US 2820701 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 21, 1958 D. J. LE$LIE APPARATUS FOR CHLORINATION File'd June 28, 1954 Fewer J1: X o- INVENTOR.
DONALD J; LESLIE,
llIFkHi-ll United APPARATUS FOR CI RORINATION Donald J. Leslie, Pasadena, Calif. Application June 28, 1954, Serial No. 439,531
1 Claim. (Cl. 23-271) tates atent O combines with water in the presence of sunlight (liberating oxygen and producing hydrochloric acid) and also dissipates to some extent into the atmosphere, it is necessary from time to time to introduce additional chlorine. Maintaining the concentration of chlorine low obviously reduces the cost of material for chlorination of water.
For these considerations, it has been found that appropriate germicidal efiects can be achieved with a mini mum amount of chlorine by periodically and quickly introducing chlorine in relatively high concentrations during the night. It is an object of this invention to provide an improved system for automatically introducing chlorine in controlled amounts in this manner.
It is another object of this invention to provide a simple system of this character using easily handled soluble masses of material readily yielding chlorine, obviating the handling of concentrated chlorine solutions.
It is another object of this invention to provide an improved apparatus for dissolving such material, using a jet or spray of water impinging thereupon, and in which the rate of dissolving the material is easily adjusted. This is accomplished by positioning the spray head in a container for the material so that the water acts upon more or less thereof.
It is another object of this invention to provide a system incorporating an apparatus of this character that is intermittently operable and in which the amount of active constituent introduced into the system during each cycle is accurately predetermined.
It is another object of this invention to provide a system of this character that utilizes only simple and inexpensive structure requiring little maintenance.
It is another object of this invention to provide a chlorinator or the like that can satisfy the requirements of systems of different capacities.
This invention possesses many other advantages, and has other objects which may be made more clearly apparent from a consideration of one embodiment of the invention. For this purpose, there is shown a form in the drawings accompanying and forming part of the present specification. This form will now be described in detail, illustrating the general principles of the invention; but it is to be understood that this detailed description is not to be taken in a limiting sense, since the scope of this invention is best defined by the appended claim.
Referring to the drawings:
Figure 1 is a diagrammatic view of a system embody ing the present invention, the chlorinator elements being shown on an enlarged scale;
Fig. 2 is an enlarged longitudinal sectional view of the chlorinator shown in Fig. 1; and
Fig. 3 is a sectional view, taken along the plane indicated by line 3-3 of Fig. 2.
In Fig. 1 there is shown, by way of example, a swimming pool 10 into which there is desired to be intermittently introduced a certain amount of chlorine.
A pump 11 is adapted to circulate the water from the swimming pool 10 for filtering purposes.
A conduit 13, communicating with the bottom ,of the pool 10, charges the pump 11. The pump circuiates the water back to the pool through a return conduit 14. A filter 12 is interposed in this return conduit. The pump 11 may also be charged by water flowing over a skimming ledge (not shown).
A motor 15 for the pump has an energizing circuit including a clock-operated switch 16. This usual arrangement makes it possible automatically to circulate the water during the nighttime when the pool is ordinarily not used.
In order to introduce chlorine into the system, a chlorinator 17 is provided. Water passes through the chlorinator, taking in solution a quantity of chlorine, and then rejoins the main body of water. To supply water under pressure to the chlorinator 17, a pipe 18 is provided that connects with the return conduit 14. The Water from the chlorinator 17 is withdrawn through a pipe 19 that connects with the inlet conduit 13 for the pump 11. A trap or small filter 20 is shown in the chlori nator supply conduit l8.
Referring now to Fig. 2, the chlorinator 17 comprises a translucent or transparent container 21, in this instance generally of cylindrical form. It is close-:1 at opposite ends by a ported cover 22 and a bottom wall 23. A perforated plate or disc 24, located at an intermediate height in the container 21, divides the inside of the container into an upper space 25 and a lower space 26. Rods 27, projecting upwardly through the container bottom 23, serve to support the plate 24. The periphery of the plate or disc 24 conforms in size and configuration to the interior wall of the container 21.
