcohol, 3.3% butyl Oellosolve, 11.1% #1 ethyl alcohol. v
3=47.5% isobutyl acetate, 10.9% n butyl alcohol, 13.0% toluene, 28.6%
methyl isobutyl keton'e.
4=33.3% diaoetone alcohol, 33.3% butyl acetate, 15.2% n butyl alcohol,
The solvent to solid ratio in the above formulations may vary from 1:1 to 9:1. The composition of the solid constituents includes from 2 to 30% cellulose acetate butyrate which has above about 35% butyryl' content with an intrinsic viscosity of .5 to 2.0 in acetone. An adhesive resin, selected from a non-oxidizing pure short oil alkyd, a semioxidizing pure medium oil alkyd, a vinyl chloride acetatedibasic acid copolymer, an aryl sulfonamide formald'ehyde condensate, or a terpine acid-rosin coester, which is added to the filler, may range from 10 to 30%. The mineral filler which may be Asbestine Xor talc can vary in an amount from 30 to 70%. Solventsare low cost compatible organic compounds suitable for spray or brush application.
TABLE I1 Sanding sealers Cellulose acetate butyrate (about 37% butyryl) Aroohem 404 Aroehem 545. Dioctyl phthalate Solvent Solvent 1 Solvent=20% Xylene, 30% toluene, 10% butyl alcohol, 20% ethanol 20% butyl acetate. u
,Solvent=24.5 acetone, 23.2% butyl acetate, 23.2% butyl Cellosolve, 10.5% No." 1 ethanol, 18.6% toluene;
The solvent to solid ratio in the sanding sealer formulations may be from 1:1 to 5:1. The composition of the solid constituents which We have found operative includes from 10 to 100% cellulose acetate butyrate having above about 35% butyryl content and an intrinsic viscosity of from .5 to 2.0 in acetone. The hard adhesive resin, selected from rosin modified condensates or rosin modified maleic acid resins, may vary from to 90%. A plasticizer, such as dioctyl phthalate, may be in an amount of 0 to 10%. The solvents which are low cost organic compounds may be substituted with other suitable compositions which are compatible with the materials to be sprayed or brushed.
TABLE III Top coats terials with their trade names with a description of the type of material as well as additional information. By alkyd resins we means resins which are made by condensing glycerol and phthalic anhydride plus an oil which may be cocoanut oil or the like. Non-oxidizing pure short oil alkyd resins include those in which the oil is castor oil, cocoanut oil or a similar oil. Semi-oxidizing pure medium oil alkyd resins use soya oil in admixture with castor or cocoanut oil. Oxidizing short oil alkyd resins use soya, linseed, dehydrated castor, or tung oils. Rosin modified maleic resin comprises a rosin maleic acid condensate. A rosin modified alkyd resin is a glycerolphthalic anhydride product hardened by adding an Composition of solids (dry basis) Cellulosel acetate butyiate (about 37% butyry ammnr Synthe copal Aroplaz 1130. Arochem 404 men was
Teglac l5 Aroplaz 905T Bakelite BJ-l6580 Dibutyl phthalatn 8. 4
Dioctyl phthalate Solvent 1 Solvent-Solid ratio 9:1
Solvent 155% toluene, 10% #1 ethyl alcohol 32% butyl acetate, 3% Cellosolve acetate.
Solvent 220% xylene, 30% bntyl acetate, 0 #1 ethyl Solvent 320% xylene, 35% butyl acetate, 35% toluene, 10% butanol.
The solvent to solid ratio in the top coat formulations alcohol, toluene, 10% butyl alcohol.
amount of rosin. Copal is a common ester gum which may vary from 10:1 to 3:1. The composition of the solid may be synthesized by the reaction of glycerol with resin.