Pellets or chunks 28 are adapted to be placed in and substantially fill the upper space 25, the plate 24 providing a base preventing their passage to the lower space 26. These pellets or pieces may be of calcium hypochlorite or other water-soluble material capable of yielding the desired constituent, in this instance chlorine in elemental form. Calcium hypochlorite in a well known manner reacts with water to produce elemental chlorine. The transparent container 21 makes it possible visually to ascertain whether the chlorinator is appropriately supplied with material.
The pellets or chunks 28 are introduced into the space 25 through the port 29 in the container cover 22 to substantially fill the space 25. A removable plug or stop 30, which may be of resilient material, is provided for closing the port 29.
A spray pipe 31, connected to the end of the pipe 18, supplies water to the upper space 25 to dissolve the pellets 28. The spray pipe 31 projects upwardly through a central opening 32 in the container bottom wall 23, and upwardly with minimum clearance through a central opening 33 in the supporting plate 24.
The upper end of the spray pipe 31 has a series of small spray orifices substantially equiangularly spaced about the axis of the pipe 31. These orifices form the only discharge openings from the spray pipe 31. The size and configuration of the orifices and their number with respect to the pressure available at the pipe 31 are such that relatively high velocity jets are provided. These jets impinge upon the pellets or chunks with substantial force and cause them to be disintegrated and dissolved.
The water in which the chlorine active ingredient has been dissolved settles through the pellets to the plate 24.
the plate '24, permit the water to pass tothe lower container space 26. The lower container space 26 commumcates with the pipe 19 through an outlet passage35- formed in the container bottom 23. A suitable fittingis provided for establishing appropriate connection ofQthe pipef-U. The water from the chlorinator returns; to the inlet. side ofthepump 11. r I a The pump 11 effectively exhausts the waterfrom the lower chlorinator space 26,-andalso withdrawssomeof the air from the container 21.. Since apartial vacuum exists in the container 21,:the. plug 30 isurged tightly. to close the port 29 by the preponderance of atmospheric pressure. The plug 30, despite its simplicity,:thus-efiec- The higher the location of the water jets with respect, to the plate 24 in the upper container space 25, the more pellets or chunks there are through which the water gravitates. Accordingly, the higher the spray pipe '31, the higher the concentration of the solution obtained and the greater the rate at which chlorine is added to the'system. Adjustment of the concentration is thus accomplished'by providing for relative vertical adjustment of the spray pipe 31 and the plate 24.
A clamp nut 36, threadedly engaging a central depending boss 37 about the central bottom opening 32, cooper:
' ates with a contractible gasket or packing 38. The gasket or packing 38 may be contracted by tightening the locking nut 36. Contraction of the gasket 38 serves to provide a seal between the exterior of the pipe 31 andthe container 2 1'and also serves to hold the pipe 31 in an adjusted vertical position. 7 r
The supply pipe 18 for the chlorinator 17 includes a hose or other flexible element 39'wherebyadjus'tmen't' of the position of the spray pipe 31 does not interfere with its appropriate connection with the chlorinator supply pipe 18. Optionally, the verticalposition of the. plate 24: can be adjusted to vary the vertical spacing between the'operafive end of the spray pipe 31 and the plate 24.
Small perforations 34, extendin throughout the area 7 ing different apparatus.
When the operation of the chlorinator 17 is discontinued "by closure of the valve 40, the pump 11 may continue in operation.
To ensure against uncontrolled introduction of chlorine into the system, the level of the chlorinator is so chosen that, during shut-down condition of the pump, water never rises above the plate 24. If the container 21 is vented to the atmosphere, the plate 24' wouldofi necessity be required to be above the normal. level of the pool to ensure this result. Additional allowance mustbe made in' the arrangement shown, since the air in thezcontainer is partially exhausted.
In order to make the most efiicient'use of the space in the container 21 for the pellets or chunks 28, the vertical position of the plate 24 may be adjusted to the critical minimum height necessary to ensure against-the uncontrolled: introduction of chlorine during shut-down condition; This adjustment maybe'accomplished by providing supporting rods 27 of difierent length or, optionallyfby 7 making provisionsfor adjusting the:ver-ticalpositionofthe rods 27 in the container.
The mere operation of .thexcircula'ting system-does not disturb the shut-down condition of the chlorinator.
Since the quantity of water in different-systems may differ substantially, differentquantities: of'chlorine -must be introduced to provide. the sameoptim'um germicidal efi'ects- Since. the time required to introduce thisfquan tity,-whatever'it may be, .is desirably uniformly 'smalL-it is I obvious thatdifierent rates of introducing 'chlorine for the'difterent: systems imust be provided. The" adjustable spraypipe 31 makes itipossible toachieve materially difierent rates. forwdifierent installations, without-requir- A standard size chlorinator can, therefore, exactly satisfy the needs'of different: systems,
as-Well as provide for adjustmentof the rate ofintroduc -In apparatus of the character described: *a container Since thejets are uniformly located about the pipe, the
uppermost-material falls-uniformly as the material isconsumed, whereby uniform operation is ensured.
By adding a predetermined quantity of chlorine to the system: once every forty-eight hours, the desirable g'ermicidal eifects are achieved; In order to obtain the desired concentration; the-l'engthof time thatthe chlorinator is operative andtherate-at'which the pellets or pieces 28 are dissolved is controlled. For controlling the interval of operation, an electromagnetically operated valve '40 is provided for the chlorinator supply pipe 18, the electromagnetically operated valve having an energizatio'n circuit including aclock-operated switch 41. The clock-operated switch in this instanceis designed to operateon' a forty-eight hour basis; Since the operation of the chlorinator is dependent upon operation of the pump 11, the clock-operated switch 41 isso set as to permit operation only when the pump 11 is inoperation. If desired, the energizationcircuit-for theclock-operated switch 41 may be electrically dependent-upon the closing of the clockoperated switch 16.
v ,To minimize' the quantity-"of "chlorine used and'yet-obtain appropriateegermicidal 'etfeets, the chlorine isadded quite quickly. -A'ccordingly, the period I of 'operation'of therchlorinator should'be small, and the rate of adding the chlorine high. 'A'high rate of 'addingchlorine is made possiblebyth'epresent'system. v-
having a lower wall and side walls; a. perforated plate peripherally fitting the side walls and supported 'above the bottom-wall, and dividing thecontainer into an upper space and a lower space;- means closing the -upper-end ofv the container; conduit means for supplyingli'quid under pressure and projecting through the lowerwall' and the plate andfterminating in the upper space;"said' corrduit means having .m'eans'zlo'cated in saidupperspace providing-laterally directed circularly arranged liquid outlets; said conduit being adjustable selectivelytopo sition. itsoutlet' means abovetheplate; meansfor secur- 441,284 Coifey. =NOV-;,.25,, 11890 1,246,661 Rothweiler .Q .NOV. 1:3,;11917 1,692,706 Sealey Novx20, 1928 1 ,960,936 Brody May"29,- 1934 2,014,037 Burkett et a1. ..a Sept.;,.10, .1935 2,099,836 Blanchard et al Nov.-,23,..1937 2,190,060 Fager Feb.1,1 3, 1940 2,308,612 Lehmkllhl Jan. 19,} 19,43 2,330,328 Bachman Sept. 18, [1943 2,363,622 Rice NOV. 28, 1944 2,371,720 Stine Mar. 20, 1945 2,387,945 MCDOW Oct. 30; 1945 2,400,439 Romans .May 14,1946 2,541,799 7 White Fell. 13,4951 2,546,502 Harrington Mar, 27,1951 2,670,976 Owen :2, 1954 2,738,323 Tepas n Mar. 113,219.56
FOREIGN PATENTS 57,265 Germany "1.-..-- Oct; 523,51890