TABLE IV Oil Phthalic Acid Resin Resin type Type of oil content acid N o.
content Percent Percent Aroplaz 905 N On-OXidiZll'lg, pure short oil alkyd- Cocoanut--- 31 46 6-12 Aroplaz 945.- Semi-oxidizing, pure medium oil alkyd. Soya-castor-. 51 34. 5 4-7 Aroplaz 1130 oxidizing, short oil alkytL- S0ya 38 4-8 Arochem 404m Rosin modified condensate 280-300 Arochem 545 Rosin modified malelr- 25-35 Teglac 15 Rosin modified alkyd Synthe cnpal Ester gum (ester of glycerol and resin)... 6-8 Vinylite VMC Vinyl chloride-acetate resin with .7-.8% cmboxyL- Santolite MHP Aryl sultonamide formaldehyde m Petrex 37- Terpine acid-rosin coaster. 30 Damn: ar Natural resin 20-30 Asbestine X Magnesium silicate Tale do flow time for solvent Intrinsic viscosity (n) is equal to 9.21 log (11),. The hard adhesive resins which may be added in an amount of from 10 to 30% are selected from Dammar (natural resin), ester gum, oxidizing short oil alkyd resins, rosin modified condensates, and resin modified alkyd and phenolic resins. A plasticizer, dibutyl phthalate or dioctyl phthalate or a soft resin such as a non-oxidizing pure oil alkyd resin is added in an amount of from 10 to 30%. The solvent is a mixture of low cost organic solvents as indicated above, but it is obvious that these specific components may be substituted by others which are compatible and which are equally effective.
The following table lists commercially available ma- The above compositions might be used separately if compatible corresponding coatings were also used. However, the preferred embodiment of this invention is the ternary system. Only through the successive coating of the filler, sealer and topcoat is the integrated coating formed. This integrated coating has the basic characteristics which make it unique in the art. The filler has unusually good adhesion to wood yet has afiinity for the sealer. The sealer has exceptional sanding and bufiing characteristics and is particularly unique in its bonding ability for both the filler and top coat. The top coat in addition to forming the third unit in this coating also has excellent brushing characteristics, and provides a good gloss.
1. An article comprising a wooden structure having thereon a ternary wood-finishing lacquer system having a cellulose acetate butyrate base in each of the three components, a filler coat comprising 230 parts cellulose acetate butyrate, magnesium silicate and 10-30 parts of an adhesive resin selected from the class consisting of nonoxidizing pure short-oil alkyd resins, semioxidizing pure medium-oil alkyd resins, vinyl chloride-acetate-dibasic acid copolymers, aryl sulfonamide-formaldehyde condensate, and terpine acetate-rosin-coester, a sanding sealer comprising 10-100 parts of cellulose acetate butyrate, 90-10 parts of a rosin maleic acid condensate, and a plasticizer, a top coat comprising 40-90 parts cellulose acetate butyrate, a plasticizer selected from the class consisting of dibutyl phthalate and dioctyl phthalate, and 10-30 parts of a hard resin selected from the class consisting of Dammar, ester gum, an oxidizing short-oil alkyd resin and a rosin-modified alkyd phenolic resin.
2. An article comprising a wooden structure having thereon a ternary wood-finishing lacquer system having a cellulose acetate butyrate base in each of the three components, the filler coat comprising from 2-30 parts cellulose acetate butyrate, magnesium silicate and 10-30 parts of an adhesive resin selected from the class consisting of nonoxidizing pure short-oil alkyd resin, semioxidizing pure medium-oil alkyd resins, vinyl chloride-acetate-dibasic acid copolymers, aryl sulfonamide-formaldehyde condensates and terpine acid-rosin coesters, a sanding sealer comprising 10-100 parts cellulose acetate bntyrate, from 0-90 parts of a rosin-modified maleic resin and from 0-10 parts References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,113,305 Malm Apr. 5, 1938 2,186,454 Gloor Jan. 9, 1940 2,324,098 Malm et a1. July 13, 1943 2,375,753 Clare May 15, 1945 2,379,974 Little July 10, 1945 2,572,252 Erasmus Oct. 23, 1951 OTHER REFERENCES Wampler: Organic Finishing, vol. 10, issue 11, pp. 17-19, November 1949.